atw 2015-01


atw Vol. 60 (2015) | Issue 1 ı January


minerals or rocks containing significant amounts of natural

radioactive elements (NORM industry). Other operations

such as storage, application or disposal of residues resulting

from the NORM or other industries containing enhanced

concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides also

had to be included in the control. Title VII of 96/29/

EURATOM encompasses all kinds of natural radiation

sources and the resulting increase in exposure. The focus of

the project, on the other hand, was on materials (raw materials

with increased radioactivity, NORM and TENORM

residues) so that aircraft operation and radon in homes and

workplaces (spas, caves etc.) were beyond the scope of this

assignment. However, it was emphasized that the enforcement

of NORM/TENORM regulations depends critically on

the level of knowledge of the regulatory authorities.

Enhancement of the licensing capabilities

Three PHARE projects were related to the enhancement of

the licensing capabilities of the regulatory authority:

RO.01.10.02 „Support to the Romanian Nuclear Regulatory

Authority (CNCAN) in the licensing review of Fire Protection,

Overpressure Protection of Reactor Primary Circuit

and Main Steam Line Design Safety Issues in

Cernavoda 1-NPP”, RO/TS/01 “Support to CNCAN – seismic

evaluation – Cernavoda NPP” and 2005/017-519.03.01

“Support to Regulatory Authority Staff to improve its Capabilities

with the View of Probabilistic Safety Assessment”.

The project RO.01.10.02 started at the same time as the

“Nuclear Safety Regulatory Regime Consolidation” project

(01/01/2002) and was aimed at strengthening and enhancing

the effectiveness of the CNCAN and to improve its

competence in the licensing review of fire protection, water

hammer safety analysis, overpressure protection of the

reactor primary circuit and main steam line design safety

issues in Unit 1 of Cernavoda NPP. The Fire Protection Programme,

CNCAN’s Norm on specific requirements on fire

protection in NPP, documentation covering the overpressure

protection in Safety Systems and Reactor Primary Circuit

and the Main Steam Line Stress Analyses were reviewed

during the implementation of this project. This

work benefited CNCAN in the decision making related to

the Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 licensing process, in the resolution

of open safety issues and provided technical and

methodological support during the CNCAN independent

review process of the plant modifications safety assessment

submitted by the utility.

The project “Support to CNCAN – seismic evaluation –

Cernavoda NPP” was requested in order for the Regulatory

Authority to receive assistance in the safety related seismic

evaluation of the Cernavoda NPP. Under the project several

seismic safety assessment studies performed for Cernavoda

NPP were considered and evaluated. CNCAN was assisted

in the establishment of procedures and practices for addressing

seismic hazards evaluation and setting relevant

regulatory requirements.

The last PHARE project connected to the enhancement

of the licensing activities was the project “Support to Regulatory

Authority Staff to improve its Capabilities with the

View of Probabilistic Safety Assessment”. This project required

very high quality work to be carried out both by

CNCAN personnel and by the sub-contractors responsible

for the implementation of the project. The entire project

(approx. 1.5 years) consisted in the provision of training to

CNCAN staff responsible for PSA analysis. The training was

aimed at equipping the staff of CNCAN with the necessary

skills to determine to what extent the existing plant specific

Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Cernavoda

Unit 1 could be used in supporting decisions related to nuclear

safety, as well as at establishing a framework that

would assure that the present and future PSAs could be

relied upon. For knowledge management reasons, CNCAN

developed a draft final version of the “Procedure on the review

of PSA” (Level 1 for internal initiators as well as for

internal and external hazards) that will be used in the future.

Also, the final version of the “Norm on Regulatory

Requirements for PSA” was developed, and it can be used

by the utility staff in the preparation of the Licensee’s request

for changes in the licensing basis and by regulatory

staff in the evaluation of such submittals.

Emergency response

There were two PHARE projects implemented in Romania

which were related to emergency response: PH6.01/99 (Lot

1 and 2) “Early warning system – Cernavoda” and 5812.06.01

“Romanian Regulatory Emergency Response Center”.

The first PHARE project related to this topic was the

project “Early warning system – Cernavoda”. This project,

although related to RA, had, however, other beneficiaries

than CNCAN: the Ministry of Administration and Interior

(MI) and the Ministry of Environment and Waters Management

(MEWM) as well as an extended scope: to not only

provide a notification system for Cernavoda city and NPP,

but also one for accidents with trans-boundary effects. At

the end of this project, besides the enhancement of the existent

Early Warning System around Cernavoda NPP and

the establishment of a system designed for real time data

acquisition and data transfer to the National Central Emergency

Situation Centre, an Early Warning system around

Kozloduy NPP (but within the Environmental Protected

Zone on Romanian territory) was installed and a Regional

Emergency Centre in the city of Bechet (close to Romanian/

Bulgarian border on the Danube river) was established.

The second project, “Romanian Regulatory Emergency

Response Center”, continued the work performed by the

previous PHARE project. The difference was that this project

was aimed at improving the regulatory body (CNCAN)

competences in emergency management. The project

provided the appropriate equipping of the CNCAN Emergency

Response Centre. By the end of the project, CNCAN

was provided with technical means for emergency response

and sample analysis, and also with the necessary

training for raising the skills and knowledge of the staff responsible

for emergency response. Besides, CNCAN developed

a comprehensive set of technical specifications for

the tendering and procurement of the necessary equipment

– and the scope was extended from the acquisition of

analysis equipment to all the equipment needed for the establishment

of a network for transferring data to other national

and international Emergency Response authorities.

3. Projects related to radioactive waste


The PHARE projects implemented in Romania in support of

RWM focussed on improving the quality of services and the

skills and knowledge at institutional level of the institutions

considered the major players in the radioactive waste

management area. The beneficiaries of these projects

were: CNCAN, the Ministry of Education and Research

(MER), the National Agency for Radioactive Waste (AN-

DRAD), the Romanian National Electrical Company (Societatea

Nationala “Nuclearelectrica” (SNN)) and the “Regia

Autonoma pentru Metale Rare” (Rare Metals Autonomous

Authority – RMAR). Figure 2 illustrates the timeframes of

these projects.

Operation and New Build

Overview of PHARE Projects Implemented in Romania Between 1997 and 2008 for Enhancing the Nuclear Safety Level ı Radian Sanda, Benoit Zerger, Giustino Manna and Brian Farrar

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