80 Isomers Isomers are compounds with the same molecular formulae but different structural formulae. They have the same number of each type of atom but may have different physical and chemical properties. http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/guides/zm9hvcw/revision Learning Goal: Describe The properties of the carbon atom that make the diversity of carbon compound possible. Identify selected functional groups and relate how they contribute to properties of carbon compounds. methane – (natural gas) cooking, heating propane – used in gas cylinders for BBQ etc octane – used in petrol for cars Alkanes's- Equation for Alkanes: CnH2n+2 The longest unbranched chain containing the functional group is the parent molecule Name the branches Indicate the position of the functional group with a number Alkenes- Alkenes all contain a carbon to carbon double bond which makes them more reactive than the alkanes. The alkenes have the general formula Equation: CnH2n Alkenes are unsaturated Naming alkenes has the same rules as alkanes. Cycloalkanes- The third homologous series is the cycloalkanes. Their names all end in –ane and begin with cyclo-, for example cyclopropane. The cycloalkanes have the general formula Equation: CnH2n cycloalkanes are saturated and contain only single bonds. Combustion oxygen is present for complete combustion, the two products formed will be carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). Equation: hydrocarbon + oxygen to carbon,dioxide + water Addition Reactions only alkenes can participate in addition reactions. The addition of hydrogen to an alkene is called hydrogenation. The addition of water to an alkene is called hydration.
Single bond and carbon One with a drawing with a shape or something If it contains NH its either Amine or Amide