1830s); leading hand, bailiff, dairywoman (NSW countryside, 1820s); artisan, skilled

in the building trades (NSW countryside, 1830s & TAS town, 1830s). Excel: Pre-

1830s w & p.xlsx, 1830s w & p data.xlsx.

Barnard (1856). Statistical account of Van Diemen's Land, from the date of its first

occupation by the British nation in 1804 to the end of the year 1848: bricklayer,

carpenter, mason, plumber (TAS 1820s & 1830s). Excel: Tasmania p & w 1804-1841.

For daily and weekly workers who received food rations and lodging (when specified

by the original source) we increased their annual income by: weekly food rations,

comprising (as reported by Coghlan) flour (10 lb); meat (10 lb); tea (2 oz); sugar

(1lb); soap (2 oz) and salt (2 oz) priced according to the sources specified above; and

lodging equal to 11 percent of total income, following McLean and Woodland (1992,

p. 20).

For the calculation of annual incomes, we assumed that those with monthly and

annual contracts (like male farm labor, shepherds, and female domestics) worked full

time. Thus, if they were paid monthly, we assume they worked 12 months per year.

We also assumed that those with weekly contracts also had more stable employment,

working 50 weeks per year (with two weeks of vacation). Furthermore, the urban

working class majority were on day rates. Adopting Baxter’s method (see footnote 12

in the main text for details), we let the working class work 10-20 percent less than

full-time: the 20 percent applies to “casual” employment as common labor, navies,

wharf laborers, and pick, shovel, and carting workers on construction sites. The 10

percent applies to skilled in the building trades, metal trades, artisans, and other

skilled workers. Thus, taking a full-time year as 313 days (with only Sunday at rest),

we estimated the following: Baxter's 20 percent = 0.2*313 = 62.6 implying 250 actual

days worked per year for unskilled common labor on daily rates; Baxter's 10 percent

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