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SUMMARY

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eturn to table of contents SOYBEAN PLANTING DATE AND MATURITY EFFECTS ON YIELD & OLEIC ACID PROFILES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION by Robert Kratochvil, Ph.D., Associate Professor, University of Maryland, Kirk Reese, Agronomy Research Manager, and Bill McCollum, Field Agronomist SUMMARY • Research was conducted to evaluate performance of two Pioneer ® brand Plenish ®^ high oleic soybean varieties and four conventional varieties planted over a range of dates. • Late May plantings had highest yield, followed by early and late June plantings. Mid-July plantings had the lowest yield in this three-year trial. • There were no significant differences in oleic acid expressed as a percent of total oil among planting dates and tested varieties. • Oleic acid levels were maintained between 70 and 80% for both Plenish high oleic soybean varieties across all planting dates, compared to an average of 23% for the conventional varieties. 138

eturn to table of contents BACKGROUND Pioneer brand Plenish high oleic soybeans offer growers an opportunity to capture value from identity preserved markets. High oleic soybean oil is recognized as a healthier alternative to current commodity soybean oil. End users in the Mid-Atlantic region have recognized the value of using oil from Plenish high oleic soybeans and continue to grow an identity preserved market. Growers routinely plant soybeans throughout the spring and summer months in the Mid-Atlantic Region, both in fullseason systems and in double-crop systems following a barley or wheat crop. Some growers have elected to utilize earlier maturing soybeans in double-crop systems; however, little research is available to address what effect different planting dates and soybean maturities have on yield in this environment. Also unknown is the effect on oleic acid levels in soybean oil as planting date is extended further into the growing season. OBJECTIVES Research was conducted to evaluate the agronomic performance of two Pioneer brand Plenish high oleic soybean varieties and four conventional (non-Plenish) varieties planted over a range of dates that are considered normal for fullseason and double-crop soybean production in Maryland. The goal of the research was to develop management recommendations that will optimize yield, oil content, and overall soybean quality. STUDY DESCRIPTION Field experiments were conducted during the 2013 through 2015 growing seasons at the Wye Research and Education Center near Queenstown, MD. The soybean plots were planted under irrigated conditions and supplied with water, as needed, to minimize drought stress. Drip irrigation was supplied in 2013 and 2014, and lateral overhead irrigation was used in 2015. Appropriate tillage and weed control practices were employed along with foliar fungicide and insecticide applications at later growth stages. Six soybean varieties with a maturity range of 3.2 to 4.8 were planted at 4 dates representing full-season and double-crop systems (Table 1). All varieties were planted in 15-inch rows at 175,000 seeds/acre. Each 75-ft plot consisted of 6 rows. Four center rows of each plot were harvested for yield and adjusted to 13% moisture. Soybean samples were collected at harvest and submitted for oil and protein analyses. Aerial view of soybean planting date and maturity trial at the University of Maryland Wye REC near Queenstown, MD. Linolenic acid, total oil and protein content, seed size, and purple seed stain were also measured. Although differences exist, they were subtle and not reported in this article. Mean separation and least significant difference values were conducted using Student’s t-test. Means with the same letters are not significantly different at 5% level. RESULTS 2014 yield was different than 2013 and 2015 when averaged across planting dates and tested varieties (Figure 1). Planting date effect on yield was significant. Late May plantings had highest yield, followed by early and late June plantings. Mid- July plantings had the lowest yield in this three-year trial (Figure 2). Yield (bu/acre) 80 70 60 50 40 30 A 67.5 B 51.4 LSD 0.05 = 6.1 A 63.0 2013 2014 2015 Year Figure 1. Year effect on soybean grain yield averaged among planting dates and tested varieties, 2013-2015. 80 Table 1. Maturity groups of Pioneer brand soybean varieties included in the study. Variety/Brand 2 Maturity Group P32T80PR (Plenish^, R) 3.2 Yield (bu/acre) 70 60 50 A 71.8 B 63.1 LSD 0.05 = 6.4 B 58.5 C 49.1 93Y42 (Plenish, R) 3.4 40 P39T67R (R) 3.9 94Y23 (R) 4.2 P44T82SR (STS, R) 4.4 P48T53R (R) 4.8 30 Late May Early June Late June Mid July Planting Date Figure 2. Planting date effect on soybean grain yield averaged among years and tested varieties, 2013-2015. 139

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