Province of Siquijor - UNDP in the Philippines

undp.org.ph

Province of Siquijor - UNDP in the Philippines

Province of SIQUIJOR

Philippines Fourth Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals using CBMS Data - Province of Province of Marinduque

1


Status Report on the

Millennium Development Goals

(MDGs)

Using CBMS Data

Province of Siquijor


2

Province of Siquijor

Foreword

The Provincial Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Report was prepared with the intention

of providing a true and correct picture of the status of the province of Siquijor’s efforts to

help the national government meet its global commitments to eradicate poverty. Knowing

that more than anyone else, the Local Government Units (LGUs) are the primary institutions

that deal directly with the communities who are being threatened by problems of poverty,

hunger, unemployment and so many other social, economic and political problems, it would

be logical to say that the LGUs take care of their people’s needs.

This report will show the accomplishments of the province, in so far as its extent of helping

achieve the targets of the 8 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In doing this, we acknowledge/appreciate

the contributions of all Siquijodnons who worked in close partnership with the

government. The national government agencies, people’s organizations, and civil society have

equally supported the local government in achieving the goals of reducing poverty, achieving

universal primary education, promoting gender equality, reducing child mortality, improving

maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental

sustainability, and, lastly, developing a global partnership for development.

The MDG Team of the province is very grateful to the administrative support of the six LGU

municipalities headed by their respective Mayors and the technical support of the Municipal

Planning and Development Coordinators (MPDCs) and the Municipal Local Government

Operations Offi cers (MLGOOs). Without them, it would have been very diffi cult to produce

this MDG Report.

The good thing about the Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS), especially for us

in the Planning and Development Offi ce, is that we are able to locate where the people who

need specifi c government interventions are, who they are, and what they really need in order

to live a decent and improved quality of life. It is also very helpful to our offi ce in our planning

activities.

For us in the Planning Division, we now have baseline data to guide us in our decision- making

because our Chief Executive would want correct data and information to help him decide

what programs and projects need to be prioritized. This Report will also be submitted to the

Local Chief Executive, to the Local Development Councils of the six municipalities and their

respective Sanggunians to guide them in their respective roles and functions.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


To the entire staff of the Provincial Planning and Development Offi ce, for their unwavering

support even up to going many hours of overtime work in order to beat deadlines, our

heartfelt thanks and appreciation.

To the constituents and the civil society/private sector representatives, we extend our sincerest

thanks for their involvement in making this report a reality.

We especially extend our warm gratitude to the PEP-CBMS Network Team headed by Dr.

Celia M. Reyes, PEP Co-Director and CBMS Network Leader, the United Nations Development

Programme (UNDP) Philippines and the National Economic and Development Authority

(NEDA) for their invaluable support.

With all Siquijodnons cooperating and supporting our local offi cials, the province of Siquijor

will truly become a progressive island.

God Bless Siquijor!

The Provincial Planning and Development Coordinator

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

3


4

Province of Siquijor

Message

The preparation of provincial MDGs reports is a critical step that Local Government

Units (LGUs) have taken in the overall effort to localize the MDGs. As it is

often said, the MDGs will be ‘won or lost’ at the local level given the conditions

of uneven progress and disparities across regions and provinces in the country.

Beyond the national averages, one can see wide disparities on the gains

in poverty reduction, universal education, child mortality and maternal health.

This situation reinforces the notion that the progress of each province is just as

important as the achievements of the country as a whole. After all, the Philippines’

progress towards the MDGs, is the sum of the efforts and gains of all LGUs.

By preparing provincial reports, LGUs are provided vital information on

the status of the MDGs in their areas of infl uence. These reports are important

sources of information for planning, resource allocation and priority setting that LGUs are tasked

under their mandate of effective local governance. Likewise, in the course of the preparation of the

reports, the capacity of LGUs to collect, monitor and use data for decision making has been greatly

enhanced. The reports also show how far the Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS) that

UNDP has supported can go in terms of its use.

Against the backdrop of renewed optimism emanating from the new political leadership, this fi rst

set of nine Provincial Reports on the MDGs is a timely and important milestone. The reports provide

crucial insights on how to overcome the constraints in achieving the MDGs locally as the country

gears towards the last stretch to attain the eight goals by 2015. They also emphasize the important

role of active collaboration of political leaders, stakeholders, and donors in achieving the MDGs.

I wish to commend the nine Provincial Governments that prepared their reports – the Agusan

del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Biliran, Camarines Norte, Eastern Samar, Marinduque, Romblon, Sarangani

and Siquijor Provincethe Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS) Network and

the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) for working together in bringing about

this important accomplishment.

With this initiative, it is hoped that other provinces will follow suit to attain nationwide support

for the need to accelerate the pace of the achievement of the MDGs s by 2015.

Dr. Dr Jacqueline Badcock

UN Resident Coordinator and

UNDP Resident Representative

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Republic of the Philippines

PROVINCE OF SIQUIJOR

OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR

Message

The conduct of the Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS)

survey in the province of Siquijor provides the local leaders with a

good picture of what the government under my present administration

had done to improve the living conditions of my constituents in

addressing their problems and in providing their basic needs.

The results were commendable and gratifying because we know our efforts did not go

to waste but were properly put to good use.

Though the province of Siquijor is small in terms of land area and population, and

therefore would only get a meager share from the national government in the form of

the Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA), we are proud to say that Siquijor was never in the

list of the 20 poorest provinces in the Philippines. This only proves that development of

a place is not solely dependent on how much money there is in the government coffers

but on how the money is being spent for the delivery of basic services and how these

services are prioritized.

All efforts of my administration are focused on the reduction of poverty and increase

of income of my constituents. Right now, we are implementing very critical programs and

projects in order to realize these immediate twin goals of government. These goals are

in fact at the very heart of our nation’s thrust and we have committed to achieve these

goals together with the rest of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Governance is at the center of all our efforts to improve the quality of life of our people.

The people of my province understood that Governance is a collective responsibility

where everyone -- the governed and the elective officials – is a stakeholder. This proved

to be an effective scheme for Siquijor which resulted in yielding more than average results,

even with meager resources at the disposal of government.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

5


6

We consider good governance as the forefront of development. In our own lingo, we

call it “strong political will.”

The Philippines will only be as strong as its weakest local government unit and so we

recognize the very important role we have in charting our nation’s destiny.

God Bless Siquijor!

Province of Siquijor

ORLANDO A. FUA, JR.

Governor

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Table of Contents

Foreword ........................................................................................................

Messages UN Resident Coordinator Dr. Jacqueline Badcock ...............................

Siquijor Governor Orlando Fua, Jr. .......................................................

Table of Contents .................................................................................................

List of Acronyms ..................................................................................................

List of Tables .......................................................................................................

List of Figures ......................................................................................................

Executive Summary ......................................................................................

Part 1. Provincial Profile

1. History ........................................................................................

2. Geo-physical Environment .............................................................

3. Population and Social Environment ................................................

4. Local Economy .............................................................................

5. Infrastructure/Utilities/Facilities .......................................................

6. Local Institutional Capability ...........................................................

Part 2. Status Report on the

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Goal 1 - Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger ...................................................

Goal 2 - Achieve Universal Primary Education .......................................................

Goal 3 - Promote Gender Equality .......................................................................

Goal 4 - Reduce Child Mortality ..........................................................................

Goal 5 - Improve Maternal Health ...........................................................................

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

2

4

5

7

9

11

14

16

20

21

22

29

30

38

41

52

57

62

66

7


8

Goal 6 - Combat HIV / AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases ................................

Goal 7 - Ensure Environmental Sustainability ..................................................

Goal 8 - Develop a Global Partnership for Development .................................

Part 3. Meeting the 2015 Challenge

Priority Programs and Policy Responses ...............................................

Financing the MDGs ..........................................................................

Monitoring Progress Toward the Attainment of the MDGs .......................

Part 4. Conclusion and Recommendations ........................................

Explanatory Text ...................................................................................

Province of Siquijor

Table of Contents

69

71

79

83

85

85

86

88

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


List of Acronyms

AIDS Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome

ALS Alternative Learning System

APGR Annual Population Growth Rate

ATM Automated Teller Machine

BEMONC Basic Emergency Obstetrical Neonatal Care

BIT-IC Bohol Institute of Technology – Institute College

CA Cancer

CEMONIC Comprehensive Obstetric Neonatal Care

CS Civic Society

DA Department of Agriculture

DAR Department of Agrarian Reform

DepEd Department of Education

DOST Department of Science and Technology

DOTC Department of Transportation and Communications

DPWH Department of Public Works and Highways

DTI Department of Trade and Industry

FAITH Food Always in the Home

GAD Gender and Development

GER Gross Enrollment Ratio

HIV Human Immune Deficiency Virus

IEC Information Education Communication

ISLACOM Isla Communication

LGU Local Government Unit

MCP Maternity Care Package

MSWD Metro Siquijor Water District

NER Net Enrollment Ratio

NPC National Power Corporation

NSCB National Statistics Coordination Board

NSO National Statistics Office

OFW Overseas Filipino Worker

OSFUA Optimizing Sustainable Food Upliftment Alternatives

PEPT Philippine Educational Placement Test

PO PeopleÊs Organization

PROSIELCO Province of Siquijor Electric Cooperative

PTCA Parents Teachers Community Association

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

9


10

Province of Siquijor

List of Acronyms

QMIS Quezon Memorial Institute of Siquijor

RCDG Reinforced Concrete Deck Girders

REB Reach Every Barangay

RHM Rural Health Midwife

SPES Special Program for the Employment of Student

SPUG Strategic Power Utility Group

SSC Siquijor State College

TB-DOTS TB-Directly Observed Treatment Service

TESDA Technical Education and Skills Development Authority

TMSI Telecommunication Management System Inc.

TWD Technical Working Group

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


List of Tables

Table 1 Summary of MDG indicators, Province of Siquijor, 2006

Table 2 Land Area, Population (2007), Number of Households and Number of Barangays

Table 3 Population in Central Visayas Region, By Province

Table 4 Siquijor Population, Annual Population Growth Rate, Density, Area by Municipality

Table 5 Mortality Data, Siquijor Province

Table 6 Morbidity, Leading Causes, Number and Rate per 1,000 Populations, 5-Year Average (2003-2007) and 2008,

Province of Siquijor

Table 7 Total Enrolment of Public Elementary School, Central Visayas

Table 8 Total Enrolment of Public Secondary School Central Visayas

Table 9 Enrolment Participation Rate, Province of Siquijor, School Years 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009

Table 10 Teacher-Pupil Ratio, Province of Siquijor , School Years 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009

Table 11 Classroom-Pupil Ratio, Province of Siquijor, School Years 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009

Table 12 Percentage of Paved Roads (National and Provincial Roads), Province of Siquijor

Table 13 Road Classification for Siquijor Province, Provincial Roads

Table 14 Road Classification for Siquijor Province, National Roads (DPWH)

Table 15 National Road Classification, Province of Siquijor, By Municipality

Table 16 Provincial Road Classification, Province of Siquijor, By Municipality

Table 17 Municipal Road Classification, Province of Siquijor, By Municipality

Table 18 Barangay Road Classification, Province of Siquijor, By Municipality

Table 19 Total Road Length, Province of Siquijor

Table 20 Total Road Length by Materials Paved, Province of Siquijor

Table 21 Number of Barangays Served by Electricity and Households Connections, Province of Siquijor, 2009

Table 22 Electric Generation & Consumption, Province of Siquijor

Table 23 Electrical Connections by Type of Users, by Municipality, Province of Siquijor, 2009

Table 24 Water Supply Provision for Barangays, by Water Level, Province of Siquijor

Table 25 Water Consumption & Generation, Province of Siquijor

Table 26 Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population Living Below Poverty Threshold,

by Municipality, by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 27 Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population Living Below Food Threshold, by Municipality,

by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 28 Poverty Gap, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Table 29 Employment Rate, by Municipality, by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

11


12

Province of Siquijor

List of Tables

Table 30 Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population Who Experienced Food Shortage, by Municipality,

by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 31 Prevalence of Underweight Children Under 5 Years of Age, by Municipality, by Sex and

by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 32 Magnitude and Proportion of Children Aged 6-12 Years Old Enrolled in Elementary Education, by Municipality,

by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 33 Magnitude and Proportion of Children Aged 13-16 years old Enrolled in High School, by Municipality,

by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 34 Magnitude and Proportion of Children Aged 6-16 Years Old Enrolled in School, by Municipality, by Sex and

by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 35 Literacy Rate of 15-24 Year-Olds, by Municipality, by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 36 Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary Education, by Municipality and by Urban/ Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 37 Ratio of Girls to Boys in Secondary Education, by Municipality and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 38 Ratio of Girls to Boys in Tertiary Education, by Municipality and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 39 Ratio of Literate Females to Males (15 – 24 years old), by Municipality and by Urban/Rural,

Siquijor, 2006

Table 40 Proportion of Elective Seats Held by Women, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Table 41 Magnitude and Proportion of Children Aged 0 to Less Than 5 Years Old Who Died, by Municipality, by Sex and

by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 42 Magnitude and Proportion of Infants Who Died, by Municipality, by Sex and by Urban/Rural,

Siquijor, 2006

Table 43 Magnitude and Proportion of Children Aged 1 to Less Than 5 Years Who Died, by Municipality, by Sex and

by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 44 Magnitude and Proportion of Women Deaths Due to Pregnancy-Related Causes, by Municipality

and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 45 Prevalence and Death Rates Associated with Tuberculosis, by Municipality, by Sex and by Urban/Rural,

Siquijor, 2006

Table 46 Distribution of Land with Forest Cover, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2010

Table 47 Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population with Access to Safe Drinking Water, by Municipality,

by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 48 Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population with Access to Sanitary Toilet Facility, by Municipality,

by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Table 49 Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population who are Informal Settlers, by Municipality,

by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 50 Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population who Live in Makeshift Housing, by Municipality,

by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 51 Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population Living in Inadequate Living Conditions, by Municipality,

by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Siquijor, 2006

Table 52 Magnitude and Proportion of Households with Landline/Telephone Lines, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Table 53 Magnitude and Proportion of Households with Cellphones, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Table 54 Magnitude and Proportion of Households with Computers, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Table 55 The CBMS-MDG Indicators and their Definition

Table 56 Poverty and Food Thresholds

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

13


14

Province of Siquijor

List of Figures

Figure 1 Regional Location Map

Figure 2 Provincial Map of Siquijor

Figure 3 Population, annual population growth rate and population density, by municipality

Figure 4 Location of Health and Allied Facilities

Figure 5 Location of Educational Facilities

Figure 6 Ports in Siquijor

Figure 7 Road Map of Siquijor

Figure 8 Electricity and household connections

Figure 9 Electrical connections by type of users by municipality

Figure 10 Percent of households served per municipality, by level

Figure 11 Map on Proportion of Population Living Below Poverty Threshold, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 12 Map on Proportion of Population Living Below Food Threshold, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 13 Map of Poverty Gap Ratio, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 14 Map on Employment Rate, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 15 Map of Proportion of Population Who Experienced Food Shortage

By Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 16 Map of Prevalence of Underweight Children Under 5 Years of Age By, Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 17 Map of Proportion of Children Aged 6-12 Years Old in Elementary Education,

by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 18 Map of Proportion of Children Aged 13-16 Years Old in High School,

by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 19 Map of Proportion of Children Aged 6-16 Years Old in School by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 20 Map of Literacy Rate of the Population 15-24 Year-Olds by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 21 Map of Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary Education by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 22 Map of Ratio of Girls to Boys in Secondary Education, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 23 Map of Ratio of Girls to Boys in Tertiary Education, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 24 Map of Ratio of Literate Females to Males (15-24 Years Old), by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 25 Map of Proportion of Elective Seats Held by Women, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 26 Map of Proportion of Children Aged 0 to Less Than 5 Years Old Who Died,

by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 27 Map of Proportion of Infants Who Died, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Figure 28 Map of Proportion of Children Aged 1 to Less Than 5 Years Old Who Died,

by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 29 Map of Proportion of Women Deaths Due to Pregnancy- Related Causes,

by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 30 Map of Prevalence and Death Rates Associated with Tuberculosis, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 31 Proportion of Land with Forest Cover, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2010

Figure 32 Map of Proportion of Population with Access to Safe Drinking Water,

by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 33 Map of Proportion of Population with Access to Sanitary Toilet Facilities,

by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 34 Map of Proportion of Population Who are Informal Settlers, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 35 Map of Proportion of Population who are Living in Makeshift Housing,

by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 36 Map of Population Living in Inadequate Living Conditions, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 37 Map of Households with Landline/Telephone Lines, by Municipality, Province of Siquijor, 2006

Figure 38 Map of Proportion of Households with Cellphones, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 39 Map of Proportion of Households with Computers, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Figure 40 CBMS Coverage in the Philippines (as of May 12, 2010)

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

15


16

Province of Siquijor

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The First Millennium Development Goals

(MDG) Report of the Province of Siquijor

used the results of the 2006 CBMS Survey.

There are good and not so good results

in terms of some indicators. There are also

some indicators that require more innovative

and highly creative strategies if there is

truly a desire on the part of the local government

to achieve the MDG targets by

2015. Given the financial capability of the

LGU, there may be low probability of meeting

these targets. However, with the local

leaders, the constituents, and the national

government working and acting together,

with the help of other equally-concerned

donors from other countries, the MDG targets

can be realized and the lives of the

people in the province might be improved.

Good news

• Proportion of children aged 0-5 who are

underweight was only 2.3 percent, which

already surpassed the 2015 national target

of 17.3 percent. Malnutrition in the province

is not a very big problem also but it should

be noted that the target is to have zero (0)

malnutrition rate by 2015.

• Mortality rate among children aged

0-5 was only 0.4 percent. This very low

rate could be attributed to the presence

of readily available child health programs

such as, but not limited to, immunization

programs, cheaper medicines at the Botika

ng Barangay, breastfeeding program, and

other child-focused health projects. Given

these interventions, it is believed that the

province has high probability of achieving

zero child mortality by 2015.

• The province recorded only three (3)

pregnancy-related deaths. This very low

maternal death can somehow be attributed

to the fact that morbid and complicated

pregnant mothers are referred to health facilities

outside the province. Despite this low

maternal death rate, the general perception

is that pre-natal care services are still poor

and facility-based services are very low as

most of the deliveries were performed at

home (87%). To achieve zero (0) maternal

death rates, deliveries must eventually be

performed in the birthing facilities by trained

personnel or midwives. Maternal care package

should also be vigorously performed.

• Literacy rate among population aged 15-

24 was high at 98.7 percent, with literacy rate

of males (98.7%) being slightly higher by 0.1

percent than that of females (98.6%). Given

that the target is 100 percent, the difference to

be worked out until 2015 is only 1.3 percent.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Table 1. Summary of MDG Indicators, Province of Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

17


18

Table 1. (Continuation)

Source: CBMS Survey 2006

Province of Siquijor

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


• The ratio of girls to boys in elementary

education was 0.94, which is very close to

the desired ratio of 1. Moving to higher educational

levels, the ratio slightly increased

in favor of girls, with 1.03 in secondary and

1.05 in tertiary. The results indicate that

there is gender equality in school participation.

However, although the proportion of

seats held by women in positions in municipalities

and the province is only 27.0 percent,

it was assured that women are given

equal opportunities in the electoral exercise.

• Proportion of households with access to

safe drinking water was 95.1 percent.

• Proportion of households with access

to sanitary toilet facilities was 85.6 percent,

which is still higher than the 2015

national target of 83.8 percent. The remaining

14.4 percent will be attended to

in the next 5 years.

Not-so-good news

• There were 48,030 persons, or approximately

58.8 percent of the total province’s

population, who are living below the poverty

threshold. This figure is relatively higher

than the national poverty rate of 32.9 percent

in 2006. In addition, the magnitude of

the population living below the food threshold

was 35,357, which is equivalent to 43.3

percent of the total population.

• Employment rate was only 82.0

percent of the total labor force, which

means that 18.0 percent are not employed.

This partly explains why more

than half of the population in the

province was living below the poverty

threshold.

• Proportion of children aged 13-16

who are enrolled in high school was only

70.1 percent. This means that a relatively

large proportion of children within this

age range are not attending high school.

The reasons for low participation rate

should be explored further and the root

causes of the problem should be addressed.

This report could help the province in

prioritizing interventions that would help

attain their MDG targets. Government

programs should be implemented specifically

to address poverty, unemployment

and hunger in order to achieve 2015 MDG

target on the eradicating extreme poverty

and hunger. Furthermore, since it is also

widely recognized that educational status

is directly linked to poverty, problems concerning

education should be addressed.

There is also a need to ensure adequate

living conditions among the communities

by designing appropriate interventions

in the province such as implementation

of a housing program or other programs

such as provision of safe drinking water,

installation of sanitary toilets through

LGU-Household Cooperation, Bayanihan

Housing Project for informal settlers and

for those living in makeshift housing.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

19


20

Figure 1. Regional Location Map

1. History

Very little is known about Siquijor and

its inhabitants before the arrival of the

Spaniards in the 16th century. During its

occupation, however, caves in the island

yielded old China wares that imply earlier

encounters with Chinese traders. The

original inhabitants called “Siquijodnons”

came from Cebu, Bohol and other adjacent

islands. Legends tell of a “King Kihod” as

Province of Siquijor

Part 1.

Provincial Profile

the source of the island’s name. Old residents

also called the island “Katugasan”,

derived from the Molave trees that cover

the hill. The Spaniards, however, called it

“Isla de Fuego” or island of fire because

of the eerie luminescence generated by the

swarms of fireflies found in the island. The

first Spaniard to discover the island was Esteban

Rodriguez of the Legazpi Expedition

in 1565. He was the captain of a small party

that left Legazpi’s camp in Bohol to explore

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Figure 2. Provincial Map of Siquijor

Source: SIMU

the nearby island. After having been part of

the province of Bohol until 1854 and province

of Negros Oriental until 1892, Siquijor

became an independent province in 1971.

2. Geo-Physical Environment

Siquijor is the smallest island province in

the Central Visayas Region. The province

of Siquijor is a 4th class province with a

lone congressional district. It consists of

six (6) municipalities: Larena, Siquijor, Lazi,

Maria, San Juan and Enrique Villanueva

with a total of 134 barangays (9 urban and

125 rural barangays). It is geographically

located between 9°05’ N and 9°18’ N, and

123°27’ E and 123°42’ E midway between

the Visayas and Mindanao islands. It is

bounded on the northwest by the island of

Cebu, on the northeast by Bohol, on the

east by Camiguin Island, on the south by

mainland Mindanao, and on the west by

Negros island. On its northern shore is

the Bohol Strait and on its southeast shore,

the Mindanao Sea. The island is 565 aerial

kilometers (km) from the National Capital

Region (NCR) in Luzon and is approximately

1 hour and 15 minutes by plane.

The Province of Siquijor is basically hilly

and mountainous, mostly made up of limestone

rock. Mt. Bandilaan, the highest

peak of the province, rises about 557 meters

above sea level. The central highlands

drop coastward into floodplains and deltas

found in the northern and southern coasts.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

21


22

Land use in Siquijor is predominantly

devoted to agriculture, covering 52.0 percent

of the total land area which generally

includes areas planted to coconut, corn,

and irrigated and non-irrigated paddy rice.

A substantial portion of the island is also

devoted to grassland (38.0 percent) found

mostly in the uplands with slopes of 8.0

percent and above. Woodland areas are

those covered with trees or woody type of

vegetation, representing about 3.0 percent

of the island’s total land area. The rest are

used for settlements and commercial purposes

which are mostly concentrated in the

Poblacion of every municipality.

The largest among the municipalities is

Siquijor which covers an area of 8,205.9

hectares, followed by Lazi at 7,322.2 hectares.

The smallest municipality is Enrique

Villanueva which has 2,792.7 hectares .

Geological formations are dominated by

limestone, originated in a former coral reef.

Karst formations are also numerous. Some

volcanic agglomerates could be found only

Province of Siquijor

in the northeast of the island. Much of the

island is rimmed by low limestone cliffs bordered

by a very narrow strip of sand. In

some places, small beaches are isolated

in coves and indentations. Although the

coastline of Siquijor is irregular, bays are

almost nonexistent. The only significant bay

found on the island is Maria Bay located in

the eastern side of the island.

Topographic features associated with

limestone terrain in Siquijor include cliffs,

depressions and sinkholes. There are a lot

of caves in the island. The surface drainage

of the island is not well developed

and water is often diverted into subsurface

channels.

3. Population and Social

Environment

3.1 Population Size, Density and Growth Rate

The population of Siquijor based on the

2007 Census of Population (POPCEN 2007)

was 87,695 persons. This figure is higher

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


y 6,097 persons over the population count

of 81,598 persons in 2000 or 7.47 percent

increase over the 2000 count. The recent

population count for the province translates

to an annual growth rate of 1.0 percent for

the period 2000 to 2007. It is lower than

the 2.2 percent annual growth rate for the

period 1995-2000 by 1.2 percent.

In the whole of Region VII, Siquijor registered

the lowest annual population growth

rate (APGR), followed by Bohol’s 1.1 percent

and Negros Oriental’s 1.2 percent. The

province with the highest APGR is Cebu.

The three provinces of Siquijor, Bohol and

Negros Oriental have lower APGRs than

the regional rate while Cebu exceeded the

regional APGR by 0.1 percent. Region

VII, however, still has a lower APGR than

the national figure. In 2000, Cebu had the

highest population density of 489 persons/

sq.km. Bohol followed with 276 persons/

sq.km., then Siquijor with 256 persons/

sq.km. and finally, Negros Oriental with the

lowest population density of 208.4 persons/

sq.km. Only Cebu had a population density

higher than the regional population density

of 381 persons/sq.km. Compared with the

national figure, Cebu and Bohol registered

higher population densities.

Among the municipalities, Larena registered

the highest population density of 329

persons/sq.km. based on the 2007 census.

This could be due to its smaller land area,

followed by San Juan with 326 persons/

sq.km., Siquijor with 288 persons/sq.km.,

Lazi with 265, Maria with 230, and Enrique

Villanueva with the lowest density of 210

persons/sq.km.

Figure 3. Population, Annual Population Growth Rate and Population Density, by Municipality

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

23


24

Figure 3. (Continued)

3.2 Language/Dialects

Cebuano is the main dialect generally

spoken in the households of Siquijor. Tagalog

as well as English, however, are understood

by a big majority of the population.

The big influencing factors include the movies,

radio, television and publications.

English remains as the medium of instruction

in schools, colleges, and other

higher learning institutions aside from

the fact that most foreigners who live in

Siquijor are English-speaking people.

3.3 Social Environment

Siquijor province has its own unique

island ecosystem and contains endemic

and wildlife species probably not found

anywhere in the country. There are no

existing biological assessments in the

island that can establish the condition

and diversity of species. The different

ecosystems considered vital to the

overall status of the natural environment

include coastal, marine and terrestrial

ecosystems. National guidelines exist

for the protection of such ecosystems.

Province of Siquijor

Generally, there is little or no pollution in

the rivers and foreshore areas except for

visible garbage (particularly plastics and

glass bottles) thrown or left indiscriminately

by the locals and tourists alike. The waters

around the harbors are visibly clear. In fact,

according to some diving experts, some of

the best dive sites in the island are found

near piers in Siquijor and Lazi.

3.3.1 Health

Siquijor believes that a healthy and wellcared

population is the pillar of a progressive

nation. That is why health should be

considered a main priority by the government

and should thus be given more importance.

In the province of Siquijor, mortality data

had been observed to be high. Deaths

were generally caused by septicemia/Sep-

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


sis, pneumonia and cancer of all forms from

2006-2008. The province’s leading causes

of mortality occur because of the inefficiency

of the local health system in the province.

Such inefficiency is manifested by the lack

of functional management systems such as

the referral network that is supposed to assure

timely transport of patients.

The Siquijor Provincial Hospital services

the island with 100 beds. There is a small

hospital in Lazi, the Lazi District Hospital,

which has 15 beds. Even though the number

of beds is sufficient for its population

per the national standard (1 bed per 1,000

persons) and the land area is sufficient for

the bed capacity (2.36 hectares total for

hospital and grounds), improvements in

the Provincial Hospital need to be made.

However, no money has been allocated for

such improvements. While there are plans

to expand the Lazi District Hospital, it does

Figure 4. Location of Health and Allied Facilities

not, however, qualify as a district hospital

because it only provides basic medical

services for minor ailments and obstetrics.

The province shows that the causes of

morbidity are the result of poor environmental

sanitation, unsafe drinking water, un-

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

25


26

healthy lifestyle, lack of vitamin supplementation

or malnutrition. The leading causes of

morbidity are still infectious diseases such

as: Bronchitis/Bronchitis, Acute Respiratory

Infection, Pneumonia, Diarrhea, Hypertension,

TB, respiratory diseases and dengue

fever (Table 5). However, it is noted that

cardiovascular diseases have significantly

increased in recent years, indicating a need

for an intensified campaign on preventive

measures specifically on healthy lifestyle

programs. Sustaining and strengthening

effective advocacy campaigns at the community

level on the prevention and control

of infectious deceases is indeed a must. Local

government units (LGUs) must increase

investments on programs that are still considered

public health threats.

3.3.2 Education

The province of Siquijor has only one

school division. The indicators in this sec-

Figure 5. Location of Educational Facilities

Province of Siquijor

tor include the literacy rate, elementary and

secondary cohort survival rates, elementary

secondary classroom-pupil ratios, and elementary

and secondary participation rates,

among others. Figure 5 also shows the location

of the various educational facilities

in the province.

The total enrolment for all ages in public

schools in the province for SY 2007-2008

was 11,170. Total enrolment for those aged

6-11 years old for the same school year was

9,227 resulting in a Gross Enrolment Ratio

(GER) of 85.4 percent and a Net Enrolment

Ratio (NER) of 70.5 percent. Both the

GER and NER are lower than the Central

Visayas’ ratios.

Siquijor province had a total enrolment

of 4,711 in public schools for all ages and

both sexes for SY2007-2008 while the total

enrolment for children aged 12-15 years

old during the same school year was 3,345.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Table 7: Total Enrolment of Public Elementary School Central Visayas

Given the total population of those aged

12-15 years of 8,654, GER is 54.4 percent

and NER is 38.7 percent.

Table 8 illustrates the Gross and Net Enrolment

Ratios in secondary education for

public schools in the province of Siquijor

Table 8: Total Enrolment of Public Secondary School Central Visayas

as well as in other provinces in Central

Visayas.

3.3.3 Enrolment Participation Rate

The enrolment participation rates in Siquijor

province for both the elementary and

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

27


28

secondary education is seen to be decreasing.

For the elementary level, based on the

data for SY 2006-2007 provided by the

Department of Education (DepEd)-Siquijor

Division Office, the enrolment participation

rate registered at 72.1 percent which was

really high. However, this went down to

70.5 percent in SY 2007-2008 and to 70.18

percent in SY 2008-2009.

The same trend can be seen in the secondary

level where the enrolment participation

rate decreased from 39.9 percent in SY

2006-2007 to 38.7 percent in SY 2007-2008

and then further declined in SY 2008-2009

to 37.29 percent (Table 8).

3.3.4 Teacher-Pupil Ratio

Another performance indicator of the

education sector is the teacher-pupil ratio.

It is the average number of pupils per

teacher in a given school year. This indicator

is used to measure the level of human

input, in terms of number of teachers, in

relation to the size of the pupil population.

As of 2000, the established national

standard for the number of pupils

per teacher is 60. This used to be

40 pupils per teacher. A high pupilteacher

ratio suggests that each

teacher has to deal with a large

Province of Siquijor

number of pupils and that, conversely, pupils

receive less attention from the teacher.

It is generally assumed that a low pupilteacher

ratio signifies smaller classes, which

enables the teacher to pay more attention to

individual pupils and thus contribute to the

better scholastic performance of the pupils.

However, this indicator does not take into

account differences in teachers’ academic

qualifications, pedagogical training, professional

experience and status, teaching

methods, teaching materials and variations

in classroom condition (EFA Indicators).

The ratio of the teacher to students in the

elementary level for three school years in

the province of Siquijor was well within the

standards. The average teacher-pupil ratio

in the province was registered at 1:21 (Table

9). In the secondary level, meanwhile,

the ratio showed a better picture during the

latter school years due to the decrease in

the enrolment participation rate.

3.3.5 Classroom-Pupil Ratio

Classroom-pupil ratio is still above the national

standard class size of 1:45 because

some classrooms used for ancillary services

were included in the computations.

In the elementary level, the ratio of classroom

to pupils is one classroom for every

23 students in school year 2007-2008. This

decreased to 1:22 in the school year 2008-

2009 but again increased to 1:24 in school

year 2009-2010.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


In the secondary level, a general improvement

in the classroom-pupil ratio was

observed during the latter school years as

compared to the earlier school year. In particular,

there were 32 pupils for every classroom

during the school years 2008-2009

and 2009-2010 as compared to 33 during

the school year 2007-2008. The decrease

was attributed to the additional school

which was turned over to the Department

of Education. This refers to the Lazi National

Agricultural School.

3.3.6 Colleges and Other Institutions of

Higher Learning

In the province, there are three colleges

that cater to the needs of Siquijodnons for

higher learning. The three collegiate institutions

offer several collegiate and post

collegiate courses as well as technical vocational

courses.

The three are: the Siquijor State College

(SSC) located in Larena, which is the biggest

of the three collegiate institutions and

run by the government, the Balite Institute

of Technology (BIT), located in Siquijor,

Siquijor and the Quezon Memorial Institute

of Siquijor (QMIS) also located in Siquijor.

4. Local Economy

The Siquijor provincial economy is made

up of the primary, secondary and tertiary

sectors. These sectors represent the different

industry groups and economic activities.

The primary sector includes agriculture,

fishery and forestry; the secondary sector

comprises mining and quarrying, manufacturing

and processing, and the tertiary

sector includes services.

The local economy derives earnings from

exporting traditional goods such as copra,

live animals and fruits. Four of the top five

exports of the province are copra, livestock,

lumber and fruits but not in substantial volumes.

Minor export commodities include

bananas, furniture and palay. These are exported

to Dumaguete, Bacolod and Cebu.

On the other hand, it imports processed

commodities, the bulk of which are bottled

merchandise and general cargo, cement,

animal feeds and rice. Siquijor is highly

import-dependent in terms of currency and

commodities.

Agriculture remains to be the leading

industry in Siquijor in terms of employment

generation. Coconut and corn are the principal

crops in Siquijor. Next to coconut and

corn, root crop is a significant agricultural

commodity. Cassava and sweet potato are

the leading 2007 crops in this category in

terms of land area proportions. Peanut and

cassava are principal agricultural products

in the towns of Lazi and Maria. The top two

fruits grown in Siquijor in terms of production

volume are banana and mango.

Fishery in Siquijor is mainly characterized

as small scale and marginal fishing. In 2008,

there were a total of about 6,115 fishermen

in Siquijor province.

Mining (secondary sector) is considered

a major industry in the province in terms of

local income but mainly concentrated in

Lazi and Maria. The province used to be

a leading producer of manganese as early

as during the Japanese occupation in the

island up until the 1970s when manganese

mines closed down due to diminished mining

prospects.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

29


30

Limestone quarrying came in the middle of

the 1990s and was concentrated in Lazi and

Maria. But then again, it stopped operation

in 2006. During its lifetime, mining (secondary

sector) was considered a major industry

in terms of local income and employment

but only for a short period of time.

Business establishments in Siquijor are

predominantly trading and services (tertiary

sector). Industries operating in the island

are made up of a handful of small enterprises.

They include metalworking, food

processing, ceramics, furniture, gifts, toys

and house ware.

There are four banks in the province that

provide financial services (deposit and

credit), namely: Allied Bank, Land Bank of

the Philippines, Larena Rural Bank and First

Consolidated Bank. There are two automated

teller machines (ATM) operated by

the Land Bank and Allied Bank in Larena.

Both do not accept credit cards though.

Credit cards are accepted only in limited

tourist resorts. Visitors arriving in the island

either have to carry cash or inquire on arrival

whether their accommodation accepts

credit cards as mode of payment.

Sources of income at the household level

come from: (1) local employment or business,

and (2) remittances from Overseas

Filipino Workers (OFWs) and Balikbayans

residing in various countries all over the

world. This segment of the labor force contributes

considerably to the income of the

locals through regular remittances sent to

family members or relatives.

Province of Siquijor

5. Infrastructure/Utilities/Facilities

5.1 Transportation

Sea transportation is the primary mode

of transport between Siquijor and other

provinces. There are two major government

ports and one private port operating in the

province. The port of Larena is the principal

maritime port of entry of the province.

Siquijor Province is accessible primarily

by sea transport from the neighboring

provinces of Negros Oriental, Bohol, Cebu

and from Plaridel, Misamis Occidental and

Iligan City in Mindanao. There are at least

three ports in the municipalities of Larena,

Siquijor and Lazi. The port of Larena is the

principal port of entry in the province. The

port of Siquijor caters only to boats plying

Siquijor and Dumaguete City.

The shipping lines with main offices in

Cebu City which provide trips from Cebu

to Tagbilaran and Larena, Siquijor are: Cokaliong

which schedules its trips from Cebu

to Larena, Siquijor every Monday afternoon

and goes back to Cebu in the evening of the

same day; Palacio Shipping which schedules

its trips from Cebu to Larena, Siquijor

every Monday, Wednesday and Friday afternoon

and proceeds to Plaridel, Misamis

Occidental in the early morning of Tuesday,

Thursday and Saturday and comes back to

Larena on Tuesday, Thursday and Sunday

afternoon and goes back to Cebu on the

night of the same day; Lite Shipping sails to

Larena from Cebu at noon time every Tuesday,

Thursday and Saturday and proceeds

to Plaridel in Mindanao early morning of the

next day and comes back to Larena every

Wednesday, Friday and Sunday afternoon

and straight back to Cebu in the evening

of the same day. Ocean Jet which is a fast

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Figure 6. Ports in Siquijor

Larena Port

Lazi Port

craft sails daily from Cebu at 3:40 in the

afternoon to Tagbilaran via Dumaguete

and Siquijor and goes back to Cebu from

Siquijor every morning at 6:00 o’clock.

Delta fast ferries 1 and 3 provide 50-minute

sea transport from Dumaguete to Siquijor

and Larena four times daily. Montenegro

Shipping sails to Dumaguete City and

back to Larena and Siquijor 2 times daily.

Given the increasing volume in passenger

traffic, the improvement and development

of the airport such as the asphalting/concreting

of the runway is deemed necessary,

as this is the only air link to nearby provinces.

This would serve as the emergency

Cang-Alwang Airport

Siquijor Port

access to and from the province when sea

access is not available. This will also improve

the tourism industry in the locality as

it provides an alternative means of transportation

during very crucial times.

All the improvements will translate into increased

employment, income and government

revenues and improved quality of life.

The Siquijor Circumferential Road links

one municipality to the other and carries

most of the volume of traffic in the province.

It has two major points, the municipalities

of Larena and Lazi, corresponding to two

traffic routes namely: Larena-Siquijor-San

Juan-Lazi vice-versa and Larena-Tal-

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

31


32

ingting-Maria-Lazi vice-versa. These routes

pass through the centers of each of the six

municipalities.

A total of 95.017 kilometers of national

road in the province comprise the major

arterial road. This circumferential road is

mostly covered with asphalt. This national

road passes through the six municipalities.

Access to interior parts of the province is

possible. With the provincial roads, without

taking the regular route, one can travel from

Larena-Cang-agong-Cangumantong-Poo

Road. From Larena, people can take the

Province of Siquijor

Larena-Basac-Maria road to reach Maria.

There are 168.632 kilometers of provincial

roads in Siquijor.

There is a good quality road network in

the island. The majority of streets is asphalted

or cemented. Remote areas have

mostly graveled roads. Traffic density

in Siquijor is low. The national highway

spans 95.017 kilometers of either concrete

or asphalt-pave roads, provincial roads,

municipal roads, barangay roads or farmto-market

roads. The provincial roads have

a total length of 168.632 kilometers which

cover interior areas traversing the upland

areas. The major arterial roads are mostly

made of concrete. These are mostly allweather

roads, passable by both light and

heavy vehicles, primarily transporting farm

produce and passengers to and from the

growth centers and settlement areas. The

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


total length of national and provincial roads

is 244 kilometers.

Priority among the internal routes is the

upgrading or improvement of the coastal

highway (circumferential roads) from asphalt

to concrete pave roads, all the way

north and south. The rehabilitation/improvement

of this road network is ongoing

under the Department of Public Works and

Highways (DPWH) Central Office and the

rest under the Regional and District Offices

of the DPWH. Such activities implemented

are perceived to increase the level of service

and to improve mobility of people with less

vehicle- operating expenses and less time/

effort consumption.

The local government units also took part

in undertaking complementary activities like

asphalting, concreting and gravelling of local

roads of 168.632 kilometers of provin-

cial roads, 27.929 kilometers of municipal

roads, and 80.763 kilometers of barangay

roads. Provincial roads and municipal are

mostly asphalt.

Siquijor municipality has the longest

stretch of municipal roads (9.8 kilometers)

in the province. Next is Lazi with 7.6 kilometers

of municipal roads while San Juan

has the shortest municipal roads of only

about 1.7 kilometers

The municipality of Siquijor has the

longest artery of barangay roads in the

province with more than 43 kilometers.

Next to Siquijor are Larena and Lazi

with almost 11 kilometers of barangay

roads for each of the said municipalities.

Enrique Villanueva has the shortest

length of barangay roads with only

about 4 kilometers.

As to the road surface types, gravel is still

predominant. Total road length over total

population is 0.004 which is very much high-

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

33


34

Figure 7. Road Map of Siquijor

er than the national standard which is 0.001

or 1 kilometer in every 1000 population.

5.2 Communication

The province of Siquijor has communication

facilities, with all municipalities having

direct contact through telephones, cellular

phones and single-side band radio sets.

There are also privately owned and managed

telephone services operating in the

province like TMSI, GLOBE and ISLACOM.

Most of the telecommunications facilities

of these companies are located in Larena

and Siquijor.

The LGUs and the Department of Transportation

and Communications (DOTC)

operate the rest of the telecommunication

facilities in the province jointly.

Province of Siquijor

The communication facilities include

newspapers, internet servers and cafes,

cellular phone sites, telephone, telegraph

and post offices.

5.3 Power

The power supply in Siquijor province

is being provided by the Strategic Power

Utility Group (SPUG), the missionary arm

of the National Power Corporation (NPC).

The main sources of power in the province

are the MAN diesel generator sets located

in the municipality of Siquijor. These generators

were installed back in 1984. There

are five generators all in all but, but only

three are operational and the other two are

right now undergoing major repair. The

other source of electricity of the province

is the Power Barge 113, which is docked

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Source: Province of Siquijor Electric Cooperative (PROSIELCO)

at the municipality of Lazi located at the

southern part of the island. Power Barge

113 came from Mindoro and is basically

used to augment the generation of the

diesel power plants during the peak hours

and another Power Barge 116 installed at

Larena, Siquijor.

As of July 2009, the Province of Siquijor

Electric Cooperative (PROSIELCO), the

island’s distribution system, was able to

provide electrical connections to 15,047

households, which comprised 87.1 percent

of the total households of 17,285. The

remaining 13 percent are not served with

electricity. In terms of barangays served,

134 out of 134 barangays or 100 percent

are served by PROSIELCO.

Clustering of houses and accessibility

in the province are factors that affect the

provision of power lines. Thus, electrical

power is well provided in the two primary

growth centers of the province, which are

the municipalities of Larena and Siquijor.

The province of Siquijor has an average

power consumption of 1.6 mega watts per

hour and has a capacity to generate 1.77

mega watts per hour which entails 0.11

mega watt per hour of surplus power.

Figure 8. Electricity and Household Connections

Source: PROSIELCO

There were 16,542 electrical connections

in the province of Siquijor as of 2009.

These were predominantly residential (81

percent), followed by commercial establishments

(10 percent), streetlights (5 percent),

public buildings (4 percent) and industrial

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

35


36

connection (1 percent). The municipality of

Siquijor has the most number of electrical

connections (30 percent), followed by Larena

(19 percent) while Enrique Villanueva

had the least with 7 percent of the total

connections in the province.

Improvement of the power supply

and development and management of

the water system as well as the devel-

Province of Siquijor

Figure 9. Electrical Connections by Type of Users, by Municipality

Source: PROSIELCO

opment of the feeder airport are high

priority plans. Improvement of the power

supply will likely result in the reduction

of power outages (service interruptions)

and reduced power bills plus the likelihood

of sustained and quality service.

Eventually, the province will be able to

attract investors to put up and establish

big business in the island.

5.4 Water

Water is the basic

need or requirement

for domestic, commercial

or industrial

use, and all other activities

and is therefore

considered a

critical determinant

of economic development. Water supply

program has always been on top of the

development agenda of the Provincial

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Government, both in the short-term and

medium-term.

There is abundant water supply in the

province. In fact, there is an excess water

generation of 0.11 million cubic meters.

However, in some municipalities, water

supply is inefficient and the common perception

for this situation is the poor planning

in the waterworks system (improper

sizes of pipes, piping network system

poorly laid out/designed and small-sized

reservoirs).

The whole province of Siquijor is served

by Level I, Level II and Level III water systems,

where:

• Level I refers to water tapped directly

from point sources such as rain collectors,

springs, shallow and deep wells.

• Level II pertains to water distributed

through pipes with communal faucets (stand

pipe) which serve clusters of households at

the barangays or sitios.

• Level III corresponds to piped water systems

with individual household connections.

.

The Metro Siquijor Water District (MSWD)

supplies Level III water to the towns of Lazi,

Maria, San Juan and Siquijor. The municipalities

of Larena and Enrique Villanueva

are managing their own municipal water

supply systems. Rural Water Supply Associations

(RWSAs) are also found in the

province operating Level II water supply

systems in the areas not served by MSWD

and by the two municipal water districts.

Springs are the major sources of water

supply for the municipalities. Currently,

three springs, namely, Cansilim, Cangkabo

and Candura are the sources of water sup-

ply serving 15 barangays. Aside from these

springs, there are other springs --Tubod,

Canghaling and Capilay -- which are potential

sources for water supply.

Although the island has sufficient water

sources, however, they are not fully utilized.

Some areas still suffer from shortage

and water is not provided 24 hours a day.

To solve such problems, privately owned

resorts and establishments have started

finding their own resources by utilizing wells

in their areas or setting up water tanks to

reserve water for non-drinking usage during

times of water shortage. To economize

on the usage of water, some of the resort

owners have adopted certain measures

to minimize their consumption like having

small sinks, low-flow showerheads and

low-pressure flush toilet and making use

of treated sewage for watering plants and

use of rainwater, among others.

Table 23 shows the number and percentage

shares of barangays being served by

water level systems I, II and III. A greater

number of barangays is being served by

Level II water system at 44 percent while 38

percent is served by Level III water system,

and 18 percent by Level I system.

In terms of individual household connection/access

to the water system, this is

not prevalent in the municipality of Siquijor

where 32 out of 42 barangays, which is

equivalent to 76 percent of households,

have such connection. Larena also has

the advantage of having more than one

third (39 percent) of its barangays being

served by level III. Enrique Villanueva has

no access to piped water distribution for

individual households. Except for Maria

and Siquijor, at least half of all barangays

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

37


38

in the other four municipalities are served

by Level II water system, with Lazi having

the highest share at 67 percent. Enrique

Villanueva relies heavily on Level I water

system with half of its barangays dependent

on said source. The municipalities of

Siquijor and Larena have minimal shares

of barangays dependent on this system. In

Maria, about 45 percent of its barangays

also depend on Level I system. Water is

also a very important resource that investors

look for, especially for businesses that

require big volumes of water.

Figure 10. Percent of Households Served per Municipality, by Level

Source: PDPFP

Province of Siquijor

6. Local Institutional Capabilities

6.1 Structure and Functions of the Local

Development Council

The Provincial Development Council is

headed by the Governor and is composed

of the following members:

1. all mayors of the six (6) municipalities

of Enrique Villanueva, Larena, Lazi, Maria,

San Juan and the capital town of Siquijor.

2. the chairman of the Committee on Appropriations

of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan

3. the Congressman or

his representative

4. the representatives

of people’s organizations

(POs) or civil society

(CS) who shall constitute

less than ¼ of

the members of the fully

organized council. In the

case of Siquijor Province,

there are four (4) representatives from

the POs and CS.

It also has an Executive Committee

that represents and acts on behalf

of the Provincial

Development Council

when it is not in session

composed of the Governor

as the Chairman,

and the president of the

League of Municipalities,

the Chairman of

the Committee on Appropriations,

the President

of the Provincial

Liga ng mga Barangay

and a representative

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


of the POs/CS who sits in the Council, as

members.

The functions of the Provincial Development

Council are the following:

1. Formulate long-term, medium-term and

annual development plans and policies.

2. Formulate local development investment

plans and annual investment program.

3. Evaluate and prioritize socio-economic

development programs and projects.

4. Formulate local investment incentives

to promote inflow of capital investments.

5. Coordinate, monitor and evaluate the

implementation of development programs

and projects.

6.2 Technical Capability of the Local Planning

and Development Council

The Local Planning and Development

Council has very limited technical capabilities

to carry out its mandated functions and

responsibilities.

Although the provincial government has

very recently undertaken a review of the

provincial plantilla positions with the end in

view of streamlining the bureaucracy, what

actually happened was simply an upgrading

of positions and making permanent

certain employees in the positions where

they were previously designated.

The Provincial Planning and Development

Office is staffed with mostly clerical and

administrative positions. The technical staff

only consist of the Provincial Planning and

Development Coordinator, the Planning Officer

III and the Statistician Aide. The rest

are Draftsman, and Computer Operators,

among others.

Trainings identified to be important and

necessary are on planning, project proposal

writing and packaging, Geographic

Information System, Computer Programming,

and map laying, among others.

6.3 Fiscal Management Capability

Lower-class LGUs like Siquijor need more

financial resources to support the provision

of basic services and to fund local development

plans that will help attain key human

development outcomes. On one hand, revenue

generation and resource mobilization

are hampered by complex tax structures,

poor system and procedures, and weak

local capabilities. On the other hand, planning

and budgeting at the local level are

restrained by the short political tenure of local

officials and the lack of a clear mandate

supporting the linkage between the Local

Development Plan, the Local Development

Investment Program and the Annual Investment

Program.

LGUs may have identified and developed

strategies and systems that will enable them

to increase their financial resources but the

legislature usually does not have the political

will to enforce and put into law the

proposed measures that would guarantee

improved revenue collections.

a. Development orientation of the Sanggunian

as evidenced by its legislative output.

There is still much to be desired as

far as the performance of the Sanggunian

vis-à-vis the development agenda for the

province is concerned.

b. Extent of representation and participation

in local governance of non-government

sections. The non-government sector, the

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

39


40

civil society and the people’s organizations

actively participate in the governments

programs and projects. They are properly

represented in public consultations, especially

in matters of policy formulation and

program implementation. The NGOs/POs

are very well represented even in the Local

Development Council.

c. Vertical and horizontal linkages of the

LGU with other government agencies. There

is relatively weak horizontal and vertical

linkage. However, efforts are being undertaken

to strengthen linkages between

and among national government agencies.

In the planning processes, vertical linkages

are carried through the Regional

Development Council and the NEDA Regional

Office, with policy inputs provided

by means of the Regional Development

Plans, Regional Physical Framework Plans,

Regional Development Investment Plans,

the Medium-Term Philippine Development

Plan and the National Framework for Physical

Planning.

Province of Siquijor

In the Municipal Planning and Development

Offices, inputs from their Comprehensive

Land Use Plans and other Local Development

Plans coming from the Barangay

Development Plans are integrated into the

provincial plans. From the line agencies’

Technical Working Groups (TWGs), the

inputs of the national line agencies are

also integrated in the overall development

framework of the province.

Horizontal linkages may be forward and/

or backward. Forward linkages with the

Provincial Finance Committee provide programs/projects/activities

as inputs to the investment

programming process. Backward

linkage with the Provincial Department

Heads and their Monitoring and Evaluation

Units provide feedback and other inputs for

revision or replanning.

As a whole, the process goes back and

forth, with national and regional plans and

policies guiding provincial and other local

plans while receiving feedback and input

from the province.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Part 2. Status Report

on the Millennium

Development Goals

Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme

Poverty and Hunger

Target 1A: Halve, between 1990 and

2015, the proportion of people whose

income is less than one dollar a day.

A. STATUS AND TRENDS

Proportion of Population Below Poverty Threshold

Results of the 2006 CBMS survey conduct-

ed in the province of Siquijor reveal that the

proportion of population living below the

poverty threshold in the province was 58.8

percent or an equivalent of 48,030 persons.

Out of the 48,030, 24,442 were males and

23,588 were females. More males than

females live below the poverty threshold.

Comparison by rural and urban categories

showed that there were more rural people

living below poverty threshold than those in

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

41


42

urban areas. On the other hand, the municipalities

of Enrique Villanueva, Lazi, Maria

and San Juan had higher proportions of

population living below poverty threshold

than the province. Larena had the lowest

proportion at 44.9 percent while Lazi had

the highest at 75.9 percent.

In all six municipalities, only Enrique Villanueva

had a lower male than female

proportion at 63.9 and 65.5 percent, respectively.

The other five municipalities disclosed

higher male to female proportions.

All the six municipalities disclosed higher

rural than urban proportions of the population

below poverty threshold.

Comparing across municipalities, the mu-

Province of Siquijor

nicipalities of Larena and Siquijor registered

lower proportions of the population below

poverty threshold at 44.9 percent and 48.1

percent, respectively than the province.

This may be due to the fact that Larena

and Siquijor have more employment opportunities

than the rest of the municipalities.

Aside from being the commercial and trade

centers in the province, these two municipalities

have colleges and therefore varied

small business activities related to board

and lodging facilities, internet cafes, and

sale of food items, among others.

Meanwhile, Lazi has every opportunity

to have a lower proportion of population

living below poverty threshold because

it has bigger areas for farming and they

Figure 11. Map on Proportion of Population Living Below Poverty Threshold, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


are privileged to have received the most

number of government implemented

socio-economic projects. However, according

to the MLGOO and MPDC, they

believed that the high poverty result obtained

in Lazi may be due mainly to the

people’s belief and attribute that when

government conducts survey especially

concerning the plight of the poor constituents,

the end result would be that there will

be financial assistance and funding and

that big projects will be released to them

and so they would respond to questions

that would categorize them as poor. So

the seriousness of the answers would be

affected by what they presumed would be

the end result. On the other hand, others

say that the problem may be in the encoding

which somewhat affect the truthfulness

and faithfulness of the responses.

Proportion of Population Living Below

Food Threshold

The population in the province living below

the food threshold is 43.3 percent or

a total of 35,357 in magnitude. A higher

percentage of males living below the food

threshold at 44.1 percent was registered

compared with females at 42.6 percent.

With regard to urbanity, the proportion of

the population living below the food threshold

in the rural areas is higher than in the

urban areas.

Data in the municipalities showed that

the same municipalities of Larena (29.2%)

and Siquijor (30.3%) had recorded lesser

percentage than the province in terms of this

indicator. Thus, the proportions of population

living below the food threshold in these

places are relatively lower than that of the

province. Again, the municipalities of Enrique

Villanueva, Lazi, Maria and San Juan

had higher proportions of the population

living below food threshold than the provincial

figure, with Lazi again posting the

highest percentage at 64 percent.

As to sex, the proportion of males living

below the food threshold is higher than the

females in the five municipalities of Larena,

Lazi, Maria, San Juan and Siquijor. It is only

in Enrique Villanueva where the proportion

of females to males is higher at 52.8 percent

as against 51.4 percent.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

43


44

Poverty Gap

Province of Siquijor

Figure 12. Map on Proportion of Population Living Below Food Threshold, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Table 28 shows the poverty gap or the

mean distance separating the population

from the poverty line. The poverty gap of the

Figure 13. Map of Poverty Gap Ratio, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

province is 0.3. The municipalities of Larena

and Siquijor have a poverty gap figure of

0.2, which is 0.1 lower than the provincial

figure. Lazi again has the highest at 0.5

while Enrique Villanueva has 0.4 and Maria

and San Juan both have 0.3. The relatively

high poverty gap in Lazi as compared to

other municipalities in Siquijor poses a great

challenge to the local government unit. With

the proper implementation of anti-poverty

projects, especially skills and development

activities, it would still be possible to lower

the poverty gap.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Target 1B. Achieve full and productive

employment and decent work for all,

including women and young people

Employment Rate

Survey results for 2006 indicated that

employment rate in the province is

82.0 percent or a magnitude of 26,889.

Meanwhile, the urban-rural distribution

showed that of the total labor force living

in the urban areas, 75.9 percent were

employed. On the other hand, employment

rate in the rural areas is higher at

80.7 percent.

Figure 14. Map on Employment Rate, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

The municipality of San Juan posted

the highest employment rate among all

municipalities in Siquijor (84.0%), followed

by Enrique Villanueva (83.0%).

Although there is relatively high employment,

poverty is still felt by most of the

households as evidenced by the high

proportion of households living below

the poverty threshold. Some possible

reasons are the nature of employment

and the amount of wages received.

Wages in Siquijor are very much lower

than the minimum wage. Most jobs are

agriculture-related and are therefore

seasonal in nature.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

45


46

The proportion of males employed visà-vis

females is higher in all six municipalities.

The municipality with the biggest disparity

in the proportion of male to female

employment was Lazi with 85.5 percent for

males versus 70.1 percent for females. This

is because the females usually stay in the

house to care for the family while the males

go out to work.

Target 1C. Halve, between 1990 and

2015, the proportion of people who

suffer from hunger

Proportion of Population who

Experienced Food Shortage

The proportion of the population who

experienced food shortage was 3.6 per-

Province of Siquijor

cent based on the 2006 CBMS survey or

an equivalent of 2,913 persons. About 3.7

percent of males and 3.5 percent of females

experienced food shortage during the reference

period. More households in the rural

areas (3.5%) experienced food shortage

as compared with those in the urban areas

(2.7%).

Across municipalities, three municipalities

had proportions lower than the province,

namely, Siquijor (1.7%), San Juan (3.2%)

and Lazi (0.7%). The rest had proportions

higher than the provincial record, namely,

Larena (4.1%), Maria (7.8%) and Enrique

Villanueva (9.3%). The latter has the highest

proportion of the population who experienced

food shortage.

Figure 15. Map of Proportion of Population Who Experienced Food Shortage By Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


As mentioned earlier, Lazi had the lowest

percentage of population who experienced

food shortage. This seems to be inconsistent

and diffi cult to explain given the fact that the

municipality recorded the highest percentage of

population living below poverty threshold and

food threshold. One explanation offered by

MPDO and MLGOO of Lazi is that the households

really did not experience food shortage

during the reference period, as they were able

to eat three square meals a day and did not

skip any meal. However, the kind of food they

consumed may just be simple staple like rice or

corn with viand or no viand at all.

Prevalence of Underweight Children

Under 5 years of Age

In the province, the proportion of underweight

children under 5 years of age was

2.3 percent or an equivalent of 158 children.

The proportion of underweight among male

children under 5 years was 2.3 percent

while for the female, the proportion was

2.2 percent.

As to urban and rural distribution of underweight

children under 5 years of age,

the proportion was 2.6 percent for urban

areas and 2.2 percent for rural, indicating

that there were more underweight children

under 5 years of age in the urban areas

than in the rural areas.

In Maria, there was no prevalence of underweight

children below 5 years of age. It

is followed by Lazi with a prevalence rate of

less than 1 (0.8%), and then, Enrique Villanueva

(1.4%), San Juan (2.1%) and Siquijor

Figure g 16. Map p of Prevalence of Underweight g Children Under 5 Years of Age g By, y, Municipality, p y, Siquijor, q j ,

2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

47


48

(2.2%). Larena has the highest prevalence

of underweight children under 5 years of

age at 6.7 percent. However, it is still way

below the national standard of 24 percent.

There is, however, no regional target.

B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS

Topping the provincial government’s development

agenda is the eradication of extreme

poverty and hunger among the Siquijodnons.

1. Increase agricultural production

It is the government’s policy to exhaust

all measures to ensure that the average

Siquijodnon has F-A-I-T-H, meaning “Food

Always In The Home” as well as substantial

livelihood opportunities. Hence, the government

pours more funds in the agriculture

sector in order that programs, projects and

activities are implemented to increase agricultural

production, especially on basic

staples such as rice, corn, vegetables and

other high value commercial crops. This

is over and above the national programs

implemented by the national government.

Another program includes livestock and

native poultry production because native

poultry commands a high price in the market

and said native breed is abundant in

Siquijor.

Vegetable production tops in all agriculture

production programs. It was started in

2008 with a budget of P800,000 and an initial

number of cooperators of 76 elementary

and secondary schools. In 2009, the budget

was increased to P1.5 million and the

coverage expanded to include 4 primary

schools and 90 barangays. Dubbed as OS-

FUA, the program “Optimizing Sustainable

Province of Siquijor

Food Upliftment Alternatives” is expected

to reach out to all the 134 barangays in the

province and it is hoped that after 2010, all

these 134 barangays will participate in the

program where the adopters will be provided

with complete garden implements

and tools, organic/inorganic fertilizers, and

pinakbet package seeds. Aside from ensuring

food in the home, the program also

allows them to earn more income.

Another program, the fishery development

program, includes aquaculture production

and freshwater/brackish water fish

production. It is primarily aimed at increasing

incomes for the populace.

2. Provide skills training

Skills training programs are also being

conducted by different agencies of government

like Technical Education and Skills Development

Authority (TESDA), Department

of Trade and Industry (DTI), Department of

Science and Technology (DOST), Department

of Agriculture (DA), Department of

Agrarian Reform (DAR) and other institutions

in order to provide the population with

important skills to engage in small business

and livelihood opportunities.

3.Introduce substantial livelihood opportunities

There are also funds for livelihood/capital

assistance for small-time entrepreneurs

that are interest-free and collateral-free to

really encourage business operation. This

fund assistance had been loaned out to

enterprising cooperatives. In 2009, P1.0

million was appropriated, benefiting 4 cooperatives

with a total membership of 260.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


4. Develop tourism

Tourism is also giving additional income

to the people. It is even considered the

island’s economic driver. In fact, Siquijor

province has been declared as a Marine

Reserve and Tourist Zone under Proclamation

No. 1810.

5. Infuse funds for employment development

assistance / conduct jobs fairs

Another loan facility which the provincial

government also opened for Overseas

Filipino Workers was the OFW Assistance

Fund which had been operating since 2004.

Many Siquijodnons have been helped by

this program.

6.Nutrition program / supplemental feeding

The province, in coordination with the

Department of Social Welfare and Development

(DSWD), the Department of Health

(DOH), and civic organizations jointly

implement the Nutrition/Feeding program.

7. Aid to individuals during crisis situations

The DSWD, in coordination with the

Provincial Government, provides funds to

individuals as assistance during times of

crisis situations.

8. Self – Employment Assistance (SEA – K)

This is also a DWD’s program which aims

to provide the poor and disadvantaged

sector of the society with timely access to

credit and development opportunities.

C. CHALLENGES

As in all government programs, the challenge

is in the sustainability of the programs.

The attitude of the Filipinos known as “ningas

cogon” is a threat to the sustainability

of any program, whether government-initiated

or privately implemented. Constant

monitoring and evaluation has to be made

part of the overall program.

Another big challenge is the fulfillment of

Goal I, which is to reduce the proportion

of the people living in extreme poverty by

half by 2015. The goals of achieving a 50

percent reduction in the proportion of the

population experiencing food shortage and

also a 50 percent reduction in the prevalence

of underweight children are also big

challenges to overcome.

Information is power. Hence, the challenge

is to provide important and correct

information to the province’s constituents.

The impact of global warming and climate

change on agriculture must also be widely

disseminated and ways to mitigate the

adverse effects must be properly planned.

Tourism is considered as an economic

driver for the island province of Siquijor.

The development activities that are currently

being undertaken to increase tourist traffic

and thereby increase economic activities in

the province include the following:

1. Construction of a view deck tower and

wellness center at the Bandilaan Mountain

Resort (the highest mountain in the province).

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

49


50

2. Organization of a healing festival every

Holy Week season

3. Construction of a leisure and recreation

spa in the barangays of Minalulan and

Liloan in Maria. This is a private business

development venture.

4. Development of outdoor recreation

facilities like mountain treks, wall climbs,

and the like.

The provincial and municipal LGUs need

to access funds to implement all these projects.

Most importantly, there must be political

will among the province’s top officials.

Province of Siquijor

Food Always In The Home (FAITH)

Program FAITH is considered

to be the province’s most eff ective

way to combat poverty and

hunger. Under this program is the

OSFUA project. Basically, this

project helped the students and

their families in providing for their

basic needs in the homes as well as

in the school.

Th e produced vegetables in the

schools are sold by the students

and the proceeds are being shared

through the following scheme:

1. 40 percent for supplementary feeding

2. 25 percent for garden maintenance

3. 20 percent for the pupil’s share

4. 10 percent for administrative funds

5. 5 percent for the school clinic

Th e program has helped the parents because

instead of providing for their chidren’s school

needs, funds have been provided for them. At the

barangay level, the program has clearly led to the

improved income of the constituents and to the

nutrition of the children.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Goal 2: Achieve Universal

Primary Education

Target 2A. Ensure that, by 2015, children

everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be

able to complete a full course of primary

schooling

A. STATUS AND TRENDS

Proportion of Children Aged 6-12 Years Old Enrolled

in Elementary Education

The proportion of children aged 6-12

years old enrolled in elementary education

is 80.0 percent and the proportion of males

against females is almost the same and the

difference is actually very negligible. Even

in the distribution of these children in the

urban and rural areas, there is just a very

slight difference. This means that education

services have really reached the rural

barangays.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

51


52

Proportion of Children Aged 13-16 Years Old

Enrolled in High School

For the proportion of children aged 13-16

years old enrolled in high school, the provincial

statistics showed that 70.1 percent

of all children aged 13-16 years old are

enrolled in high school. Of this figure, 66

percent are males and 74.1 percent, females.

In high school, more females enroll

than males. The Filipino culture is such that

the males are encouraged to pursue higher

education because they will be the future

heads of families and breadwinners. But

for this particular indicator, the proportion

Province of Siquijor

of males to females aged 13-16 years old

enrolled in high school is 66.0 percent versus

74.1 percent for females, indicating that

more females are enrolled in high school

than males. This may be explained by the

fact that males in this age bracket 13-16

years old are already capable of getting

jobs albeit their being menial and lowpaying

jobs. As to urbanity, 71.4 percent

come from the urban areas and only 69.9

percent from the rural areas. This could be

explained by the fact that most high schools

are in the poblacions. The difference between

the actual enrollees from the urban

and rural areas, however, is not very high.

Figure 17. Map of Proportion of Children Aged 6-12 Years Old in Elementary Education, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


This is due to the fact that there are already

barangay national high schools spread in

the rural barangays.

Proportion of Children Aged 6-16 Years Old Enrolled

in School

The proportion of children aged 6-16

years old enrolled in school is 91.0 percent,

with the males’ proportion at 89.3 percent

and the females’ at 92.6 percent. Overall,

there are less males than females attending

school. This is because males usually look

for work to help in augmenting the family

income. In terms of location, 91.8 percent

of children 6-16 years old in urban areas

were not attending school while and 90.8

percent was recorded in the rural areas.

Literacy Rate of 15-24 Year-Olds

Simple literacy rate is measured in terms

of the percentage of the population who

can read, write and understand simple

Figure 18. Map of Proportion of Children Aged 13-16 Years Old in High School, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

53


54

messages in any language or dialect. The

province’s literacy rate for those aged 15-

24 years old was high at 98.7 percent per

the 2006 CBMS survey results. Municipality

results revealed that the best performer

was Siquijor with 99.3 percent, followed

by San Juan with 99.0 percent and Enrique

Villanueva with 98.9 percent. These three

municipalities have rates higher than the

province. The bottom three were Lazi with

98.6 percent, Larena with 98.3 percent and,

Maria with 97.5 percent. Generally, the proportion

literate among males is higher than

among females in this age bracket.

Province of Siquijor

B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS

The policies and programs currently implemented

by the Department of Education

(DepEd) to ensure that all children of school

age are in school are:

1. Enrollment campaign during PTCA

meetings and barangay assemblies. The

DepEd officials during PTCA meetings and

barangay assemblies explain to the parents

that the government is very concerned

about the education of children and that is

Figure 19. Map of Proportion of Children Aged 6-16 Years Old in School by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


why it offers free public elementary and high

school education. They also explain that

parents are held liable by the government

if their school-aged children 6-16 years old

are not in school.

This is an important activity because

many parents especially in the far-flung

barangays do not recognize the relevance

of education in the future of their children.

People are not motivated to do things if they

do not understand why these things have to

be done. It is in line with this that teachers

campaign for education.

2. Encouraging over-aged students to

take PEPT examination. Some children who

Figure 20. Map of Literacy Rate of the Population 15-24 Year-Olds by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

have stopped schooling for sometime are

ashamed to get back to school in their old

age. Hence, they are being encouraged to

take placement tests so they can pursue

higher years in school.

3. Mapping Program (surveying schoolaged

children who are continuing school

and those who are school leavers). This

would really help determine where these

out-of-school children are so that it would

be easy tracking them and encouraging

them to go back to school.

4. Drop-out reduction program for secondary

level. This aims to reduce drop-outs

among children in the secondary level.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

55


56

5. Project Reach - this aims to reach all

children of elementary and secondary

school.

On the part of the provincial government,

the first phase of OSFUA was implemented

to give the school children additional income

while attending school. The expansion

of the beneficiaries to include parents

in the barangays was for the intention of

having additional family income plus more

food on the table.

Increasing the incomes of parents so that

they are able to afford sending their school

aged children to school is always considered

a very important program thrust of

government. It is the overarching policy

framework and it cuts across all sectoral

reforms.

The Provincial LGU also implements a

Special Program for the Employment of

Students (SPES) wherein all school children

aged 15-25 years old who belong

to indigent families are attending school

and are willing to enroll in the next school

year can be employed during summer

for 20 days per student so that they will

have money for enrollment. Furthermore,

another program implemented was the

Province of Siquijor

Special Education (SpEd) for Impaired

School-aged children.

C. CHALLENGES

The challenge would be financial on the

part of the teacher implementing these advocacies

because advocacy efforts really

require funding. In terms of policy formulation,

the Sanggunian, as records indicate,

has little knowledge on education policy

formulation.

Entrepreneurial skills among parents of

school children may have to be developed

in order that they will have finances to ensure

that the children are provided with

their school needs. The Local School Board

may have to conduct a capability program

among its local policymakers.

There is also a need to improve the quality

of education so that the schools may produce

what the industries need. This refers

to the “job-matching” aspect. Improvement

of school facilities and provision of simple

school amenities and school supplies to

indigent school children is also necessary.

Increase of teachers’ salaries may also be

advocated.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality

A. STATUS AND TRENDS

Target 3A. Eliminate gender disparity

in primary and secondary education,

preferably by 2005, and in all levels of

education no later than 2015

Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary Education

In the entire province, the ratio of girls

to boys in primary education is 0.94.

This means that there are less girls in the

primary education than boys. In fact, on

the average, there were about 94 girls

for every 100 boys who are enrolled in

primary education.

As can be seen in the results, five of the

six municipalities had records showing that

there were less girls than boys in primary

education as evidenced by the proportions

which were less than one (1) in the municipalities

of Enrique Villanueva (0.97), Larena

(0.94), Siquijor (0.93), Lazi (0.90) and Maria

(0.90). Only the municipality of San Juan

had a ratio of 1.05 which indicated that

there were more girls in primary education

than boys.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

57


58

Ratio of Girls to Boys in Secondary Education

Provincial results indicated that the ratio

of girls to boys in secondary education was

1.03 which means that there were more girls

than boys in secondary education. Results

Province of Siquijor

Figure 21. Map of Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary Education by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

also showed that the ratio in the urban areas

(0.98) is slightly lower than in the rural

areas (1.03). This means that while there

were less girls enrolled in secondary education

in the urban areas, more girls we

enrolled in the rural areas.

Ratio of Girls to Boys in Tertiary Education

In the province, the ratio of girls to boys in

tertiary education is 1.05 which means that

there were more girls in tertiary education

than boys. Meanwhile, the ratio of girls to

boys in urban and rural areas were 1.02

and 1.06, respectively, which also indicates

a higher number of girls in tertiary education

both in urban and in rural areas.

Among all municipalities, Enrique Villanueva

has the lowest ratio of girls to boys

(i.e., 0.75) which also indicates that there

were less girls than boys in tertiary education

in this municipality. Urban areas had a

ratio of 0.65 while rural areas had a ratio

of 0.77. There were less girls than boys in

tertiary education in both urban and rural

areas in this municipality with urban areas

recording a lower ratio (i.e., 0.65) as compared

to rural areas (i.e., 0.77) .

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Figure 22. Map of Ratio of Girls to Boys in Secondary Education, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

The municipality with the biggest ratio of

girls to boys in tertiary education was Maria

(1.33). It may also be important to note that

the ratios in the urban and rural areas are

also highest which indicate that girls are

more bent in pursuing tertiary education.

This observation could be due to the fact

that the boys stop school as early as upon

completion of secondary education and go

out to find work in order to help get income

for their family’s needs. In addition, one of

the reasons why there are more girls in tertiary

education could also be attributed to

the fact that even married women are now

able to get back to school with the presence

of a State College in Siquijor.

Figure 23. Map of Ratio of Girls to Boys in Tertiary Education, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

59


60

Ratio of Literate Females to Males (15-24 years old)

At the provincial level, the ratio of literate

females to males was 0.90 which indicates

that there are less literate females

than males. However, if disaggregated by

urbanity, the ratio was 1.05 in urban areas

and 0.88 in rural areas. This showed that in

urban areas, more female literates are seen

than male literates while the opposite is true

in the rural areas. This may be explained by

the fact that most women in the urban areas

are more eager to learn and earn a degree

because of what they see and hear in their

community and in the radio and television

which is not necessarily true for most women

in the rural areas who are content with family

and are more held by strong family ties.

The ratios of literate females to males in

the five municipalities of Enrique Villanueva,

Lazi, Maria, San Juan and Siquijor are less

than 1. It is only in Larena where the ratio

is greater than 1 (i.e., 1.03). These results

give an indication that there were less literate

females than males in Enrique Villanueva,

Lazi, Maria, San Juan and Siquijor

while, more literate females were recorded

in Larena.

Province of Siquijor

Proportion of Elective Seats held by Women in

Municipalities and Province

The proportion of seats held by women

in the province was 27.0 percent. Among

all the municipalities, Maria had the biggest

proportion of seats being held by

women at 35.4 percent, followed by Larena

with 33.5 percent and Enrique Villanueva

(32.1). The proportion is smallest

in Lazi at 21.7 percent. In the province of

Siquijor, political affairs are being controlled

mostly by men.

Figure 24. Map of Ratio of Literate Females to Males (15-24 Years Old), by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS

The Provincial Government encouraged

the organization of women groups especially

those that advocate for equal access

of women and men in the workplace, and

equal opportunities to participate and get

involved in political governance. In particular,

more women are being encouraged

to join Local Special Bodies. Women are

taught and empowered to assert their rights

and fight for their dignity. Information and

advocacy efforts are being encouraged to

protect women’s and children’s rights.

C. CHALLENGES

Figure 25. Proportion of Elective Seats held by Women in Municipalities and Province

1. Functionalize Gender and Development

(GAD) Focal Point. The biggest challenge

is to activate and functionalize the

GAD Focal Point.

2. Formulation of GAD Plan/Code. The

province has yet to formulate by law the

GAD Plan and Code but it believes that all

the development projects that it has implemented

under the 20 percent Development

Fund and even from the General Fund are

GAD-related projects.

3. Allocating 5 percent of the annual budget

for GAD. While the province recognizes

the need to allocate the 5 percent GADmandated

budget from its annual provincial

budget, it also realizes that said amount will

eat up much of its yearly budget.

4. Mainstreaming GAD into the PDPFP.

The challenge therefore is on how to really

institutionalize the GAD into the mainstream

of development.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

61


62

Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality

Target 4A. Reduce by two-thirds,

between 1990 and 2015, the under-five

mortality rate

A. Status And Trends

Proportion of Children Aged 0 to Less

Than 5 Years Old Who Died

The proportion of children aged 0 to less

than 5 years old who died to the total number

of children in this age bracket was 0.4 percent.

The proportion was 0.3 percent among males

and 0.4 percent among females. In rural ar-

Province of Siquijor

eas, 0.4 percent of children aged 0 to less than

5 years old died while there were no reported

death cases among this group of children in

the in the urban areas.

As to municipal performance, the proportion

of children’s deaths aged 0 to less

than 5 years old was highest in Maria at

0.7 percent while Lazi had no reported

cases of death among children of the same

age group. The proportion of male deaths

was highest in San Juan (0.7%), while the

highest proportion of female deaths was

recorded in Maria (0.9%).

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Proportion of Infants Who Died

The proportion of infant deaths to the total

number of infants in the province was 1.5

percent. About 1.4 percent of male infants

died while 1.6 percent of female infants died

during the reference period. Among all the

municipalities, Maria had the highest proportion

of infant deaths at 3.4 percent, followed

by Larena (2.2%), San Juan (2.2%)

and Siquijor (0.7%). No infant deaths were

reported in Enrique Villanueva and Lazi.

Figure 26. Map of Proportion of Children Aged 0 to Less Than 5 Years Old Who Died, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

63


64

The highest incidence of male infant

deaths was recorded in San Juan (3.4%)

while the highest incidence of female infant

deaths was in Maria (3.7%). No infant

deaths were recorded in urban areas. All

cases of infant deaths occurred in the rural

areas, with Maria getting the highest proportion

at 4.0 percent.

Province of Siquijor

Figure 27. Map of Proportion of Infants Who Died, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Proportion of Children Aged 1 to

Less Than 5 Years Who Died

Table 37 shows that the proportion of

children aged 1 to less than 5 years old

who died to the total number of children

aged 1 to less than 5 years old was 0.1

percent. Deaths among children in this age

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


group were recorded only in the rural areas.

Among all the municipalities, the proportion

was highest in San Juan (0.3%) while

no deaths were recorded among children

aged 1 to less than 5 years old in Lazi.

Figure 28. Map of Proportion of Children Aged 1 to Less Than 5 Years Old Who Died, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

65


66

Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health

Target 5.A: Reduce by three quarters,

between 1990 and 2015, the maternal

mortality ratio

A. Status And Trends

Proportion of Women Deaths Due to Pregnancy-

Related Causes

The number of women deaths due to

pregnancy-related causes in the province

was 3. In proportion to the total number of

pregnant women provincewide, it was 0.3

percent. Furthermore, the proportion of

women deaths due to pregnancy-related

causes was 0.9 percent in the urban areas

and 0.2 percent in the rural areas. Women

deaths due to pregnancy-related causes

were recorded only in the municipalities of

Larena (2) and Maria (1).

Province of Siquijor

Although the proportion of maternal

deaths in the province was low, problems

still exist. Poor health-seeking behavior,

and certain beliefs and practices of pregnant

clients have caused such problems.

Most of the birth deliveries, for one, still take

place at home despite massive campaigns

to have facility- based child deliveries. This

was primarily due to the lack of accredited

birthing facilities in the municipalities in the

whole island. Other considerations would

be financial which force mothers to deliver

at home. Some traditions or rituals that

were being practiced by the mothers and

their families also prevented them from delivering

in the hospital. Inspite of a memorandum

circular from the DOH regulating

the functions of hilots, they still continue to

assist in child deliveries registering about 1

percent of deliveries in 2007. Trained hilots

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


attended to 3 percent of the deliveries while

12 percent were attended to by doctors.

A great portion (i.e., about 87%) of the

deliveries, were performed by midwives at

home. Most of the infant deaths were due

to prenatal complications. It is important

to note that: (1) there is no BEmONC facility

in the province; (2) Siquijor Provincial

Hospital has yet to be accredited as a CEmONC

facility, though it has the capability

to perform caesarian section; (3) there is

no MPC-accredited RHUs; (4) there are no

birthing facilities at the BHS; and (5) private

sector collaboration has not been established.

Thus, in 2009, the province was

working at securing funds for the upgrading

and construction of identified health facilities,

hiring of personnel and procurement

of equipment, devices, medicines, supplies,

among others.

In 2008, the low quality of prenatal care

and post partum care were mainly due to

the low supply of Vitamin A and ferrous

sulfate with folic acid for pregnant mothers.

Moreover, low utilization of antenatal care

(ANC) services is also due to the lack of

or having the wrong information. The risks

and benefits associated with antenatal care

need to be effectively explained to mothers

Figure 29. Map of Proportion of Women Deaths Due to Pregnancy- Related Causes, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

67


68

such that it will encourage them to prioritize

ANC visits.

With the adoption of the Provincewide

Integrated Plan for Health for Siquijor in

2009, it is hoped that the province’s infrastructures,

especially for health, will be

funded and implemented.

B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS

The Provincial Government, through the

Integrated Provincial Health Office

(IPHO), is undertaking the following programs:

1. Family Planning as part of the continuum

of Maternal Newborn Child Health

Care & Nutrition (MNCHN). The benefits

that family planning offer to the adopters

of this method cannot be over emphasized.

With proper child phasing, health risks of

mothers could be minimized and deaths

prevented.

2. Full implementation of facility-based

delivery to all pregnant mothers. As of the

present, only the municipality of Larena has

that facility and caters only to the pregnant

women in the municipality.

3. Continuing advocacy to mothers to

complete their prenatal and post-natal

care.

4. Capability building of health personnel

on the different aspects of safe motherhood

and family planning.

5. Upgrading of health facilities for Ma-

Province of Siquijor

ternity Care Package especially in the rural

health centers.

6. Provision of quality micronutrient supplements

and supplies in the rural health

centers for pregnant mothers.

C. CHALLENGES

1. The primary challenge is to have adequate/sufficient

funds in order to implement

programs that would address the

concerns relating to women deaths related

to pregnancy. The need to improve access

to and utilization of critical maternal

health, family planning and other health

care services through behavior change

interventions and enhancement of health

systems deemed necessary in improving

maternal, newborn and child health and

nutrition requires massive information and

education campaign.

2. The health workers also need to be

equally capacitated and become knowledgeable

advocates. They need extensive

training.

3. Upgrading of the 6 Rural Health Units

for Maternity Care Package (MPC).

4. Upgrading of Lazi Medicare Community

Hospital as Basic Emergency Obstetrical

Neonatal Care (BEMONC) facility and

the Siquijor Provincial Hospital as Comprehensive

Emergency Obstetrical Care

(CEMONC) facility.

5. Securing of funds for the expansion of

the National Health Insurance System for

all indigent families.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Goal 6: Combat HIV/ AIDS,

Malaria and Other Diseases

Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and

begun to reverse the incidence of malaria

and other major diseases

A. Status And Trends

Prevalence and Death Rates Associated

with Tuberculosis

The province recorded 22 deaths associated

with tuberculosis. This translates to

about 27 deaths per 100,000 population.

Deaths associated with tuberculosis in the

urban areas was about 10 per 100,000

population which is lower as compared to

the rate in rural areas (i.e., 14 per 100,000

population).At the municipality level, most

of the deaths related to tuberculosis were

recorded in the rural areas. The highest

death rate among rural areas was recorded

in Siquijor (52 per 100,000 population).

Considering all households in both urban

and rural areas, the municipality of Siquijor

still registered the highest proportion

of tuberculosis-associated deaths at 49

per 100,000 population, while Lazi has the

lowest at about 6 per 100,000 population.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

69


70

B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS

1. Full implementation of the quality assurance

system for operation microscopy.

2. Creation of the TB Diagnostic Committee.

3. Strict observance of the National Tuberculosis

Program Treatment Protocol.

4. Accreditation of all rural health units as

TB-Directly Observed Treatment Services

(TB-DOTS)

5. Advocacy and Information, Education

and Communication (IEC) programs

6. Indigency Program of the National

Health Insurance Program

Province of Siquijor

C. CHALLENGES

1. The need to establish a Tuberculosis

Directly Observed Treatment Short Course

(TBDOTS) room and a Tuberculosis Microscopy

Laboratory

2. Training of newly hired health personnel

to capacitate them in the detection of

tuberculosis cases.

3. The importance of correct information

on the TB Program.

Figure 30. Map of Prevalence and Death Rates Associated with Tuberculosis, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of

sustainable development into country

policies and programs and reverse the

loss of environmental resources

A. STATUS AND TRENDS

Proportion of Land with Forest Cover

The province of Siquijor has a total

land area of 31,812.985 hectares. Of

this, 1,160.442 hectares or 3.7 percent

are covered with forest. Disaggregation

by municipality is presented in

Table 46. The municipality of Maria

(7.5%) had the largest forest covers

among all municipalities in the province,

followed by Larena (3.9%). This

may be due to the fact that Maria and

Larena have private tree farm operators

in their respective municipalities.

In Larena, the LGU also operates its

own tree farm under the management

of the Municipal Agricultural Office.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

71


72

Proportion of Households/Population with Access to

Safe Drinking Water

About 95.3 percent of households in the

province had access to safe drinking water.

Meanwhile, the proportion of the population

with access to safe drinking water to

the total provincial population was 95.1

percent. About 95.0 percent and 95.2 percent

of the male and female population,

respectively had access to safe drinking

water. In terms of urbanity, the figure was

higher in urban areas (96.6%) than in rural

areas (95.1%). This means that there were

more people in the urban areas than in the

rural areas who had access to safe drinking

water.

For the individual municipal performances,

the data show that Enrique Villanueva

had the highest proportion of households

Figure 31. Proportion of Land with Forest Cover, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2010

Source: DENR Siquijor Provincial Office

Province of Siquijor

who had access to safe drinking

water at 99.6 percent. The capital

town of Siquijor placed second

at 97.8 percent, followed by Lazi

which had a proportion of 95.9

percent. These three municipalities

registered higher proportions than

the province.

Enrique Villanueva operates its own water

system. It was also a recipient of the

KALAHI-CIDSS project which implemented

projects such as the construction of water

facilities. Siquijor and Lazi are under the Local

Water Utilities Administration (LWUA)–

Metro Siquijor Water District but only in

barangays near the poblacion area.

On the other hand, the 3 municipalities

of Maria (94.3%), Larena (94.1%) and

San Juan (90.3%) had proportions lower

than the provincial figure of 95.3 percent.

Maria and San Juan are also under the

LWUA while Larena operates its own water

system as an economic enterprise. At present,

Larena is improving its water system

through a loan facility with the Land Bank

of the Philippines so that it can service its

consumers better.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Proportion of Households/Population with Access

to Sanitary Toilet Facility

A total of 16,243 households in the province

or 84.2 percent have access to sanitary

toilet facility. The proportion of households

with access to sanitary toilets in the urban

areas was 92.8 percent while the proportion

in the rural areas was 83.0 percent. This is an

indication that there were more households

with access to sanitary toilets in the urban

areas than in the rural places.

The municipality with the highest percentage

of population with access to sanitary

toilet facility was Larena (93.5%), while

the municipality with the lowest access

was Lazi (73.5%)

Figure 32. Map of Proportion of Population with Access to Safe Drinking Water, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

73


74

Proportion of Households/Population

who are Informal Settlers

The proportion of households and

population who are informal settlers in

the province was 1.3 percent or a total

of 253 households with 1,095 population.

The proportion of households in the urban

and rural areas who are informal settlers

were both 1.3 percent.

Province of Siquijor

Among the municipalities, San Juan had

the highest percentage of informal settlers

at 2.3 percent while Siquijor had the

lowest at 0.6 percent. One of the reasons

why San Juan had the highest number of

informal settlers is that this area is a fishing

ground and most of the fishermen from

nearby Mindanao come to San Juan to

settle there temporarily.

Figure 33. Map of Proportion of Population with Access to Sanitary Toilet Facilities, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Proportion of Households/Population Who Live in

Makeshift Housing

In the province, the proportion of

households who live in makeshift housing

was 3.9 percent or 749 households.

Figure 34. Proportion of Households/Population who are Informal Settlers

In terms of the population, the proportion

was 3.4 percent. While only 2.4

percent of the households in the urban

areas were living in makeshift housing,

about 4.1 percent was recorded for rural

households.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

75


76

Proportion of Households/Population Living in

Inadequate Living Conditions

The proportion of households in the province

who live in inadequate housing conditions

was 22.9 percent or 4,415 households,

Province of Siquijor

which are mostly found in the rural areas as

shown in Table 31. The highest proportion

was in Lazi (31.1%), followed by San Juan

(30.2%), Maria (25.3%), Siquijor (17.3%),

Larena (15.1%) and Enrique Villanueva

Figure 35. Map of Proportion of Population who are Living in Makeshift Housing, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


(12.2%). These households were mostly in

the rural areas. Those who live in the rural

areas are mostly farmers and fisherfolks

who do not have enough income to build

decent homes and who do not have much

access to basic necessity.

B. Current Policies and Programs

The Sangguniang Panlalawigan had

passed and adopted the Siquijor Environmental

Code of 2008 which provided,

among others, the implementation of

reforestation programs and projects to

ensure that there are continued planting

activities, especially in the watershed and

denuded areas. Forest protection activities

are also undertaken so that illegal cutting

of trees, and slash-and-burn activities are

prevented.

To address global warming and climate

change, a project “Tree Nursery in Every

Barangay” was launched to provide a

Figure 36. Map of Population Living in Inadequate Living Conditions, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

77


78

steady supply of planting materials. This

would increase the forest cover and more

importantly, the water supply.

The provincial government vigorously

implements projects with focus on the

improvement and development of the

water systems. Funds come from the 20

percent Development Fund and from the

PDAF of the province’s congressman. At

least 15 percent of the 20 percent Development

Fund is allocated every year

for the repair/rehabilitation/expansion

of water supply coverage. Most projects

implemented are on construction of

water tanks, installation of submersible

pumps, provision of polyethylene pipes

for assistance to household connections,

and installation of shallow tube wells

and artesian wells.

To address the problem of access to

sanitary toilet facility, the province also allocated

funds for the procurement of toilet

bowls, including materials to ensure that the

toilet bowls are installed. The beneficiaries

are the indigent families identified by the So-

Province of Siquijor

cial Welfare and Development Office.4.The

province benefits from the Integrated

Coastal Resource Management Program of

the Government which addresses both the

conservation and preservation aspects of

coastal resources, and the livelihood and

enterprise development component for the

improvement of the conditions of the population

living in the coastal areas.

C. CHALLENGES

The province is faced with the challenges

of tapping the available water resources in

the island and of coming up with a viable

island water system that would be able to

provide sufficient water to all residents. With

the water problem solved, the other problems

related to it like sanitation will likewise

be eventually solved.

However, there are not enough experts

in the province who could make a project

design for an island water development

system. Moreover, the province does not

have the funds to hire a consultant for this.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Goal 8: Develop a Global

Partnership for Development

Target 8. F: In cooperation with the

private sector, make available the

benefits of new technologies, especially

information and communications

A. Status And Trends

Proportion of Households with

Landline/Telephone Lines

Based in the record of telephone companies

operating in Siquijor (including TMSI/

PLDT, Globe, and Smart Communication.),

the proportion of households in the province

with land lines/telephone lines was 4.1

percent or 719 households. Larena (17.2%)

had the highest proportion of households

with land lines while the municipalities of

Enrique Villanueva and Maria had no landline

connections.

Source: CBMS Survey 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

79


80

Province of Siquijor

Figure 37. Map of Households with Landline/Telephone Lines, by Municipality, Province of Siquijor, 2006

Proportion of Households with Cellphones

The proportion of households with cellphones

in the province was 68.8 percent

representing 11,945 households. The

municipality with the highest proportion

is Siquijor (81.0%), followed by Larena

(72.0%). At the bottom is Enrique Villanueva

with an estimate of only 50.0 percent.

Source: CBMS Survey 2006

Figure 38. Map of Proportion of Households with Cellphones, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Proportion of Households with Computers

The proportion of households with computers

is 6.0 percent which is equivalent to

1,042 households. Larena had the highest

proportion of households with computers at

10.4 percent or 250 households. Again, the

lowest proportion is recorded in Enrique Villanueva

with 2.1 percent or 25 households.

Source: CBMS Survey 2006

Figure 39. Map of Proportion of Households with Computers, by Municipality, Siquijor, 2006

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

81


82

Province of Siquijor

Part 3. Meeting

the 2015 Challenge

Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger

is an enormous task which every administration

or government faces. More than

anything, the problem of poverty and hunger

is a primary concern that needs to be

immediately looked into. This is very much

reflected in the province’s priorities, especially

in the Economic Development Aspects

of its development agenda. Economic Development

Sector posted the highest share

in terms of budget requirements.

The present provincial administration realizes

this truth. The Government therefore

needs to capacitate and provide capability

interventions to the poor segments of

society to enable them to rise above their

present “extremely poor conditions” and

be able to live decent lives. The programs,

projects and activities identified and prioritized

are mostly those that directly provide

capabilities and skills to create livelihood

opportunities and allow the people to earn

incomes.

The rest of the MDGs are achievable once

the poor get extra income. Henceforth, the

issues on education health, malnutrition,

and maternal care problems may be properly

addressed. On primary education, the

programs and projects are mainly on the

repair/rehabilitation of school buildings

and classrooms. The province has enough

school buildings and classrooms as well as

teachers until 2015. The province’s classroom-pupil

ratio is 1:22 while its teacherpupil

ratio is 1:21.

Gender equality issues are best addressed

through massive advocacy. With

regard to the issue of women having seats

in political positions, the province sees to

it that women are given equal opportunities

but eventually, of course, the will of the

electorate will prevail.

Child mortality is actually low in the province.

With massive efforts to convert the 6

RHUs as BeMONC facilities, and strong

implementation of child care programs,

child mortality will definitely decrease over

the years until hopefully, the mortality rate

becomes zero in 2015. The same is true with

maternal deaths. Implementation of maternal

health care package will fast-track the

reduction of maternal deaths.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


A. Priority Program and Policy Responses

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

83


84

Province of Siquijor

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


B. Financing the MDGs

C.Monitoring Progress Toward the Attainment

of the MDGs

By way of monitoring the progress of

the attainment of the Millennium Development

Goals (MDGs), the province will

conduct in early 2011 the second round

of the CBMS Survey. The provincial government

would have wanted to do the

second round this year (2010) but funds

have already been fully appropriated

for several other programs and projects,

necessitating the postponement of the

second round.

As in the first round, the municipalities

and barangays will be requested to put

up at least some counterpart funds and

human resource counterparts. At the

same time, the MDG Provincial Team

will endorse a proposal to the Provincial

Development Council to approve

the conduct of a CBMS survey every 3

years even after 2015.

The MDG Team will also endorse to

the Local Development Council (LDC)

the adoption of the CBMS survey results

as the benchmark data for the

province and that they be considered

the basis for the identification of

projects to be implemented in their

respective barangays and municipalities.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

85


86

Province of Siquijor

Part 4. Conclusion and

Recommendations

The 2006 CBMS Survey proved to be a

good and more accurate source of information

on the state of the living conditions

of the people of Siquijor considering that it

covers all households in the province. The

results could be the basis for prioritizing

interventions that would help them achieve

their MDG targets. For instance, results

showed that more than half of the population

in Siquijor lived below the poverty

threshold which confirms that there are still

many poor residents in the province. Most

of them also did not have enough income

to meet their basic food needs. Furthermore,

the unemployment rate in the province is

relatively high (18.0%). Given these, government

should implement programs that

would address poverty, unemployment and

hunger that would lead to the attainment

of the MDG targets of eradicating extreme

poverty. Interventions that would address

problems on education and inadequacy

of living conditions should also be implemented.

During program implementation,

corruption should also be eradicated so

that all things will take their proper places.

The major recommendation for the Provincial

Government is to prioritize, through the

Provincial Development Council, the funding

of the MDG Funding Requirements so

that the province can implement all the suggested

programs and policies that would

translate the MDG targets into realities.

The following are some specific recommendations

based on the results discussed

in this report:

1. Exercise of strong political will of the

Executive and Legislative. This is particularly

in terms of implementing policies that would

facilitate the achievement of the MDGS targets.

Priorities should be given on sectors

which need the interventions based on the

available data.

2. Enact policies and ordinances in the

LGU that would eliminate corruption. This

is very important to ensure that the funds

will be judiciously utilized to implement

comprehensive basic health care services,

undertake viable and profitable livelihood

projects. For instance, there should be

improvements in the procurement system

within the LGUs.

3. Implement agriculture development

programs that can be sustained. Given the

fact that Siquijor is still predominantly agriculture-based,

with 52.0 percent of its land

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


devoted to agriculture production (e.g.,

corn and rice production, coconut production),

agricultural development should be

given attention. Although there have been

several projects in the past which addressed

agricultural development, a common problem

is the lack of equity among LGUs in

order to sustain the projects. Hence, this

should be considered in designing any agricultural

development project.

4. Improve revenue generation and collection

strategies. One of the things that

should be done is updating of the Tax Maps,

which will reflect the updated valuation of

properties which hopes to increase revenue

collection. Better collection strategies

should also be implemented.

5. Improve access to education. It is generally

recognized that educational status is

directly related to poverty. Hence, addressing

the problems on access to education

could help improve the living conditions of

the population in the long-run. The reasons

for non-enrollment of children should be

explored further and the root cause of the

problem should be addressed.

6. Create jobs and improve opportunities

for employment. This can be done through the

conduct of livelihood trainings (e.g., making

souvenirs) and seminars (e.g., for tour guides).

7. Improve capabilities and knowledge.

This would include trainings that improve

computer literacy.

8. Encourage women participation in

governance. Aside from participation in

elections, women shall be encouraged to

become members of the different councils

and committees in the province. This shall

start by organizing a women’s organization

in the province which advocates equal

opportunities for men and women. Members

of the organization could be part of

consultative meetings and may even be

elected as members of the local councils

and committees.

9. Conduct a second round of CBMS

survey in the province. The conduct of another

round of CBMS survey in the province

will help assess the impact of government

interventions. The data collected will also

allow the province to monitor its progress

in attaining the MDG goals.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

87


88

A. Preparation of Provincial

Millennium Development Goals

(MDGs) Report Using CBMS Data

1. Background and Justification

The availability of good statistics and the capacity of governments, donors

and international organizations to systematically measure, monitor and

report on progress in all social and economic spheres are at the heart of

development policy and the achievement of the MDGs.

Province of Siquijor

EXPLANATORY TEXT

The Millennium Development Goals Report 2007

While progress toward the attainment of

the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

is systematically being measured, monitored

and reported at the national level,

clearly, there must be a parallel effort at the

local level to bring the MDGs into the mainstream

of the local development agenda.

This is especially called for under decentralized

regimes where local government

units (LGUs) are at the forefront of policy

or program execution. Unfortunately, however,

national statistical systems have yet to

respond adequately to the demand for micro-level

statistics that can aid LGUs in their

poverty alleviation efforts, as noted in a joint

World Bank and Asian Development Bank

report, to wit: “the most comprehensive and

consistent comparative subnational data

(are) is at the regional level although this

is simply an administrative level of government

that has no responsibilities for delivery

of social services. More data (are) is gradually

becoming available at the provincial

level, but not at lower levels which are at

the frontline of efforts to reduce poverty .”

In response, the Philippine Government

has embarked on an initiative to localize

the MDGs using the Community-Based

Monitoring System (CBMS). In 2005, the

National Statistical Coordination Board

(NSCB) issued Resolution No. 6 “recognizing

and enjoining support to the CBMS

as a tool for strengthening the statistical

system at the local level that will generate

statistics for monitoring and evaluation of

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


development plans, including the progress

of the local governments in attaining the

Millennium Development Goals.”

Meanwhile, several approaches are being

carried out by the Department of the

Interior and Local Government (DILG) in

capacitating LGUs to contribute to the attainment

of the MDGs and uplifting the

quality of life of their constituents. These

interventions are particularly stated in DILG

Memorandum Circular (MC) No. 2004-152

“Guide to Local Government Units in the

Localization of the MDGs” dated November

2004, which provides for the: (a) menu

of Programs, Projects and Activities (PPAs)

per MDG goal and target to guide LGUs

in responding to the MDGs; (b) diagnosis

of the local situation using existing local

indicators and monitoring system; and (c)

call for documentation and replication of

good practices.

The CBMS that is being implemented in

the Philippines is indeed well-positioned to

track progress toward the attainment of the

MDGs at the local level. For one, a number

of indicators being monitored in the CBMS

are included in the indicators for monitoring

the progress in achieving the MDGs.

Moreover, CBMS is intended to be done on

a regular basis and can therefore be used

for updating MDG indicators and facilitating

preparation of regular MDG reports.

The CBMS can also be used as basis by

national and local governments for costing

and identifying appropriate interventions

needed to achieve the MDGs as well as

for resource allocation. Finally, given the

large spatial disparities, the CBMS can

help identify where focus has to be given

to achieve the targets.

The CBMS’ role in localizing the MDGs

was recognized during an Experts Group

Meeting on Localizing the MDGs held on

November 28, 2006 at the United Nations

Economic and Social Commission

for Asia and the Pacific (UN ESCAP) in

Bangkok, Thailand. The Committee on

Poverty Reduction composed of 24 nation-states

agreed that the CBMS could

complement the official data collection

activities of national statistical offices

and improve the availability of the MDG

and other indicators at the local level.

It also agreed that localizing the MDGs

through CBMS would help integrate the

goals into the national development

strategies. It therefore urged other developing

countries to initiate and implement

similar innovative systems that

would help localize the MDGs.

As of May 12, 2010, CBMS is being implemented

in 59 provinces (32 of which

are province-wide), 687 municipalities

and 43 cities in the Philippines, covering

17,848 barangays all over the country

(see Figure 40). A good number of

these LGUs have already consolidated

their CBMS databases and are wellpositioned

to generate their own local

MDG Reports. For one thing, CBMS collects

information that reflects the multifaceted

nature of poverty. In addition,

data generated by the CBMS can be

broken down by municipal, barangay,

purok and even down to the household

level, thereby presenting meaningful information

and enabling deeper analysis

of the poverty situation. Moreover, the

CBMS can generate color-coded maps

showing the poverty status at each geopolitical

level.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

89


90

2. Objectives

Figure 40. CBMS Coverage in the Philippines (as of May 12, 2010)

This technical collaboration aims to capacitate

nine provincial governments to

systematically measure, monitor and report

their status with respect to the MDGs. The

operative word here is status since the provinces

used their first round of CBMS data

in formulating this report. These provinces

include Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur,

Biliran, Camarines Norte, Eastern Samar,

Marinduque, Romblon, Sarangani and

Siquijor. The abovementioned provinces

were selected since they were among the

first LGUs that were able to consolidate

their CBMS databases at the provincial

level. The CBMS Census was conducted in

these provinces between 2005 and 2007

(for detailed information on census years,

see Table 56).

In particular, the technical collaboration was

carried out to meet the following objectives:

Province of Siquijor

(i) to track the status on the attainment

of the MDGs in the identified

provinces; (ii) to assist these provinces

in preparing their Provincial MDG

Reports; and (iii) to increase local

awareness on how these reports can

bridge local and national development

strategies.

3. Expected Technical Collaboration Outputs

The project is expected to produce the

following outputs: (i) mentored technical

staff of the nine CBMS-partner provinces

on how to prepare Provincial MDG Reports,

and (ii) Provincial MDG Reports of the nine

provinces.

4. Capacity-Building

The capacity-building of the Provincial

MDG Teams consists of three workshops

and one-on-one mentoring process.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Processing of CBMS Data to Generate MDG

Indicators. This 2-day activity was designed

to provide participants with: (i) a deeper

appreciation of the importance of the CBMS

in benchmarking/tracking local progress

toward the attainment of the MDGs; (ii) a

satisfactory level of knowledge in processing

CBMS data to facilitate analyses of

accomplishments versus targets; (iii) some

basic skills on how to incorporate MDG

targets in local development plans and facilitate

corresponding increase in budget

allocation for MDG-responsive PPAs; and

(iv) tools and methodologies in formulating

MDG reports.

Preparation of Provincial MDG Reports

Using CBMS Data. This 2-day activity was

designed to build on the gains of the first

workshop by providing technical assistance

to the Project Teams in (i) processing CBMS

data to generate the additional MDG indicators

and consolidating their data at the

provincial level, (ii) benchmarking/tracking

their progress toward the attainment of the

MDGs , (iii) reviewing partial provincial

reports based on the indicators generated

using the first workshop, and (iv) finalizing

list of indicators to be included in the report.

Presentation and Critiquing of Provincial

MDG Reports. This 3-day activity was

designed to finalize the Provincial MDG

Reports and at the same time provide an

opportunity for an exchange of views and

possible harmonization of approaches as

well as for the provision of consistent guidance

to all the Provincial MDG Teams. The

expected output from this workshop was the

complete manuscript of the MDG Report

which already incorporates the comments/

inputs of the assigned mentor and resource

persons who were invited to share their expertise

during the workshop.

Mentor/Mentee Relationship. In order to

ensure a sustained and focused mentoring

program, a mentor from the Research Team

of the CBMS Network was matched to one

Provincial MDG Team.

The assigned mentor was expected to

set a specific time each week to interact

with his/her Provincial MDG Team and

discuss the following: (1) review progress

in drafting the Provincial MDG Report, (2)

set/identify targets for the coming weeks,

and (3) draw up an action plan to achieve

those targets. In addition, the mentor was

expected to assist his/her assigned MDG

Team in identifying and solving problem

areas.

Meanwhile, Dr. Celia M. Reyes, Anne

Bernadette E. Mandap and Marsmath A.

Baris, Jr. reviewed all partial and final reports.

The technical staff of the NEDA Social

Development Staff headed by Director Erlinda

Capones also reviewed and provided

valuable comments on the reports.

B. CBMS-MDG Indicators

Unless otherwise indicated, all the statistical

tables, graphs, charts and poverty maps

presented in this report were generated using

the CBMS methodology.

The MDG Indicators, which were estimated

using CBMS data, are presented in

Table 55.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

91


92

Box 1. Community-Based

Monitoring System

The CBMS is an organized way of collecting

data at the local level to be used

by local governments, national government

agencies, nongovernment organizations

(NGOs) and civil society for

planning, budgeting, and implementing

local development programs as well as

for monitoring and evaluating their performance.

It is a tool for improved local governance

and democratic decision-making

that promotes greater transparency and

accountability in resource allocation.

Province of Siquijor

It involves the following steps:

Step 1 – Advocacy/organization

Step 2 – Data collection and field editing

Step 3 – Data encoding and map digitization

Step 4 – Data consolidation, databasebuilding

& poverty mapping

Step 5 – Data validation and community

consultation

Step 6 – Knowledge (database) management

Step 7 – Plan formulation

Step 8 – Dissemination, implementation,

and monitoring

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Table 55. The CBMS-MDG Indicators and their Definition

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

93


94

Table 55. (Continued)

Province of Siquijor

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


Table 55. (Continued)

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

95


96

C. Poverty and Food Thresholds

Official poverty thresholds computed by the

NSCB were used and, in some cases, updated

to the reference period for the CBMS data by

inflating these thresholds using the appropriate

Consumer Price Index (CPI). The poverty and

food thresholds used for each province are presented

in Table 56.

D. Authority for the CBMS Census

The NSCB has issued Resolution No. 6 (2005)

which recognizes and enjoins support to the

CBMS as a tool for strengthening the statistical

system at the local level. It also directs the NSCB

Technical Staff to initiate and coordinate an advocacy

program for the adoption of the CBMS

by the LGUs, through the Regional Statistical

Coordination Committees (RSCCs), the technical

arm of the NSCB Executive Board in the regions.

The NSCB has also approved the CBMS Survey Instruments

through NSCB Approval No. DILG-0903-01.

Province of Siquijor

E. Survey Operations

All survey operations were undertaken under

the supervision of the CBMS Technical

Working Groups (TWGs) at the Provincial

and Municipal Levels. They identified the

local personnel who were trained as enumerators

and field supervisors. Technical

assistance was provided by the PEP-CBMS

Network Coordinating Team, the Bureau of

Local Government Development (BLGD)

and Regional Office IV-B of the Department

of the Interior and Local Government

(DILG), National Anti-Poverty Commission

(NAPC), National Economic and Development

Authority (NEDA) Regional Office IV-B

and the Institute for Democratic Participation

in Governance (IDPG).

Training was mainly conducted at two levels.

The fi rst level training (Training of Trainors) is

conducted for members of the TWGs. This is

usually conducted by members of the research

staff of the CBMS Network and CBMS accred-

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data


ited trainors from the DILG, NAPC and NEDA.

Meanwhile, a second level training (Training

of Enumerators) is conducted for enumerators

who are usually composed of barangay health

workers and students. The members of the

TWG acted as trainors in this training.

F. Data Processing System

The data processing software used under

this project includes the CBMS Data Encoding

System, the CBMS-Natural Resources

Database and Stata.

The CBMS encoding system uses CSPro

(Census and Survey Processing), a software

developed by the United States Bureau of

Census for entering, editing, tabulating,

and disseminating data from censuses

and surveys. The CSPro-based (Census

and Survey Processing) Encoding System

converts survey data into electronic data.

It produces text files (ASCII) described by

data dictionaries, which adds flexibility to

the output data. This feature facilitates the

interface between the CBMS data and other

database systems and statistical softwares.

The CBMS Mapping system employs the

Natural Resources Database (NRDB) for

CBMS-based poverty mapping and for storing

and displaying household- and individual- level

information, The CBMS-NRDB is capable of

creating and storing spatial (shapefi les) and

non-spatial (texts and numbers) data as well

as generating maps, reports and graphs ideal

for presentation and analysis of poverty attributes

in the community. This has signifi cantly

addressed the need for a simple yet powerful

and free geographically-oriented database.

Meanwhile, the CBMS data presented in

this report through tables, graphs, charts

and poverty maps were processed using Stata,

a general-purpose statistical software package

created in 1985 by StataCorp.

These softwares were provided for free to the

10 provinces which formulated their reports under

this project.

G. CBMS Poverty Maps

The poverty map for each indicator shows the

provincial map disaggregated by municipality.

A simple color scheme is used (green, light green,

pink and red) to represent the four ranges of data

for each indicator. Each indicator, however, used

a different range relative to the provincial data.

H. Limitations of the Data

While observations are taken from the entire

population, the user of the data presented in this

report should bear in mind that the municipalities

in two provinces (Eastern Samar and Biliran) were

not able to collect their data over the same period.

For instance, CBMS was piloted in a number of municipalities

in Eastern Samar and Biliran in 2005 and

was implemented provincewide in 2006. Moreover,

due to some diffi culties, the CBMS census could

not be carried out in 1 barangay in Romblon, and

2 barangays each in Camarines Norte and Eastern

Samar. Moreover, data from a number of barangays

in Sarangani are still not available.

Estimates on poverty and subsistence incidence

may also be affected by under- and/or over-reporting

of income or reluctance on the part of the

respondents to reveal their true levels of income.

As in other surveys, the CBMS enumerators may

also have encountered interview non-response

and item non-response.

Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Siquijor

97


Available in this series:

NATIONAL REPORT

• Philippines Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals 2010

PROVINCIAL REPORTS

•Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data

Province of Agusan del Norte

•Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data

Province of Agusan del Sur

•Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data

Province of Biliran

•Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data

Province of Camarines Norte

•Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data

Province of Eastern Samar

•Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data

Province of Marinduque

• Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data

Province of Romblon

•Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data

Province of Siquijor

•Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data

Province of Sarangani

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines