atw 2015-01


atw Vol. 60 (2015) | Issue 1 ı January


analysis performed by the CNCAN’s staff and the other one

aimed at improving CNCAN’s capabilities regarding the regulatory

aspects of NORM and TENORM related activities.

As for the staff training strategy, while observing the

chronology of project implementation, it can be easily seen

that the majority of the effort was directed at training of

the staff of the CNCAN. In fact, the CNCAN’s staffs were

trained continuously, on relevant topics, during the whole

period of implementation of the PHARE projects. Only for

specific activities the training of the personnel focussed on

staff from other agencies, i.e. RMAR staff was trained for

the development of radioactive WAC for waste packages

to ensure their safe transportation, handling, storage and

disposal. Similarly, staff from MI and from MEWM was

trained on how to develop and use a notification system

not only for accidents affecting Cernavoda city and NPP,

but also one for accidents with trans-boundary effects. The

licensee’s staff also received important training on how to

characterize radioactive waste at the plant, on understanding

the environmental impact of their activities and

regarding the current level of radioprotection for staff,

public and environment. The scientists from MER were involved

in performing different calculations using various

codes while preparing the PSAR for the Low-Level Radioactive

Waste Repository Baita Bihor.

6. Conclusions

During the phase of accession to the European Union, Romania

benefited of a number of PHARE projects aiming at

improving the nuclear safety in the country. The implementation

of the projects covered a period of about 12

years and was carried out following a clear strategy of intervention.

The projects targeted areas identified as having

high-priority and highly impacting the nuclear safety of

the country: Regulatory framework, Radioactive Waste

Management and also Operation.

In particular, the projects focused on the Regulatory

framework and contributed both to its institutional development

and to the enhancement of the skills and competences

of the staff of the Safety Authority, which had the

opportunity to acquire the western and international

know-how and practices and incorporate them into its own

practices while applying them to the issues the staff were

called upon to deal with in their regulatory duties. The

knowledge and skills acquired will be further used for continuously

improving the in-house capabilities of the organisations

involved in carrying out and controlling the nuclear

activities in Romania.

Together with the institutional consolidation of the

Regulatory Authority, the PHARE projects produced as

spin-off a series of technical documents to be used as reference

in the future activities of the Safety Authorities and of

the nuclear actors of the countries.

This review of the selected PHARE projects has shown

that the intervention on the nuclear safety of the country

followed a systematic approach, with projects carried out

sometimes in parallel, sometimes in series, and allowing –

in the latter case – adequate time between the sequential

projects for the absorption and further development of

knowledge and know-how. In this way, the conception of

the follow-up project was started considering a new basis.

The PHARE interventions highlighted the specific inter-institutional

dimension of nuclear safety in Romania

improving the compatibility of the regulatory system with

the country’s regulatory commitment and institutional

and human resources endowment, stressing also the trans-

boundary effects of some specific accidents. It is important

to recognise also the role of PHARE in bringing together a

number of accession countries for considering the common

nuclear safety issues they were called to tackle, for

example those related to Radioactive Waste Management,

and identifying opportunities for cooperation; this uncovers

another side of the European added value of the programme.

Finally, the review of the PHARE projects has highlighted

that the regulatory activities, the nuclear safety,

the safety of radioactive sources, the radioprotection and

the radioactive waste management programmes were addressed

and enhanced during the implementation of the



The success of the PHARE projects was based on the efforts

of various stakeholders involved: the European Commission

staff involved in managing the projects, the Western

contractors and Eastern subcontractors that carried out

the work with professionalism, achieving the successful

results. It should be noted that the success of such projects

is also in direct relationship with the involvement of the

beneficiary organisation. All their work and efforts are appreciated

and acknowledged.

The PHARE programme was managed by the European

Commission Directorate General for Enlargement (DG



AN Agentia Nucleara (Nuclear Agency)

ANDRAD Agentia Nationala pentru Deseuri Radioactive

(National Agency for Radioactive Waste)

CANDU Canada Deuterium Uranium

CNCAN Comisia Nationala pentru Controlul

Activitatilor Nucleare (National Commission

for Nuclear Activities Control)

CWR Consortium of Western Regulators

C&EEC Central and East-European Countries

EC European Commission

EIA Environmental Impact Assessment

EU European Union

EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community

FEP Features, Events and Processes

GRS Gesellschaft für anlagen-und Reaktor

Sicherheit mbH

HTS Heat Transport System

IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency

IPA Integrated Performance Assessment

IRSN Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté


MER Ministry of Education end Research

MI Minister of Interior

MEWM Ministry of Environment and Water


NORM Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

NPP Nuclear Power Plant

OSA On-Site Assistance

PHARE Poland, Hungary Aid for Reconstruction

PHWR Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

PSA Probabilistic Safety Assessment

PSAR Preliminary Safety Assessment Report

QA Quality Assurance

QMS Quality Management System

RA Regulatory Activities

RMAR Rare Metal Autonomous Authority

(Regia Autonoma pentru Metale Rare)

Operation and New Build

Overview of PHARE Projects Implemented in Romania Between 1997 and 2008 for Enhancing the Nuclear Safety Level ı Radian Sanda, Benoit Zerger, Giustino Manna and Brian Farrar

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