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IPOL_STU(2017)583132_EN

IPOL_STU(2017)583132_EN

ABOUT THE PUBLICATION

ABOUT THE PUBLICATION This research paper was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs and commissioned, overseen and published by the Policy Department for Citizen's Rights and Constitutional Affairs. Policy Departments provide independent expertise, both in-house and externally, to support European Parliament committees and other parliamentary bodies in shaping legislation and exercising democratic scrutiny over EU external and internal policies. To contact the Policy Department for Citizen's Rights and Constitutional Affairs or to subscribe to its newsletter please write to: poldep-citizens@europarl.europa.eu Research Administrator Responsible Sarah SY Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs European Parliament B-1047 Brussels E-mail: poldep-citizens@europarl.europa.eu AUTHOR(S) Elspeth GUILD, Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels, Belgium Cathryn COSTELLO, Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford, UK Violeta MORENO-LAX, Queen Mary University of London, UK With research assistance from: Christina VELENTZA, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece Daniela VITIELLO, Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy Natascha ZAUN, Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford, UK LINGUISTIC VERSIONS Original: EN Manuscript completed in (March 2017) © European Union, 2017 This document is available on the internet at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/supporting-analyses DISCLAIMER The opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament. Reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes are authorised, provided the source is acknowledged and the publisher is given prior notice and sent a copy.

CONTENTS CONTENTS 3 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 5 LIST OF TABLES 6 LIST OF FIGURES 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7 INTRODUCTION 11 CHAPTER 1: THE COUNCIL’S RELOCATION DECISIONS 17 1.1. Examining Relocation according to the Council Decisions and Dublin III Take Charge Provisions 17 1.2. Relocation outside Dublin III Take Charge Provisions and within the Relocation Decisions 19 1.3. Relocation rights and obligations and procedures 21 1.4. Modifications introduced by the second Relocation Decision and the amending Decision 22 CHAPTER 2: RELOCATION IN PRATICE 24 2.1. Compliance, semi-compliance and non-compliance amongst States obliged to relocate 25 2.2. Explaining good and bad performances in relocating states 29 2.2.1. Political Support for relocation 29 2.2.2. Administrative and reception capacity 32 2.2.3. Reception Challenges for Vulnerable Asylum Seekers 34 2.2.4. Perceptions regarding security threats posed by applications for relocation 34 2.3. Relocation in practice in Italy and Greece 35 2.3.1. External Challenges from Receiving States 36 2.3.2. Local Challenges in Greece 38 2.3.3. Local Challenges in Italy 39 2.4. Impact on Asylum Seekers in Greece and Italy 40 2.5. Normative Challenges 41 2.6. Conclusions and Recommendations 42 CHAPTER 3: THE ROLE OF THE HOTSPOT APPROACH IN RELOCATION 44 3.1. Overarching rationale of the hotspots-relocation tandem 44 3.2. Practical role of the hotspot approach in relocation from Italy 45 3.3. Practical role of the hotspot approach in relocation from Greece 48 3.3.1. Before the EU-Turkey Statement 48 3

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