Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Components. - Esa

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Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Components. - Esa

Space Radiation Effects

in Electronic Components.

Len Adams

Professor Associate, Brunel Univ.

Consultant to Spur Electron.

For: PA and Safety Office.

May 2003


Space Radiation Effects in

Electronic Components

Structure of Presentation

1. Space radiation environment

2. Radiation effects in electronic components.

3. Radiation testing

4. Use of commercial components

5. Guide to comrad-uk comrad uk resource

6. Open discussion


Space Radiation Environment

�� Complex and Dynamic

Overview

�� Trapped Radiation – ‘Belts Belts’ of energetic electrons

and protons

�� Cosmic Rays (Energetic Ions)

�� Solar Event protons


Space Radiation Environment

Trapped Radiation

�� Electrons and Protons are trapped in the

Earths magnetic field, forming the ‘Van Van

Allen’ Allen belts.

�� Electrons up to 7 MeV

�� Protons up to a few hundred MeV.

MeV


Electron Belts


Proton Belts


Space Radiation Environment

Transiting Radiation

�� Very high energy Galactic Cosmic Rays

originating from outside the solar system

�� Solar Events. (X-rays, (X rays, protons and heavy

ions)


Space Radiation Environment

Galactic Cosmic Rays

�� 85% Protons, 14% Alpha particles, 1%

Heavy Nuclei.

�� Energies up to GeV

�� Expressed in terms of Linear Energy

Transfer (LET) for radiation effects

purposes


Space Radiation Environment

Solar Flares

�� Occur mostly near first and last year of

solar maximum

�� Solar Events, composed mainly of protons

with minor constituent of alpha particles,

heavy ions and electrons


Space Radiation Environment

South Atlantic Anomaly

�� Distortion of the earth’s earth s magnetic field

allows the proton belts to extend to very

low altitudes in the region of South America

�� Low Earth Orbiting satellites will be

exposed to high energy protons in this

region


Space Station. 1 year dose-depth curve.


Space Station . Non-Ionizing Energy Loss spectrum.


Space Station. Orbit averaged LET spectra


Space Station. Proton flux as a function of orbital time.


Radiation Effects in Components

(1) IONIZATION

Mechanism : Charge generation, trapping and

build-up build up in insulating layers.

Due to: Electrons, Protons.

Main Effects: Parameter drift. Increased

leakage currents. Loss of noise immunity.

Eventual functional failure


Radiation Effects in Components

(2) DISPLACEMENT

DAMAGE

Mechanism: Disruption of crystal lattice

Due to: Protons

Main Effects: Reduced gain, increased ‘ON ON’

resistance, reduced LED output, reduced

charge transfer efficiency in CCDs. CCDs.


Radiation Effects in Components

(3) SINGLE EVENT

Mechanism: Dense path of localised

ionization from a single particle ‘hit hit’

Due to: Cosmic rays, high energy protons.

Main Effects: Transient current pulses, variety

of transient and permanent ‘Single Single Event

Effects

Effects


Single Event Current Pulse


SEU Mechanism in CMOS bistable


Radiation Effects in Components

(4) Single Event Effects in detail

Latch-up. Latch up. Permanent, potentially destructive

Bit flips (‘Single ( Single Event Upset’) Upset ) in bistables

High Anomalous Current (HAC), ‘snap snap-back back’

Heavy Ion Induced Burn-out Burn out in power MOS

Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR)

Single Event Transient, noise pulses, false outputs

‘Soft Soft Latch’ Latch (device or system ‘lock lock up’)

up


Typical Single Event Transient Requirements.

�� Output voltage swing of rail voltage to

ground and ground to rail voltage.

�� Duration:

15 microseconds for Op-Amps. Op Amps.

10 microseconds for comparators, voltage

regulators and voltage references.

100 nanoseconds for opto-couplers.

opto couplers.


Radiation Testing

Specifications and Standards

�� Total Ionizing Dose:

SCC-22900 SCC 22900 (ESA-SCC) (ESA SCC)

Mil Std 883E Method 1019.6 (DESC)

ASTM F1892 (includes ELDRS)

�� Single Event:

SCC-29500 SCC 29500 (ESA-SCC) (ESA SCC)

EIA/JEDEC Standard EIA/JESD57

ASTM F1192


Radiation Testing

Important Considerations

�� Choice of radiation source.

�� Specifications and Standards

�� Worst case or application bias

�� Test software

�� Number of samples

�� Traceability

�� Databasing


Radiation Testing

Choice of Source

Total Ionizing Dose: Co-60 Co 60 gamma or

1-3 3 MeV electrons (Linac ( Linac or VdG) VdG

Displacement Damage: Protons (10-20 (10 20 MeV), MeV),

Neutrons (1 MeV), MeV),

Electrons (3-5 (3 5 MeV) MeV

Single Event: Heavy Ion Accelerator (ESA- (ESA

Louvain HIF), Proton Accelerator (ESA-PSI (ESA PSI PIF)

Cf-252 Cf 252 ‘CASE CASE’ laboratory system.


Typical Radiation Verification (RVT) requirements.

TECHNOLOGY REQUIREMENT DOSE RATE

Bipolar Transistor Data > 10 yrs

MOS Transistor

Linear ICs

High or Low

All diffusion lots High or Low

All diffusion lots Low

MOS Digital ICs Data > 1 yr High or Low

Bipolar Digital ICs Data > 10 yrs Low

ASICs, ASICs,

FPGA. Data > 2 yrs Low

MOS RAM, ROM Data > 2 yrs High or Low

Bipolar RAM, ROM Data > 6 yrs Low

Optoelectronics All diffusion lots High or Low


Technologies generally considered to be

radiation tolerant (~ 300 krad)

�� Diodes (other than zener). zener).

�� TTL logic (e.g. 54xx series).

�� ECL (Emitter Coupled Logic).

�� GaAs (Gallium Arsenide) Arsenide)

technologies.

�� Microwave devices.

�� Crystals.

�� Most passives.


Radiation Testing

Sample Size/Traceability

Sample Size:

Total Ionizing Dose. Minimum 5 samples.

4 test, 1 reference.

Single Event. 3 samples recommended.

Traceability:

Traceability

Use single Lot-Date Lot Date-Code Code for test and flight

hardware.


Dose-rates for testing.

- High Dose Rate:

SCC 22900 Window 1. 1-10 1 10 rads/sec. rads/sec.

MIL883E 1019.6. 50-300 50 300 rads/sec. rads/sec.

- Low Dose Rate:

SCC 22900 Window 2. 0.01-0.1 0.01 0.1 rads/sec. rads/sec.

MIL883E 1019.6. 0.01 rads/sec. rads/sec.

Elevated Temp. 0.5-5 0.5 5 rads/sec. rads/sec.


Radiation Testing

Test Software (Single Event)

�� Test pattern dependence. All 1, All 0,

Alternate 1-0, 1 0, Chequerboard, MOVI.

�� Different sensitivities for different registers.

�� Dead Time. (detect flip/record/rewrite)

�� How to test Processors (‘Golden ( Golden Chip’ Chip ?)

�� Possibility to run application software ?

Beware of software/hardware interaction.


Radiation Testing

And finally……

TEST IT LIKE YOU FLY IT

FLY IT LIKE YOU TEST IT

(Ken LaBel. LaBel.

GSFC)


Use of Commercial Components

�� The use of commercial technology does

NOT necessarily result in cost-saving. cost saving.

�� Cost of Ownership is the important

consideration.

�� First choice should always be QML or

Space Quality components if available.


Why Use Commercial

Technology ?

�� Complexity of functions

�� Performance

�� Availability (limited number of QML/Space

suppliers).


What are the drawbacks of

commercial technology?

�� Little or no traceability

�� Rapid and unannounced design and process

changes.

�� Rapid obsolescence

�� Packaging Issues (Plastic).

- Effect of burn-in burn in on radiation response

- Deep dielectric charging in space (?)


COTS Hardness Assurance

�� Define the hazard

�� Evaluate the hazard

�� Define requirements

�� Evaluate device usage

�� Discuss with designers

�� Iterate process as necessary


Risk Assessment & Mitigation

�� Components list review by a radiation expert

�� Good Radiation Design Margin (2-5) (2 5)

�� Fully characterise key components

�� Limit the use of new technologies

�� Eliminate or shield marginal technologies

�� Maintain awareness of developments in radiation

effects

�� Do not cut back on testing

�� Look for system solutions


Countermeasures/Mitigation

Total Ionizing Dose.

�� Additional shielding. Only effective in electron dominated

environments.

�� Cold redundancy (‘sparing ( sparing’). ). Not effective for all

technologies.

�� Generous derating. derating

�� Robust electronic design. High drive currents, low fan-out fan out

or loading. Large gain margins, high noise immunity etc.


Countermeasures/Mitigation.

Single Event Effects

�� Note that additional shielding is NOT effective.

�� Ensure systems are not sensitive to transient effects.

�� Use fault tolerant design techniques.

�� Use Error Detection and Correction for critical circuits.

�� Ensure systems can re-boot re boot autonomously.


COMRAD-UK

An integrated Web resource of

components radiation effects

data.


Why Integrated Web Resource ?

�� COMRAD provides more than a database.

it includes :

Components radiation effects database.

A tutorial handbook.

Links to radiation effects sites.

Links to manufacturers sites.

Links to publications in .pdf . pdf format.

‘Experts Experts Forum’ Forum for technical discussions.


Available from COMRAD-UK

Home Page

Terms Links Glossary

Index Search Total Dose

Heavy Ion Neutron Proton

Sponsors Manufacturers Seminars

Handbook Publications

& News

Experts Forum


Welcome to COMRAD

This web site is the primary source of information on the internet for

COMponent RADiation data.

Please feel free to browse and review the information contained herein.

This site was designed and built by:

Spur Electron Ltd

Hayward House

Hayward Business Centre

New Lane

Havant, Hants

United Kingdom

Tel: + 44 (0)23 92 455564

Fax: + 44 (0)23 92 455568

*** SPECIAL INFORMATION REGARDING BROWSERS ***

It has been brought to our attention that some older browsers are not retrieving the data

from COMRAD-UK correctly. We have tested the site extensively using Microsoft Internet

Explorer v4 & 5. We have also tested using Netscape Navigator/Communicator v4.6. This

browser also works correctly, but does have limitations regarding the displaying of the

data. In particular Netscape Navigator/Communicator versions 4.0x are causing

problems.

Therefore we STRONGLY recommend using only the latest version of your chosen

browser. We RECOMMEND Internet Explorer v5 or greater.

We would be most grateful to receive any abnormalities regarding the pages to be

emailed to radinfo@spurelectron.com

Please state your browser, version, and platform (e.g. PC / Mac/ etc)

THANKYOU !


Origins of COMRAD-UK

Database

�� ESA RADFX (on discs)

�� Database Round Table (RADECS 1993)

�� Discussions with Space Agencies, Scientific

Institutes and Industry

�� Discussions with CERN LHC Project and

Detector groups.


Aims of COMRAD-UK Database

�� To be ‘informative informative’ not ‘regulatory regulatory’.

�� To contain recent data and be continuously

updated.

�� To provide data summary and detailed tabulated

data (if available).

�� To provide contact details for the test authority.

�� To be expandable for High-Energy High Energy Physics and

Avionics


COMRAD-UK Database status.

�� 700 Total Dose records

�� 280 Single Event Records

�� Being updated on a monthly basis

�� Primary data resources:

IEEE NSREC Data Workshop and Proceedings

RADECS Data Workshop and Proceedings

ESA Contract Reports.

IEEE Publications.

CERN reports and publications


Origins of COMRAD-UK

Handbook

�� ESA Radiation Design Handbook. PSS-609 PSS 609

�� Handbook of Radiation Effects. OUP 1993.

�� The use of commercial components in aerospace

technology. BNSC Contract Report 1999.

�� Participation in CERN RD-49 RD 49 collaboration.

‘Hardened Hardened microelectronics and commercial

components’.

components

�� Various international seminars and workshops

over past 5 years.


Aims of COMRAD-UK

Handbook

�� A brief (100 page) tutorial guide to the space

application of components.

�� To assist in the assessment of components in the

COMRAD database for any particular mission.

�� Provides guidance on Hardness Assurance

practices.

�� Discusses the application of commercial

components.


Handbook Contents

�� The Space Radiation Environment

�� Radiation Effects Prediction Techniques

�� Radiation Effects in Electronic Components

�� Designing Tolerant Systems

�� Radiation Effects Databases

�� Radiation Testing

�� Hardness Assurance Management

�� Recommended Procurement Practices


COMRAD-UK

Experts Forum

The Experts Forum allows users to post

queries on the Web-site. Web site.

These will, as far as possible, be answered

by Spur Electron but it is also possible for

other users to provide an input and start a

discussion.


Summary

�� COMRAD-UK COMRAD UK is a Web based integrated source

of components radiation effects data.

�� COMRAD-UK COMRAD UK is co-sponsored co sponsored by the British

National Space Centre and maintained on their

behalf by SPUR-Electron.

SPUR Electron.

�� The site is under continuous development

�� - comments and suggestions are welcome.

– comrad-uk comrad uk.net .net

– radinfo@spurelectron

radinfo spurelectron.com .com


Hardness Assurance in the real

world

WE HAVEN’T HAVEN T GOT THE MONEY

SO WE’VE WE VE GOT TO THINK.

(Lord Rutherford 1871-1937) 1871 1937)

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