and lamp oil prices were not available for New South Wales, hence we utilized those

for Tasmania.

Rent was taken as 5 percent of total expenditure for the “bare-bone” basket following

Allen’s method (and consistent with the small huts in which the Australian poor lived)

and hence to allow for comparability with living standards in other countries. For the

“respectable” basket, rent equals 11 percent of total expenditure, as reported for 1861

in McLean and Woodland (1992). While the “respectable” rent share refers to 1861

Australia, it appears that a unitary elasticity best describes house rent expenditure

across late nineteenth century Australia and thus supporting our expectation that the

expenditure share was stable over time.

A2. Sources and methods for constructing the living standards for assigned convicts

in the 1830s.

The consumption basket for assigned convicts is reported in Coghlan (1918: vol. 1,

pp. 182-3) and we apply 1830s prices (see above) to the quantities consumed. Excel:

Pre-1830s w & p.xlsx; 1830s w & p data.xlsx.

A3. Sources and methods for constructing estimates of wages and annual earnings.

The wage data for various occupations are from the following sources (where we

average within occupation across each decade and source):

Coghlan (1918, vol. 1, pt. ii, Ch. III): common labor, skilled in the building trades

(NSW town, 1820s & 1830s); mechanic, domestic (male), mason, cook (male), wharf

labor, skilled mechanic, blacksmith, wheelwright (NSW town, 1820s); farm labor,

artisan, female labor (NSW town, 1830s); common mechanic, domestic (male),

mason, skilled mechanic (TAS town, 1820s); common labor (male and female) (TAS

town, 1830s); farm labor (NSW countryside, 1820s & 1830s; TAS countryside

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