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SUMMARY

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INTRODUCTION 2016 marked

INTRODUCTION 2016 marked the third consecutive year of above-trendline yields in corn and soybeans across North America as well as the third consecutive year of declining farm profitability, resulting in continued economic challenges for growers and the industry in general. Successful crop management under current conditions requires smart and efficient use of resources driven by sound agronomic knowledge. At DuPont Pioneer, our commitment to improved crop management is the foundation of our Pioneer ® GrowingPoint ® agronomy research structure – an industry leading network of agronomists and researchers across North America. The mission of this team is to help maximize grower productivity by delivering useful insights built on rigorous, innovative research. This includes studies in growers’ fields and at research sites across North America, as well as numerous collaborative studies with university scientists. The future will continue to present new crop production challenges but also promises to hold many exciting new innovations and opportunities. The introduction of Pioneer ® brand Qrome corn products and soybean varieties with Roundup Ready 2 Xtend ® Technology will provide new management tools to help protect and maximize yields. The CRISPR-Cas advanced plant breeding platform that has been established at Pioneer is an important new system for driving crop improvement using native characteristics within the target crop for greater environmental resiliency, productivity, and sustainability. This Agronomy Sciences Research Summary provides insights on numerous crop production topics; however, it represents just a small portion of the vast array of resources available in the Pioneer agronomy library and Pioneer ® GrowingPoint agronomy app. We hope that resources available in this book and online will help you drive yield and profitability in 2017. Mark Jeschke, Editor ADVANCED GENETIC TECHNOLOGIES CRISPR-Cas Advanced Plant Breeding 8 CORN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT High Night Temperature Effects on Corn Yield 12 Relating Silk Emergence at Pollination to Kernel Set at Harvest 18 Kernel Black Layer Formation in Corn: Anatomy, Physiology, & Causes 24 Corn Ear Growth in Response to Foliar Crop Protection Treatments 28 Corn Grain Yield in Relation to Stress During Ear Development 32 CORN MANAGEMENT Impact of Corn Stover Harvest on Soil Properties and Productivity* 37 Managing Corn for Greater Yield 40 Crop Rotation & Tillage Effects on Corn Yield: Hybrid Selection & Plant Population* 46 Stress Emergence and Frost Impact on Corn Stand Establishment and Growth 50 Corn Hybrid Herbicide Management Guide 52 CORN NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT Nutrient Uptake in Corn 56 Corn Hybrid Response to Nitrogen Fertilizer 62 Introduction to the Encirca℠ Fertility Service 68 Soil Test Phosphorus and Potassium Levels in the Corn Belt 73 Plant Tissue Testing for Phosphorus and Potassium in Corn* 74 Corn Management in High pH Soils 76 CORN PLANTING PRACTICES Corn Seeding Rate Considerations 79 Corn Plant Population Research: Water-Limited Sites 82 Community Data vs. Trial Data for Corn Seeding Rate Decisions 84 Corn Hybrid Response to Plant Population and Planting Date in Northwestern Minnesota* 86 CORN SEED TREATMENTS Yield Performance of PPST 250 plus DuPont Lumivia Insecticide Seed Treatment in Corn 88 Performance of the New Fungicide Seed Treatment Ethaboxam in Corn 89 2

CORN DISEASE MANAGEMENT Management of Corn Diseases with DuPont Aproach ® Prima Fungicide 90 Maximizing the Value of Foliar Fungicides in Corn 92 Physoderma Stalk Rot 97 Southern Rust of Corn 98 Charcoal Rot in Corn 100 Tar Spot Complex in Corn 102 CORN INSECT MANAGEMENT Corn Rootworm Protection Efficacy of Pioneer ® brand Qrome Products 104 Corn Rootworm Monitoring: 2014-2016 105 Estimating Corn Rootworm Beetle Populations with Sticky Traps 106 ON-FARM RESEARCH The Right Choices, More Often 108 SOYBEAN MANAGEMENT Management of Pioneer ® brand Plenish ® High Oleic Soybeans 110 Using Soybean Harvest Aids Effectively 114 Understanding and Increasing Soybean Yields 118 SOYBEAN NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND REMOVAL Soybean Micronutrient Uptake, Partitioning, and Removal (Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, B)* 121 Soybean Nitrogen and Sulfur Uptake, Partitioning, and Removal* 124 Soybean Phosphorus and Potassium Uptake, Partitioning, and Removal* 126 SOYBEAN PLANTING PRACTICES Bin-run vs. Professionally Grown Soybean Seed 128 Variable-Rate Seeding Considerations for Soybeans 130 Row Width in Soybean Production 132 Planting Date Effect on Soybean Reproductive Duration 137 Soybean Planting Date and Maturity Effects on Yield & Oleic Acid Profiles in the Mid-Atlantic Region* 138 Impact of Late Planting on Soybean Yield in Southern Illinois 141 Soybean Maturity Group Considerations at Different Latitudes and Planting Dates* 142 WEED MANAGEMENT IN SOYBEANS Glyphosate Resistance in Weeds 144 DuPont Herbicide Programs for Waterhemp and Palmer Amaranth Control in Dicamba-Tolerant Soybeans - Technical Summary 146 SOYBEAN SEED TREATMENTS Pioneer Premium Seed Treatment Performance in the Mid-South 150 Performance of Pioneer ® Brand Soybeans with ILeVO ® Seed Treatment in SCN and SDS Environments 152 Performance of Pioneer ® Brand Soybeans with ILeVO ® Fungicide Seed Treatment Against SDS 153 Performance of Soybean Seed Treatments Against SDS and SCN in On-Farm Trials 154 WHEAT MANAGEMENT Wheat Yield Response to Nitrogen Rate 155 Wheat Head Count Association with Grain Yield 156 Pioneer Premium Seed Treatment Offering for Soft Red Winter Wheat 157 SORGHUM MANAGEMENT High Yield Sorghum Production 158 Sugarcane Aphid: Biology & Management in Sorghum 160 * Research conducted as a part of the DuPont Pioneer Crop Management Research Awards (CMRA) Program. This program provides funds for agronomic and precision farming studies by university and USDA cooperators throughout North America. The awards extend for up to four years and address crop management information needs of DuPont Pioneer agronomists and customers, and Pioneer sales professionals. 3