worker (y): w/V rose by 2.12 times and y/V by 2.41 times. 33 Once again, we find no

evidence of rising inequality.

5.3 Changing Gaps between the Middle and the Bottom

One index of changing inequality – when better data are absent – is to

compare trends in GDP per worker (the middle of the income distribution) with trends

in the annual earnings of unskilled workers (near the bottom of the income

distribution). 34 Table 9 reports the evidence for New South Wales over the five

decades from the 1830s to the 1870s. The table suggests that very little happened to

the distribution of income in Australia during these years of wool boom and gold

rush. The average unskilled earnings (non-farm unskilled = urban common labor and

all unskilled = urban common labor + farm labor + domestics) are taken from

Coghlan (1918) and refer to New South Wales. The “Australian” GDP figures are

from Matthew Butlin and his collaborators (Butlin et al. 2015) when for the 1830s

New South Wales included what became Victoria (in 1850) and Queensland (in

1859). The table reports nominal and deflated figures, and those deflators require

some discussion. It should be stressed that the implicit price deflator for GDP is likely

to rise faster over time than the CPI for ordinary workers. In fact our Coghlan-based

33 It appears that this downward trend in V/w turned around after the 1860s when it rose steeply to

about 1905 (Leigh 2013: Figure 3, p. 27).

34 This index was proposed and used by Williamson (1999, 2002), applied to Latin America a few

years later (Prados de la Escosura 2007) and it has been used frequently since. It must be said that until

this paper, it has been used to compare real GDP per capita performance with real unskilled wages.

Since the Australian labor participation rate fell quite dramatically over time, from 0.54 in the maledominated

1830s to 0.40 in the more female-friendly 1870s, income per capita growth understates the

rise in incomes per income earner at the middle.

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