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eturn to table of contents Yield (bu/acre) 112 80 60 40 20 0 67.2 64.9 63.6 65.0 64.3 66.7 P27T91PR P29T40PR P32T49PR P33T34PR P34T90PR P37T51PR Plenish High Oleic Soybeans 67.3 65.2 64.4 65.1 63.667.9 67.5 66.9 65.0 64.6 P27T47R P28T08R P28T33R P31T11R P31T77R P32T16R P33T72R P34T07R2 P35T97R2 Pioneer Brand Elite Soybeans Figure 4. Yield of Plenish high oleic varieties and Pioneer brand elite varieties. Source: DuPont Pioneer yield data, 277 observations across 26 research and IMPACT yield trial locations in Ohio and Indiana in 2015. AGRONOMICS OF PLENISH HIGH OLEIC SOYBEAN VARIETIES The current lineup of Pioneer brand Plenish high oleic soybean varieties has the key agronomic and defensive traits needed by growers across a wide range of environments, including resistance to soybean cyst nematode, Phytophthora, and sudden death syndrome. Traits included in Plenish high oleic soybean varieties available for 2017 include SCN resistance, Phytophthora resistance, and a wider range of maturities (early group II to early group IV). STABILITY OF OLEIC ACID CONTENT End users require consistent quality in the oil produced from Plenish high oleic soybeans. Extensive testing has shown that Plenish high oleic soybeans demonstrate a stable fatty acid profile across a range of environments even with significant weather stress (Table 1). PLANTING DATE EFFECTS ON YIELD AND OIL PROFILE A study was conducted in cooperation with the University of Maryland to determine how Plenish high oleic soybean varieties perform across a wide array of soybean cropping systems encompassing early and late planting dates (Kratochvil et al., 2016). Pioneer brand Plenish high oleic soybean and comparative soybean varieties were planted over a range of dates considered normal for full-season and double-crop soybean production in the Delmarva area. P36T14R2 Table 1. Percent fatty acid content of Plenish ® high oleic soybeans grown in multiple environments in three states (Source: Eurofins GC analysis on whole soybeans). Fatty Acid Content Year % Oleic % Linoleic % Linolenic - - - - - - - - - Indiana - - - - - - - - - 2012 77.3 6.1 2.0 2013 78.0 5.4 2.0 2014 76.4 7.4 2.2 2015 77.0 6.4 2.1 Average 77.2 6.3 2.1 - - - - - - - - - Ohio - - - - - - - - - 2011 75.0 8.7 2.4 2012 77.1 6.2 2.0 2013 76.6 6.5 2.2 2014 77.8 5.8 2.1 2015 76.6 6.6 2.2 Average 76.6 6.8 2.2 - - - - - - - - - Delmarva - - - - - - - - - 2012 80.1 4.2 1.8 2013 77.2 6.5 2.1 2014 77.3 6.1 2.1 2015 77.9 5.6 1.9 Average 78.1 5.6 2.0 Results Results showed that for both Plenish high oleic soybean and comparative soybean varieties: • Growing environment (location and year) had a significant influence on soybean yield potential; average yield in 2014 was significantly lower than 2013 or 2015. • Late May plantings had the highest yield in all three years of the trial. There was no difference between early and mid-June plantings, which suggests an opportunity to achieve competitive soybean yields with timely planting in a double-crop system (e.g., after barley harvest in June). The mid-July date had the lowest yield of all dates, except for similar yield with late June planting in 2013. • There was an incremental increase in yield with latermaturing soybean varieties as planting was delayed. Thus, it is recommended to plant later-maturing soybeans (maturity group IV or greater in this area) when planting after the end of June to avoid late summer heat and drought risks, especially in dryland environments. • There was no significant difference in yield among varieties when averaged across planting dates and years. Among Plenish high oleic soybean varieties, oleic acid levels trended slightly lower as planting was delayed; however, 70 to 80% levels were maintained among all planting dates and years. The earlier maturing Plenish high oleic soybean varieties tested in this trial performed well in late May and June

eturn to table of contents plantings. Newer, later maturing Plenish high oleic soybean varieties available for 2017 are better suited for July planting dates in the Mid-Atlantic Region. INTENSIVE MANAGEMENT EFFECTS ON YIELD AND OIL PROFILE Trials were conducted at two University of Maryland locations to evaluate the response of selected Plenish high oleic soybean varieties to intensive vs. conventional management (McCollum and Reese, 2013). The objective was to evaluate management effects on grain yield and oleic acid profiles in a new contract area. Management Systems Limited management: • No treatments or irrigation Intensive management: • Drip irrigation • Pioneer Premium Seed Treatment offering • Fungicide and insecticide applied at R3 stage Results Soybean grain yield was significantly affected by management with a 16.1 bu/acre advantage for the intensive management system (Figure 5). Yield (bu/acre) 100 80 60 40 20 0 84.4 Intensive Means are significantly different (P< 0.05). 68.3 Conventional Figure 5. Yield of Plenish ® high oleic soybean varieties under intensive and conventional management practices at Queenstown, Maryland. Results also indicated that oleic acid profiles remained constant regardless of management practices (Figure 6). Intensive management also resulted in larger seed size and a reduction in purple seed stain (data not shown). Oleic Acid Content (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Means are not significantly different (P< 0.05). 79.7% 80.7% Intensive Conventional Figure 6. Oleic acid content of Plenish high oleic soybean varieties under intensive and conventional management practices at Queenstown, Maryland. HERBICIDE EFFECTS ON CROP RESPONSE AND OIL PROFILE Tests were conducted in Michigan of Plenish high oleic soybean varieties against key commercial checks to: • evaluate the effects of different weed control practices on soybean fatty acid (oil) profiles, and • evaluate early season crop injury from herbicide treatments on Plenish high oleic soybean varieties. In these studies, no herbicide injury was observed with any variety or weed control program (Sprague and Zuver, 2012). Oil profiles were consistent across weed control programs for both Plenish high oleic soybeans and elite soybean varieties. EFFECT OF MANGANESE (MN) ON YIELD AND OIL PROFILE A study was conducted in Ohio to determine if Mn application affected the grain yield and concentration of oleic acid, oil, and protein in Plenish high oleic soybeans and comparative soybean varieties. Results showed that both Plenish high oleic soybeans and other soybean varieties had significantly lower grain yield when the leaf Mn level was less than 21 ppm. However, results also indicated that the Mn level did not affect the oil profile, oil content, or protein concentration of varieties. Thus, when deficiency is detected, soybean growers should apply Mn fertilizer to both Plenish high oleic soybeans and comparative soybean varieties to obtain higher yields. REGULATORY APPROVALS Plenish high oleic soybeans have been genetically modified to improve the fatty acid profile of the oil. Plenish high oleic soybeans also contain a transgene conferring glyphosate resistance. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration completed its review of Plenish high oleic soybeans in January 2009 and concluded that they are not materially different in terms of food safety from other soybean varieties on the market. Deregulation is also completed in major export markets representing over 90% of U.S. soy exports. Only the European Union (EU) has yet to complete the approval process, which is expected in early 2017. (Both the high-oleic and glyphosateresistant traits are approved individually, and the European Food Safety Authority–GMO Panel has delivered a positive safety opinion on the stack, but adoption of the panel’s recommendation by the European Commission is still forthcoming.) GROWING AND MARKETING PLENISH HIGH OLEIC SOYBEANS Plenish high oleic soybeans are grown in a closed loop system. Farmers must have a contract with a licensed Plenish high oleic soybean buyer before they can receive seed beans from a Pioneer sales representative. The Plenish high oleic soybeans must be grown in an identity-preserved manner (including planter and combine clean out, segregated storage bin, etc.) and delivered only to the contract processor. The processor/refiner also implements an identitypreserved process to maintain the oil’s purity and high oleic content, which is essential to downstream end-users in both food and industrial applications. Farmers are paid a per-bushel incentive to produce Plenish high oleic soybeans under this system. 113