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HOLOCAUST EDUCATION IN PEDAGOGY, HISTORY, AND PRACTICE 30 experiences and memories. The field of Holocaust history has been no exception to this development with institutions actively collecting survivor testimonies. Most notably is the USC Shoah Foundation which has the largest Holocaust visual history archive (VHA) of video testimonies in the world totalling 54,000 from survivors, aid givers, rescuers and liberators. As the field of Holocaust education and remembrance has grown around the globe, educators have been encouraged to avoid a narrative that focuses solely on perpetrator sources, and to also include victim voices through literature or video recordings (IHRA 2005). The pedagogical implications of using video testimony should raise a range of questions for us as educators: questions relating to how we critically engage our students with the challenges of human memory, understanding the importance of seeing testimony as a reflective recording often 50 years after the events, and the role played by the interviewer are all relevant concerns. This article aims to touch on some of these considerations relating to the use of video testimony with high school students and reflect on the use of the USC Shoah Foundation’s IWitness teaching tool to demonstrate how multiple video accounts can provide a deeper understanding of events relating to genocide. What’s in a Name? Grappling with ‘Testimony’ For those of us engaged in teaching and learning about the events of the Holocaust there is often a heightened awareness of the nuanced meaning of the words we use when talking about the genocide against European Jewry. Less questioned is the use of the term ‘testimony’ when referring to Holocaust witnesses’ personal accounts of their experiences. Testimony is a word loaded with legal and religious meaning; it suggests a truth that might be beyond critical engagement or questioning, or a moment of revelation. Yet, in terms of Holocaust experience and memory neither of these definitions is fitting. Exactly when the term ‘testimony’ became broadly applied to survivor accounts is unclear, but in part its usage may date back to the trial of Adolph Eichmann held in Israel in 1961. One hundred and eleven survivors testified at length during the trial and were filmed when doing so (Rothberg 2004). This moment of giving testimony in a courtroom heralded the first large-scale public sharing of Holocaust victim experiences and can be seen as providing an opening for other survivors to speak about their wartime experiences, both in Israel and around the world.

In a classroom, what name we give to video witness accounts may seem pedantic and unnecessary, especially if as educators we ensure that students respectfully and critically raise questions of the witnesses they are watching. Perhaps though, more problematic are those occasions when video clips of witnesses are played in classrooms and given a reverential treatment that prevent student discussion. Doing so potentially reinforces quasi-religious and legalized use of the term ‘testimony’. As educators we should remember that the Holocaust, like other genocides and atrocities, was caused and implemented by humans. As such, we and our students should raise questions about events, places and people in the same way we would with any other area of history. Memory The majority of the more than 54,000 Holocaust-related testimonies in the USC Shoah Foundation’s Visual History Archive (VHA) were recorded between 1994 and 1999. Most of the interviews were conducted in interviewees, homes, at least 50 years after the experiences. Each interview is a reflection of the complex workings of human memory, rather than being raw historical data of the events being described (Firsch 1991). The interviews are an act of memory and should be seen as locating events from the past at a specific time when the interview was recorded (Shopes 2002, Bertolini 2014). As we all know from experience, human memory is not an exact device; it does not record a chronological, photographic impression of each moment we experience. Instead, memories tend to be fragmented snippets, sometimes expanded and at other times contracted, changing over time as we are influenced by other events. Memory may also muddle events in time or add in extra events. Furthermore, an individual’s memories are influenced by social identity, e.g. gender, education, socio-economic status and religious beliefs. In the same way individuals may experience the same event in different ways, the same is true of how we remember events. Each memory is unique to an individual. 31 HOLOCAUST EDUCATION IN PEDAGOGY, HISTORY, AND PRACTICE Recent research into how gender relates to memory has demonstrated that women and men tend to remember events in different ways. Women will often focus on the details of their personal experience, whereas men will reflect on a bigger picture, using their experience to understand a broad historical narrative (Budryte 2010, Lentin 2006). An example of this can be seen in the VHA where survivors of the Lodz ghetto speak about food. Men and women of a similar age both speak of food; however, the women talk in detail about the preservation, preparation and quality of the food they had, while men speak about the need to

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