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SUMMARY

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eturn to table of contents MICRONUTRIENT UPTAKE RATE 100 Micronutrient Uptake Rate (lbs/acre/day) 0.010 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 Zinc, S.E. = 0.0001 Manganese, S.E. = 0.0003 Copper, S.E. = 0.00004 Iron, S.E. = 0.0002 Boron, S.E. = 0.0001 0.000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Days After Emergence VE V2 V4 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 Growth Stage Figure 2. Micronutrient uptake rate through the growing season for a 66 bu/acre soybean crop. Duration of peak uptake period for each micronutrient is represented by a horizontal black line. Cumulative % of Total Cu Cumulative % of Total Fe 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Cu Fe 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.48 0.40 0.32 0.24 0.16 0.08 Total Cu Uptake (lbs/acre) Total Fe Uptake (lbs/acre) • Micronutrient demand during vegetative growth stages was minimal. In contrast, uptake rates peaked between R2 to R4 (Figure 2), suggesting that if in-season foliar applications are planned, they should be made by R3 to match peak uptake periods to potentially increase the probability of a positive yield response. MICRONUTRIENT PARTITIONING AND UTILIZATION Cumulative % of Total Zn Cumulative % of Total Mn 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Zn Mn Seeds Pods Stems Petioles Leaves Fallen Petioles & Leaves 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Days After Emergence VE V2 V4 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 Growth Stage 0.200 0.175 0.150 0.125 0.100 0.075 0.050 0.025 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.00 Total Zn Uptake (lbs/acre) Total Mn Uptake (lbs/acre) Cumulative % of Total B 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 B 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Days After Emergence VE V2 V4 R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 Growth Stage Figure 3. Micronutrient uptake, partitioning, and remobilization through the growing season for a 66 bu/acre soybean crop. 0.18 0.15 0.12 0.09 0.06 0.03 0.00 • Uptake prior to R1 was minimal for all micronutrients except for Fe, which approached 25%. Greater than 80% of all Mn and B was acquired by R5.5, whereas uptake during seed fill was greater for Zn and Cu (Figure 3). • At R5.5, relatively large portions of total Zn (46%), Mn (52%), and B (35%) were held in leaf tissue while stem tissue accumulated a majority of the Cu (27%) (Figure 3). • After R5.5, vegetative Zn and Cu remobilization was greatest, while Mn and B remobilization to the seed was minimal and Fe saw no mobility to the developing seed. • The importance of Mn and Fe uptake after R5 cannot be understated as this accounted for 83 and 100%, respectively, of the seeds’ demand for these nutrients. Zn, Cu, and B still met the majority (>50%) of seed nutrient demand through uptake past R5, signifying the importance of season long micronutrient availability, although in small amounts. Total B Uptake (lbs/acre) 122

eturn to table of contents MICRONUTRIENT REMOVAL WITH THE GRAIN Micronutrient Removal (lbs/acre) 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 0.0 40 60 80 100 Seed Yield (bu/acre) Nutrient Equation R 2 S.E. Zinc (Zn) y = 0.002x + 0.009 0.59 0.02 Manganese (Mn) y = 0.002x + 0.009 0.51 0.02 Copper (Cu) y = 0.001x – 0.017 0.66 0.01 Iron (Fe) y = 0.002x + 0.01 0.34 0.04 Boron (B) y = 0.001x + 0.006 0.22 0.03 Figure 4. Total micronutrient removal with the seed at growth stage R8 across all environments and varieties. • Removal with the grain for an 80 bu/acre soybean crop totaled less than 0.2 lbs/acre for all micronutrients (Figure 4), meaning biennial soybean production is not a large source of removal. • The variability was less in the nutrient removal – yield relations (R 2 = 0.22-0.66) compared to that of nutrient uptake (Figure 1). However, Zn, Mn, and B removal relations were still affected by the environment and/or variety. • However, due to the small amount of actual nutrient removal, differences were not large enough to have applicable implications, and thus, single equations are biologically sufficient. CONCLUSIONS • Total soybean nutrient uptake was less than 1 lb/acre for yields as high as 100 bu/acre. Iron requirements were the greatest followed by Mn, Zn, B, and Cu. • Like that of all macro and secondary nutrients, soybean demand for these five micronutrients was greatest near R3, while early season demand was extremely low. • Minimal total uptake (Figure 1) and relatively low nutrient harvest indexes (25 to 69%) resulted in extremely small amount of micronutrient removal with the seed, even at yield levels above 100 bu/acre. • In conclusion, the relatively small quantities of these micronutrients required (

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