Alternatively, these estimates are used to generate welfare ratios. 12 These ratios

represent the number of “bare bones” or “respectable” baskets the average family

could purchase, thus capturing differences in purchasing power parities across time

and space.

We prefer this direct methodology over the indirect alternative which relies on

existing guesstimates of real GDP back-casted using an indirect ‘projection’ approach

à la Maddison, which invokes the implausible assumption that consumption patterns

and relative prices today are similar to those of the early nineteenth century (see

Lindert 2016 for an overview of this method and its shortcomings). Instead, we

12 We assume that those with monthly and annual contracts (like male farm labor and female

domestics) worked full time. Thus, if they were paid monthly, we assume they worked 12 months per

year. These workers on farms and stations were also paid food and (extremely poor) housing in kind.

Coghlan reports detailed commentary on the composition and value of these in-kind payments and we

include them. There is a large literature on nineteenth century US and Britain that supports our working

days assumptions for Australia. On the US, see Lebergott (1964). We assume that those with weekly

contracts also had more stable employment, working 50 weeks per year (with two weeks of vacation).

The urban working class majority worked on day rates. According to Baxter (1868, pp. 46-9), the

British working class in the 1860s worked 10-20 percent less than full-time. The 20 percent applied to

“casual” employment as common labor, navies, wharf laborers, and pick, shovel, and carting workers

on construction sites. The 10 percent referred to skilled in the building trades, metal trades, artisans,

and other skilled workers. Writing a half century later, Bowley (1919, pp. 28-30) agreed with Baxter.

An excellent and comprehensive survey can be found in Boyer (2016, pp. 3-12). Lindert and

Williamson (2016a) argue the same when constructing their social tables for the United States in 1800,

1850, and 1860. It seems to us that there is little reason to expect that the Australian working class was

any different. Thus, taking a full-time year as 313 days (with only Sunday at rest), we estimate the

following: Baxter's 20 percent = 0.2*313 = 62.6 implying 250 actual days worked per year for

unskilled common labor on daily rates; Baxter's 10 percent = 0.1*313 = 31.3 implying 280 actual days

worked per year for more skilled workers also on daily rates.

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