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SUMMARY

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CORN ROOTWORM PROTECTION

CORN ROOTWORM PROTECTION EFFICACY OF PIONEER ® BRAND QROME PRODUCTS return to table of contents by Alejandra Pascual, Ph.D., Research Scientist, Integrated Product Characterization and Development, Mark Jeschke, Ph.D., Agronomy Information Manager, Murt McLeod, Ph.D., Sr. Research Manager, Plant Breeding Research and Development, Steven Paszkiewicz, Ph.D., Sr. Research Manager, Integrated Product Characterization and Development, Tim Nowatski, Ph.D., Sr. Research Scientist, Integrated Product Characterization and Development OBJECTIVE • Research trials were conducted in 2014, 2015, and 2016 to evaluate corn rootworm (CRW) protection efficacy of Pioneer ® brand Qrome products under various levels of CRW feeding pressure. STUDY DESCRIPTION Years: 2014, 2015, and 2016 Locations: 11 in 2014, 15 in 2015, 14 in 2016; research locations in IA, IL, IN, MN, NE, SD, and WI Plot Layout: Small research plots, 4 rows each Replications: 3 per location Hybrid Platforms: 4 or 5 per location Insect Protection Technologies – Pioneer Brand Products 1 : Qrome products 3 CRW non-protected check (HX1, LL, RR2) • Evaluated CRW feeding damage on 5 plants per plot. • Samples did not exclude refuge plants. • CRW feeding damage rated using the Iowa State 0-3 node injury score (Oleson et al., 2005). • Research locations were selected and managed specifically to create high CRW pressure environments with some sites utilizing trap crops and/or manual CRW infestations. SITE CHARACTERIZATION • Research locations were categorized as having low, moderate, or high CRW feeding pressure based on the average CRW node injury in the CRW non-protected check: 104 »» Low: 0-0.75 » Moderate: 0.75-1.75 » High: 1.75-3.00 RESULTS • Across all three years of the study, a total of 24 locations had moderate to high CRW pressure (0.75-3.00), The average CRW node injury score of the CRW nonprotected check was 1.63 across these 24 locations (Figure 1). CRW Node Injury (0-3) • Qrome products had excellent CRW protection efficacy over the three years of the study, with an average CRW node injury score of 0.32 at moderate and high CRW pressure locations. 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.32 Qrome Products 1.63 Check Figure 1. Average CRW node injury for Qrome products and the non-protected check at moderate and high CRW pressure locations, 2014-2016. N = 24 locations with ~1700 observations/treatment. See your local Pioneer sales representative to better understand which products make sense on your farm. A decrease of susceptibility to certain technology traits in corn has been observed in some CRW populations, which may result in lower efficacy than depicted in this chart. Please contact your authorized Pioneer sales representative or consult with your local university extension for more information regarding insect resistance management guidelines, best management practices, and to understand whether there has been insect resistance documented in your area.

CORN ROOTWORM MONITORING: 2014-2016 by Jeff Mathesius, Agronomy Research Manager, Ryan French, Senior Marketing Manager, Brad Van Kooten, Senior Marketing Manager, Mark Jeschke, Ph.D., Agronomy Information Manager, and DuPont Pioneer Field Agronomists return to table of contents OBJECTIVES • Evaluate and monitor corn rootworm protection of Pioneer ® brand corn products with the Herculex ® RW (HXRW) trait in the Central and Northern Corn Belt, specifically targeting fields where HXRW has been used in two or more consecutive growing seasons. STUDY DESCRIPTION Years: 2014, 2015, and 2016 Locations: Sampling Methods: 232 fields in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wisconsin • Targeted fields for sampling with a history of continuous corn and continuous use of HXRW trait (Table 1) • All fields were planted with a Pioneer brand corn product with Optimum ® AcreMax ® 1, Optimum ® AcreMax ® Xtra, or Optimum ® AcreMax ® XTreme insect protection in the year that sampling took place. • Sampled 10 roots per location (five 2-plant clusters) • Roots were washed and corn rootworm injury rated using 0-3 Node Injury Scale (NIS). Table 1. Locations by state and history of fields sampled for evaluation of corn rootworm protection efficacy in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Field History IL IN IA MN NE SD WI Total Not Reported 25 3 4 1 33 2 Years HXRW 10 3 1 3 3 20 3 Years HXRW 18 10 7 4 1 6 46 4 Years HXRW 18 3 9 15 1 12 58 5 Years HXRW 3 8 1 2 14 6 Years HXRW 7 8 12 1 7 35 7-10 Years HXRW 2 8 10 Competitive Trait Problem Field HXRW/Soybean Rotation 4 1 2 7 4 1 4 9 Total 91 3 51 46 7 3 31 232 RESULTS • Corn rootworm injury was low at all locations in the study; average node injury score rate was 0.08 across all three years and 216 locations. • Corn rootworm injury did not differ based on trait use history (Table 2). Table 2. Average node injury score (NIS) by field history. Field History NIS Locs Not Reported 0.06 33 2 Years HXRW 0.08 20 3 Years HXRW 0.09 46 4 Years HXRW 0.09 58 5 Year HXRW 0.06 14 6 Years HXRW 0.1 35 7-10 Years HXRW 0.09 10 Competitive Trait Problem Field 0.07 7 HXRW/Soybean Rotation 0.04 9 MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS • Corn rootworm protection of Pioneer brand corn products with the Herculex RW trait was extremely consistent across all sampling locations in 2014 to 2016 and was not influenced by trait use history, although corn rootworm populations were generally low across much of the Corn Belt during these growing seasons. • Although this study has shown that the HXRW trait remains an effective tool for corn rootworm management, DuPont Pioneer and university research suggests that continuous, uninterrupted use of the same corn rootworm Bt technology can lead to decreased corn rootworm susceptibility to that technology and may result in reduced product efficacy against these insects. DuPont Pioneer recommends avoiding more than 3 years continuous use of HXRW. • To help maintain the efficacy of Bt corn rootworm products, it is essential to develop a multi-faceted rootworm management plan. • Your Pioneer sales professional or local extension professionals can assist you in developing best management practices for your operation. • Please contact your Pioneer sales professional, or consult with your local university extension for more information regarding insect resistance management, best management practices, and to understand whether there has been insect resistance documented in your area. 105

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