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Ivanov Dospinescu et

Ivanov Dospinescu et al./Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 6 (2007), 6, 567-572 polyelectrolyte) as soil conditioning agent into a site with high electric field around. 2. Experimental 2.1. Site characterization and location The studied site is a northern Romanian area having a total surface of 5 ha situated no more than 5 km from the Iasi town, named Uricani-Valea Lupului relays region. It is proposed an impact case study on soil fertility of some vegetal grass species induced by the high electric tension network, and improved by adding of soil conditioning agent such as an anionic polyelectrolyte. The investigated site is traversed by aerial electric tension network corresponding to values of 40 – 70 V/m 2 into all investigation period (Antohi and Ivanov Dospinescu, 2003). 2.2. Experimental procedure The paper is focused on soil characterization as vegetable support, and investigation of its ability to support some vegetal species of Raigras aristat into the investigated site presented above, with addition or no of fertilized soil and polymeric conditioning agent. The “soil quality” as vegetation support is expressed by its germination degrees. The experiments are organized into special vegetation vessels having rectangular shape (150x 120x 50 mm) and perforated bottom. Into these vegetation vessels were introduced the studied soils (e.g., more than 3 cm height), and also some mixture between the soil from the investigated area and commercial fertilized soil for plants (e.g., mixtures of 1:1, 2:1, 1:2 and 1:3 studied soil/commercial fertilized soil). The fertilized soil is produced by Matecsa Ker.Es Kert Kft Hungary and has a pH value of 6.6-7. The vegetal species, Lollium multiflorum, is a pretentious species that need a soil enriched in nitrogen, high light and water. The grass species grows rapidly, but can not resist more than 1-2 years [6]. The sowing with Lollium multiflorum was made according with the literature data (Canache, 1990), ensuring an average number of 12.500 – 15.000 seeds/m 2 which correspond to 0.5 g seeds/vessel, about ca 164 seeds/vessel. After sowing into each vegetation vessels was introduced BIONAT fertilizer, commercialized by PANETONE Company, Timişoara, Romania containing the following important compounds: 74 g/L nitrogen (N), 3 g/L K (K 2 O), 0.2 g/L phosphor (P), 5 g/L magnesium (Mg), 10 g/L sulphur, 1 g/L calcium (Ca) and microelements (1-2 g/L). Comparative studies were performed on soil treated with soil conditioning agent such as Ponilit GT-2 anionic polyelectrolyte, and the same growing condition of vegetal species (e.g., between 3 and 5 mL polyelectrolyte solution of 0.5 % per kg soil and good homogenization). The PONILIT GT-2 anionic polyelectrolyte is an aqueous solution of a sodium copolymer salt based on maleic acid and vinyl acetate. The polyelectrolyte stock concentration used for this study was 0.5 % (the polyelectrolyte is patented by the “P.Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iaşi) (Patent, 1981). This polyelectrolyte was industrially produced by the Chemical Enterprise of Falticeni and commercialized by “Chimica” Company, Bucharest having the following characteristics: amber colour, specific smell, pH of 6.5 – 8, content of active product into solution of 33 – 36 % (w/w), density of 1.18 – 1.21 g/cm 3 , water soluble, viscosity at 20 ± 1°C of 1500 – 1800 cP, average molecular mass of 2.10 5 – 3.10 6 , no corrosive or toxic effect. The germination degrees, which express the fertility efficiency of soil as vegetal support, are calculated with Eq.(1) (Surpateanu and Zaharia, 2000; Zaharia and Surpateanu, 2001): n f Germination degree (%) = ⋅100 (1) n where: n i – the initial number of seeds; n f – the final number of vegetal species. A comparative study of the same soil samples cultivated with these vegetal species of grass was performed at laboratory scale set-up into almost the same operational condition but with no high electric tension around. A reference soil sample from other area (e.g., 5 km far from Iasi, opposite side), and a soil sample from 100 m far of the investigated site were analyzed in the same condition for comparison of the germination degrees. 2.3. Analysis Methods The investigated soil was preliminarily analysed concerning the following physical and chemical indicators using standardized methods internationally approved: pH, carbon organic content, exchangeable calcium, total content of soluble salts, total phosphor, total nitrogen etc. (Surpateanu and Zaharia, 2002; Davidescu et al., 1981; Zaharia, 2005). 3. Results and discussion All experiments were performed on soil samples characterized by the main physical-chemical indicators presented into Table 1 in order to obtain compact grassland. Into laboratory conditions, the coming up of vegetal species was normal, based on difference of soil fertility; higher for reference soil (soil sample- III), followed by soil samples 100 m far of the studied area (soil sample-II) and investigated soil (soil sample-I). i 568

Study of increasing soil fertility into a site with high electric field around using polymeric conditioning agent Soil Sample pH (active pH, water) pH (Exchangeable pH, KCl 1%) Table 1. Soil characteristics C organic , % P (g p/kg soil) Exchangeable Ca 2+ (mg/kg soil) CaO % TCSS * mg/100 g Relay soil 8.78 7.72 2.15 44.8 48 2.576 400 Soil- 100 m far 8.72 7.76 0.084 44.7 36 2.016 1115 Mixture 7.94 7.59 3.72 - 40 2.24 300 1:3 Mixture 8.15 7.64 1.14 - 40 2.24 716 1:1 Mixture 8.29 7.66 2.54 - 36 2.016 375 2:1 Reference soil 7.75 7.18 0.774 15.96 48 2.688 275 * TCSS – total content of soluble salts Nevertheless, the vegetal growth was accelerated the first six days for the reference soil, but during the investigated period was decreasing. For the commercial fertilized soil, the results are the best, almost total sowing of vegetal species (ca 91.20 %) and formation of a good grassland beginning with the sixth day. The daily evolution at laboratory scale setup of grassland into the vegetation vessels are presented into the next table (Table 2). Table 2. Evolution of vegetal species growth at laboratory scale set-up Day no/ Soil sample Soil sample Soil sample soil type I II III 6 th day - 5 mm 5-10 mm 7 th day 5-8.5 mm 10 mm 25 mm 8 th day 10-10 mm 10-35 mm 35-50 mm 9 th day 10-45 mm 10-50 mm 40-60 mm 10 th day 10-60 mm 15-70 mm 50-80 mm 11 th day 20-70 mm 20-80 mm 20-90 mm 12 th day 20-70 mm 20-80 mm 25-100 mm 13 th day 20-80 mm 40-110 mm 35-90 mm 14 th day 30-80 mm 30-110 mm 35-100 mm 15 th day 35- 85 mm 40-110 mm 40-110 mm 16 th day 35-90 mm 45-110 mm 40-115 mm 17 th day 35-90 mm 30-110 mm 40-130 mm The grassland was mowed down for improving of grass strength, and after the growth was decreasing It can be seen that after thirteen days of observations the vegetal species have heights higher than 10 cm, and that is way the grassland need to be mowed down. The germination degrees for these soil samples and vegetal species number was measured or calculated being presented into Table 3. Table 3. Efficiency of vegetal species growth (laboratory experiments) Efficiency/ Soil – I Soil – II Soil – III soil vessel Vegetal species 46 85 128 number Germination 28.05 51.83 78.05 degree, % I–investigated soil; II –100 m far of investigated soil; III– reference soil It can be considered that the germination degree was not so high because the sowing was performed on surface no deeply inside the soil. Although this vegetal species is sensible and was tested for different soils and conditions, the existence and growth of vegetal species was possible. Table 4. Efficiency of vegetal species growth (A point, irrigation), no treatment with polyelectrolyte Efficiency/ soil vessel Vegetal species no. Germination degree, % Relay (1:1) (2:1) (1:2) (1:3) soil 5 20 10 20 5 3.05 12.20 6.10 12.20 3.05 On the investigated site were organized four prelevation and observation points separated each other by 35-45 m under and around the high electric tension lines between two relays in condition of daily irrigation (e.g., maximum 3-4 mL water), no soil conditioning agent (series 0), and treatment of each soil vessel with polyelectrolyte (series I- 3 mL Ponilit GT-2 solution of 0.5 % per kg soil, and series II- 5 mL Ponilit GT-2 solution of 0.5 % per kg soil). Into each observation points were studied daily the vegetation vessels (1- investigated soil, 2- mixture 1:1, 3- mixture 2:1, 4- mixture 1:2, 5- mixture 1:3) treated with 0, 3 or 5 mL polyelectrolyte solution of 0.5 % per kg soil. During the whole period of study was measured the height of vegetal species, with the mention that after the height of 10 cm, the grassland was mowed down for improving of grass strength. 569

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