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have food so that they

have food so that they could then work and stay alive longer. The men linked the concept of food into a broader historical understanding of events, which they may or may not have been aware of at the time. 2 HOLOCAUST EDUCATION IN PEDAGOGY, HISTORY, AND PRACTICE 32 Pedagogically, these gender differences have significant implications for educators. Among these are the importance of including female and male testimonies, and the discussion of the differing perspectives of men and women. Additionally, such considerations help reflect on what might be considered atypical roles at the time; for instance, women who fought as partisans or ghetto fighters, or the difficulty facing Jewish men trying to hide among a non-Jewish population. It would be remiss to take one account as being better than another; rather, both serve different purposes and reveal different themes about memory. Witness Voices and ‘The Benefit of Hindsight’ Trying to make sense of life’s experiences often takes place in the months or years after events have occurred or may not occur at all. This is particularly evident when individuals are caught up in events such as war or genocide. Often, as individuals, there is a need to link earlier experiences to events that happened much later, and in so doing inadvertently create connections that weren’t present at the time or that create a neat over-simplification of history. For teachers and students this is a particular challenge of watching testimony, as it requires students to raise critical and often difficult questions about the complex nature of history and memory. Additionally, for educators there is the added pressure of needing a deep understanding of the historical narrative to be able to challenge such linking. There are many examples of historical hindsight in the USC Shoah Foundation’s VHA, and to describe them as such is not meant to undermine or criticize the memories of the witness, but rather to reflect on the processes of the human mind and the implications for the classroom. Educators and students should be encouraged to critically reflect on what they watch and hear in each testimony, and, when necessary, to challenge historical links that are inaccurate. One example of this benefit of historical hindsight 2 In a short comparison of gendered memory I chose to search IWitness for survivors of a similar age and background who spent time in the Lodz ghetto, using the index term ‘food’. A number of the men and women who spoke about food demonstrated differences in the way they addressed and remembered food in the ghetto. This was not scientific research and was used to illustrate a teacher education session held in the UK in October 2013.

can sometimes be seen when people who were pre-war refugees - those who arrived in the UK as child refugees, prior to the start of the war - speak of their experiences. Later referred to as the Kindertransport, some of these former child refugees speak of being saved from certain death. However, this was not the case at the time, as the Nazi, genocidal policies did not begin until after the outbreak of the war (Andrews 2013). In the classroom, students could be encouraged to ask to consider what the witness knew at the time and how their later knowledge has shaped their understanding. Engaging Students with Witness Memories As well as their extensive VHA, the USC Shoah Foundation has developed a free access teaching tool for educators and their students, called IWitness ( This digital resource currently holds a subset of approximately 1500 witness videos. IWitness can be used in a variety of ways by educators and students who can search the witness accounts for specific indexed terms, watch full videos as well as develop their own short films using the built-in video editing tool. Additionally, there are a wide range of prepared activities which can be searched by theme or grade and completed by students. The activity ‘The Nazi Genocide against the Roma and Sinti (Gypsy) people’ draws together different critical skills in using testimony as well as reflecting on the Porajmos, the genocide of the Gypsy people, which occurred in parallel to the Holocaust. All IWitness activities follow the same ‘4 C’ format requiring students to consider, collect, construct and communicate. The activity begins with a video clip from Julia Lentini describing her memories of childhood, and encourages students to move away from seeing Julia only as a genocide survivor and to recognize the normalcy of her life before the war. In the second page, Julia describes her memories of the morning her family were deported, the complicity of local people and the lack of knowledge her family had about where they were going. Students can read further historical context to the events and are given questions to consider as they watch. 33 HOLOCAUST EDUCATION IN PEDAGOGY, HISTORY, AND PRACTICE In the ‘Collect’ section of this activity, students are given further historical and geographical information about Auschwitz-Birkenau, before hearing from three Jewish prisoners (one man and two women) who either visited or saw the ‘gypsy camp’ from other parts of Birkenau. Although the Jewish survivors are speaking about the ‘gypsy camp’, their reflections provide insight into their own experiences of

Roma Genocide Remembrance Initiative
bellamy-spotlight- 20-april-2015
DP1610 Auschwitz bklt.qxd - BBC
766 HMD Inside06.qxd - Holocaust Education Trust of Ireland
What do students know and understand about the Holocaust?
Holocaust Memorial Day - Holocaust Education Trust of Ireland
Learning from the past ~ lessons for today - Holocaust Education ...
Learning from the past ~ lessons for today - Holocaust Education ...
Learning from the past ~ lessons for today - Holocaust Education ...
“Why, what and how to teach about the Holocaust in the classroom”
Citizens Bookletp6.5 - Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies
The Historiography of the Holocaust
'About HMD' Booklets - Holocaust Memorial Day Trust
Dictionary of Genocide - D Ank Unlimited
2012 [PDF] - Clark University
Learning from the past ~ lessons for today - Holocaust Education ...
Women and the Holocaust: Courage and Compassion
19505_HMD_Cover:Layout 1 - Holocaust Education Trust Ireland
the quest for racial purity - United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Lessons For Today - Holocaust Education Trust of Ireland
pre-visit teACHers' GUiDe - Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre