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Robu et al.

Robu et al. /Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 6 (2007), 6, 573-592 only recommended but also necessary for engineers, particularly for the chemical engineers that analysis and manage the risk for taking the optimum decisions on safety. 7. Integrated environmental impact and risk assessment 7.1. Short introduction Environmental impacts and risks can be assessed applying different method as diagrams, check lists, matrix or combined methods (Gavrilescu, 2003; Macoveanu, 2005). The method to evaluate the environmental impact and risk described herein is a combination between tow methods: global pollution index, matrix of importance scale (Robu, 2005; Robu and Macoveanu, 2005b). An algorithm developed as software designated as SAB was applied to automatically quantify the environmental impacts and risks that arise from an evaluated activity, considering the measured concentration, levels of quality indicators. Also, the new method considered the principles of environmental impact from method of importance matrix, from which the term importance of environmental component and the way of its quantification were assumed. The environmental evaluation system is divided into estimation and quantification of environmental impacts in terms of measurable units, in this case as environmental importance units (IU). The environmental scores obtained in environmental impact assessments are basely composed from two parameters: the magnitude of environmental impacts and the importance. The quality (Q) of environmental component is quantified as the ration between the maximal allowed concentration concordant to national legislation and the measured concentration of pollutants. If this parameter Q has values close or higher than 1, then the environmental component has a good quality, if this parameter has values close to 0, then the quality of environmental component is very poor. The values of quality indicators that are considered representative for characterization of environmental components in evaluation process have to be according with national standards, under the maximal allowed concentration. When the measured values of quality indicators are equal or about with values of alert level (70% from maximal allowed concentration), then there is certain stress, that could be a possible impact, a hazard on quality of environmental component, hazard that can become a risk, if no pollution prevention measures are taken. 7.2. Method description The fact that the environmental impact assessments have a great subjectivity, the environmental specialists (Callow, 1998; Macoveanu, 2005; Robu, 2005) considered that is an acute need to use various methods, statistical techniques in order to minimize this subjectivity. The method SAB is settled up to evaluate the environmental impact and risk, considering the main environmental components: surface water, ground water, air and soil. To characterize the quality of environment, the specific quality indicators for each environmental components considered in evaluation process, were taken into account. It was also considered the specific of activity, installation, equipment assessed. This new method for integrated environmental impact and risk assessment (EIRA) can be applied for different activities, various industrial installation, processes, industrial sites and other related activities which are performed on. Considering the following environmental components: ground and surface water, soil and air, the evaluation of environmental impacts is done using a matrix in order to calculate the importance of each environmental component, potentially affected by the industrial activities. The importance parameter can take values between 0 and 1; value 1 represents the most important environmental component (Goyal and Deshpande, 2001). These values are assigned by the evaluator to each environmental component. Then, the matrix calculates the importance units (IU) for ground and surface water, soil and air (Table 1). An example is given in Table 2. The impact on environmental component (EI) directly depends on measured concentration of pollutants, and it is expressed as the ratio between importance units (IU) and quality of environmental component (EQ), defined as follows (Eq. 10): IU IU ⋅Cmeasured EI = = (10) Q MAC Table 1. The calculation of importance units for environmental components Environmental component Surface water (l) Ground water (m) Soil (n) Surface water 0.90 1.13 = 0.95 = (l) (1/m) (l/n) Ground water 0.80 1.00 = 0.84 = (m) (m/m) (m/l) Soil (n) 0.95 1.19 = 1.00 = (n/m) (n/n) Air (o) 1.00 1.25 = 1.05 = (o/m) (o/n) l – importance value for surface water, m – importance value for ground water, n – importance value for soil, o – importance value for air Air (o) 0.90 = (l/o) 0.80 = (m/o) 0.95 = (n/o) 1.00 = (o/o) The parameter quality of environmental component (Q) is defined as follows (Eq.11): MAC Q = (11) C measured 586

Methods and procedures for environmental risk assessment where: MAC – maximal allowed concentration of quality indicators; C measured – measured concentration of quality indicators. Table 2. Importance units obtained by solving the matrix from Table 1 Environmental component Normalized weights Surface water (l) 0.27 = 1/(0.9+0.8+0.95+1.0) Ground water 0.22 = (m) 1/(1.13+1.0+1.19+1.25) Soil (n) 0.26 = 1/(0.95+0.84+1.0+1.05) Air (o) 0.27 = 1/(0.9+0.8+0.95+1.0) Importance units (IU = NWx1000) 273.97 219.18 260.27 273.97 After the calculation of importance units, the next step was to calculate the quality of each environmental component defined above. If the quality parameter of environmental component is equal with 0, it results that the environmental quality is very poor (this means that the measured concentration of pollutant is very high); if EQ value is close to 1, or higher than 1, then the quality of environmental component is very good (Goyal and Deshpande, 2001). The impact on surface water (EIsw) is given by the following equations (Eqs.12- 14): IUsw EI sw = (12) Q EI sw n ∑ EI sw i i= sw = 1 ( ) n measured i (13) MACi Q ( sw) = (14) i C EI(sw)i – environmental impact on surface water, considering quality indicator i; i – quality indicators (e.g. COD-Cr, BOD etc.); EQ(sw)i – quality of surface water, considering the quality indicator i; IUsw – importance units obtained by surface water; MAC i – maximal allowed concentration for quality indicator i; C measured i – measured concentration for quality indicator i. It can be observed that the global impact on environmental component j is the average of the impacts considering the quality indicators i. Thus, the impact on ground water (EI gw ), air (EI a ) and soil (EI s ) are quantified in the same way (Eqs.15-20). EI n ∑ EI gw i i= gw = 1 ( ) gw n (15) IU gw EI gw = (16) Q EQ(gw)i – quality of environmental component ground water, considering the quality indicator i; IUgw – importance units obtained by ground water. EI n ∑ EI a i i= a = 1 ( ) a n (17) IUa EI a = (18) Q EQ(a)i – quality of environmental component air, considering the quality indicator i; IUa – importance units obtained by air. EI n ∑ EI s i i= s = 1 ( ) s n (19) IUs EI s = (20) Q EQ(s)i – quality of environmental component soil, considering the quality indicator i; IUs – importance units obtained by soil. Table 3. The calculation of probability Environm comp. Surface water (l) Ground water (m) Soil (n) Surface 0.90 1.13 = (1/m) 0.95 = water (l) (l/n) Ground 0.80 1.00 = (m/m) 0.84 = water (m) (m/l) Soil (n) 0.95 1.19 = (n/m) 1.00 = (n/n) Air (o) 1.00 1.25 = (o/m) 1.05 = (o/n) Table 4. The probability units Air (o) 0.90 = (l/o) 0.80 = (m/o) 0.95 = (n/o) 1.00 = (o/o) Environmental Probability units component Surface water (l) 0.27 = 1/(0.9+0.8+0.95+1.0) Ground water (m) 0.22 = 1/(1.13+1.0+1.19+1.25) Soil (n) 0.26 = 1/(0.95+0.84+1.0+1.05) Air (o) 0.27 = 1/(0.9+0.8+0.95+1.0) This way the impacts for each environmental component considered representative for the evaluated situation were calculated. The next step was 587

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