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Final NB 2016-2017 Turley

60 Ion Charge? What is

60 Ion Charge? What is the charge on fluorine as a result of adding one electron? A comparison of the atom and the ion will yield this answer. Fluorine Atom Fluoride Ion * 9 p+ to complete 9 p + Protons are identical in 10 n octet 10 n 9 e- add 1 electron 10 e- 0 charge - 1 charge the atom and ion. Negative charge is caused by excess electrons * The "ide" ending in the name signifies a simple negative ion. Summary Principle of Ionic Compounds An ionic compound is formed by the complete transfer of electrons from a metal to a nonmetal and the resulting ions have achieved an octet. The protons do not change. Metal atoms in Groups 1-3 lose electrons to non-metal atoms with 5-7 electrons missing in the outer level. Non-metals gain 1-4 electrons to complete an octet. Octet Rule Elemental atoms generally lose, gain, or share electrons with other atoms in order to achieve the same electron structure as the nearest rare gas with eight electrons in the outer level. The proper application of the Octet Rule provides valuable assistance in predicting and explaining various aspects of chemical formulas. Introduction to Ionic Bonding Ionic bonding is best treated using a simple electrostatic model. The electrostatic model is simply an application of the charge principles that opposite charges attract and similar charges repel. An ionic compound results from the interaction of a positive and negative ion, such as sodium and chloride in common salt. The IONIC BOND results as a balance between the force of attraction between opposite plus and minus charges of the ions and the force of repulsion between similar negative charges in the electron clouds. In crystalline compounds this net balance of forces is called the LATTICE ENERGY. Lattice energy is the energy released in the formation of an ionic compound. DEFINITION: The formation of an IONIC BOND is the result of the transfer of one or more electrons from a metal onto a nonmetal.

Metals, with only a few electrons in the outer energy level, tend to lose electrons most readily. The energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom is called the IONIZATION POTENTIAL. Energy + Metal Atom ---> Metal (+) ion + e- Non-metals, which lack only one or two electrons in the outer energy level have little tendency to lose electrons - the ionization potential would be very high. Instead non-metals have a tendency to gain electrons. The ELECTRON AFFINITY is the energy given off by an atom when it gains electrons. Non-metal Atom + e- --- Non-metal (-) ion + energy The energy required to produce positive ions (ionization potential) is roughly balanced by the energy given off to produce negative ions (electron affinity). The energy released by the net force of attraction by the ions provides the overall stabilizing energy of the compound. Notes Section: -Ions-Charged ions with opposite charges -ions charge based on the excess of protons -Energy + Metal Atom ---> Metal (+) ion + e- -Ionization potential- the energy required to move electrons -Ionic bonds are formed with the transfer of one electron from a metal to non metal. -Ionization potential is balanced by electron affinity -electron affinity-energy given off to produce negative ions -Lattice energy- the net balance of force in crystalline compounds -Ionic bond comes from a positive and negative metal -You cant create an ionic compound with two metals or two non metals -Must be a metal and a non metal -Adding an electron gives it a negative charge -Taking an electron gives it a positive charge -Metal atoms in group 1-3 -Non Polar bonding occurs with two non metals -Water is the most universal compound -Hydrogen chloride performs a covalent bond -two oxygen atoms share four electrons 61

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