ecome intelligence practitioners in commerce or government. For anyone outside of the national security apparatus, this intelligence primer will shed light on why and how the government spends federal tax dollars on national intelligence. Department of the Treasury Federal Bureau of Investigation Department of Energy National Reconnaissance Office National Imagery and Mapping Agency Department of State United States Air Force Figure 3. The National Intelligence Community. 25 Central Intelligence Agency Director of Central Intelligence ● Community Management Staff ● Intelligence Community Executive Committee ● National Intelligence Council ● National Foreign Intelligence Board United States Marine Corps National Security Agency Defense Intelligence Agency United States Navy United States Army Independent Agency DoD Element Non-DoD OSD/DCI Agency Source: Based on a Department of Defense publication.
PART I INTELLIGENCE PROCESS [I]ntelligence is more than information. It is knowledge that has been specially prepared for a customer’s unique circumstances. The word knowledge highlights the need for human involvement. Intelligence collection systems produce... data, not intelligence; only the human mind can provide that special touch that makes sense of data for different customers’ requirements. The special processing that partially defines intelligence is the continual collection, verification, and analysis of information that allows us to understand the problem or situation in actionable terms and then tailor a product in the context of the customer’s circumstances. If any of these essential attributes is missing, then the product remains information rather than intelligence. 30 The intelligence profession, already well established within government, is growing in the private sector. Intelligence is traditionally a function of government organizations serving the decisionmaking needs of national security authorities. But innovative private firms are increasingly adapting the national security intelligence model to the business world to aid their own strategic planning. Although business professionals may prefer the term “information” over “intelligence,” the author will use the latter term to highlight the importance of adding value to information. According to government convention, the author will use the term “customer” to refer to the intended recipient of an intelligence product — either a fellow intelligence service member, or a policy official or decisionmaker. The process of converting raw information into actionable intelligence can serve government and business equally well in their respective domains. The Intelligence Process in Government and Business Production of intelligence follows a cyclical process, a series of repeated and interrelated steps that add value to original inputs and create a substantially transformed product. That transformation is what distinguishes intelligence from a simple cyclical activity. 31 In government and private sector alike, analysis is the catalyst that converts information into intelligence for planners and decisionmakers. Although the intelligence process is complex and dynamic, several component functions may be distinguished from the whole. In this primer, components are identified as Intelligence Needs, Collection Activities, Processing of Collected Information, Analysis and Production. To highlight the components, each is accorded a separate Part in this study. These labels, and the illustration below, should not be interpreted to mean that intelligence is a uni- 30 Captain William S. Brei, Getting Intelligence Right: The Power of Logical Procedure, Occasional Paper Number Two (Washington, DC: Joint Military Intelligence College, January 1996), 4. 31 Melissie C. Rumizen, Benchmarking Manager at the National Security Agency, interview by author, 4 January 1996. 26