Views
1 year ago

2007_6_Nr6_EEMJ

Robu et al.

Robu et al. /Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 6 (2007), 6, 573-592 In consequence, the risk assessment involves an estimation (including the identification of the hazards, the magnitude of the effects and the probability of occurrence) and a calculus of the risk (including the quantification of the danger importance and consequences for humans and/or environment). Risk assessment aims at controlling the risks produced on a site by identification of: pollutant agents or the most important hazards; resources and receptors exposed to the risk; mechanisms of risk accomplishment; important risks that emerge on the site; general measures needed for reduction of the risk to an accepted level. The risk depends on the nature of impact upon the receptors but also on the probability of the occurrence of this impact. Identification of the critical factors that influence the relationship source-path-receptor involves the detailed characterization of the site from physical and chemical point of views. Also, this paper briefly described a quantitative risk analysis for port hydrocarbon logistics, proposed by Ronza A. et.al, 2006, which consists in the following steps: data collection, scenarios identification, frequency estimation, event tree analysis, consequences analysis, individual risk estimation and the estimation of global risk for population. Mathematic models for environmental analysis and assessment are described too. The modeling of the environmental systems is a very difficult problem owing to their complexity, as well to the complexity of their interaction with different other systems, interaction that is sometimes hard to be defined. In this paper, two environmental mathematic models were described. The first, probabilistic model for risk evaluation uses a repartition function for a random vector that describes the concentrations of the atmospheric pollutant factors. The latter, an optimization model is based on multiple criteria, to appropriate financial funds for pollution reduction. For the second model, the solving modality consists in reduction to an optimization problem with a single objective function. The paper presents some selection and probabilistic methods for risk assessment, particularly for risks related to the emissions of the pollutants gas originated from a source. The sensitive analysis is also presented as a key factor that may have a significant impact in risk assessment. This example is not a very critical one, but in industrial processes critical situations exist. The study can offer an increased reliability and confidence in prediction of the safety states. The enhanced values of the safety factor lead to lower values of the risk, some approaches as the current one, resulting in minimizing the need of excessive safety borders in design and in reducing the expensive analytic and experimental approaches. The method can be used for prediction of the limit state in risk or for estimation of fault occurrence probability in reliability analysis. These types of studies that lead to consistent conclusions regarding the functioning of the technological plants are not only recommended but also necessary for engineers, particularly for the chemical engineers that analysis and manage the risk for taking the optimum decisions on safety. Lately, the trend is to integrate the environmental risk principle into impact assessment procedure, or to base risk assessment on life cycle assessment. Thus, the method SAB, described herein is settled up to evaluate the environmental impact and risk, considering the main environmental components: surface water, ground water, air and soil. To characterize the quality of environment, the specific quality indicators for each environmental components considered in evaluation process, were taken into account. It was also considered the specific of activity, installation, equipment assessed. This new method for integrated environmental impact and risk assessment (EIRA) can be applied for different activities, various industrial installation, processes, industrial sites and other related activities which are performed on. Considering the following environmental components: ground and surface water, soil and air, the evaluation of environmental impacts is done using a matrix in order to calculate the importance of each environmental component, potentially affected by the industrial activities. Concordant to this new method, the impact on environmental component directly depends on pollutants concentration into environment. This way, the impacts for each environmental component considered representative for the evaluated situation were calculated. The next step is the quantification of risks that arise from the activities considered, in the view of the results for environmental impacts. It has to be emphasized that if the impact and risk have very high values, then the impact induced by the considered activities on the environment is great and the environmental risks are at an unacceptable level (major/catastrophic risks). High values for environmental impacts and risks underlay the presence of pollutants in environment in very high concentrations, because impact directly depends on the measured concentration of pollutants. Considering the impact classification from method of global pollution index, a classification of impacts and risks is proposed. This new method has the advantages that it is very easy to be used by non environmental experts; it calculates the impacts and risks, correlated with measured concentrations of quality indicators for environmental component, considered representative in assessment process; it is not a subjective method because the subjectivity is removed applying mathematical steps (the developed soft - SAB). Also, the lack of experience of evaluator doesn’t influence the evaluation results that will reflect the real situation from the evaluated site, where the industrial activities are performed. 590

Methods and procedures for environmental risk assessment Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Program IDEI, Grant ID_595, Contract No. 132/2007, in the frame of the National Program for Research, Development and Innovation II - Ministry of Education and Research, Romania. References Andrews R.N., (1988), Environmental risk assessment and risk assessment: learning from each other. Environmental Impact Assessment: Theory and Practice, Routledge, NY, USA. AICE, (1992), Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, American Institute of Chemical Engineers 2 nd edition, USA. Aven T., Kristensen, V. (2005), Perspectives on risk: review and discussion of the basis for establishing an unified and holistic approach, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 90, 1-14. Barrow C., (1997), Environmental and social impact assessment. An Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Calow P., (1998), Environmental Risk Assessment and Management: the What’s, Why’s and How’s?;’ In: Calow J. (ed.), Handbook of Environmental Risk Assessment and Management, Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, pp. 5. Christou M., Amendale A., (1998), How lessons learned from exercises can improve the quality of risk studies, In: Mosleh A., Bari R.A. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4 th International Conference on Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management (PSAM), New York, NY. Crawley F., (2000), HAZOP: Guide to Best Practice for the Process and Chemical Industries, 1st Ed., London, UK. Crowl D. A, (2002), Chemical Process Safety: Fundamentals with Applications, 2 nd edition, London, UK. Cooke, M.R.: 1991, Experts in Uncertainty. Opinion and Subjective Probability in Science, Oxford University Press, New York, 15– 50 pp. Demidova O., (2002), Use of risk assessment in environmental impact assessment for projects with significant health implications: case studies of UK waste incineration developments, Master thesis, Environmental Sciences and Policy Dept., CEEC University, Budapest. Den Haag U., Di Ale B., Uitgerers S., (1999), Guidelines for Quantitative Risk Assessment, Purple Book, Committee for the Prevention of Disasters (CPD), Bilthoven. Gavrilescu M., (2003), Risk Assessment and Management, Ecozone Press, Iasi, Romania. Goyal S.K., Deshpande V.A., (2001), Comparison of weight assignment procedures in evaluation of environmental impacts, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 21, 553-563. Jaeger C., (1998), Risk management and integrated assessment, Env. Modell. Assess., 3, 211-225. Hokstad P., Steiro T., (2006), Overall strategy for risk evaluation and priority setting of risk regulations, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 91, 3575- 3586. Karrer-Ruedi E., (1998), Environmental Management Systems and Standards, Swiss Re America, New York, NY. Khan F.I., Haddara M.M., (2003), Risk-based maintenance (RBM): a quantitative approach for maintenance/inspection scheduling and planning”, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 16, 561-73. Kolluru R., Bartell S., Pitblado R., Stricoff S., (1996), Risk Assessment and Management Handbook: for Environmental, Health and Safety Professionals, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY. Lalley E., (1982), Corporate Uncertainty and Risk Management, Risk Management Society Publishing, New York, NY. Macoveanu M., (2005), Methods and Techniques for Environmental Impact Assessment, 2 nd Edition, Ecozone Press, Iasi, Romania. Morris P., Therivel R., (1995), Methods of environmental impact assessment, UCL Press, London. Negrei C., (1999), Tools and methods for environmental engineering, Economic Press, Bucharest. O’Connor M., Splash C.L., (1999), Introduction, In: O’Connor M., Splash C.L. (Eds.), Valuation and the Environment Theory, method and practice. Advances in Ecological Economics, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp. 1–35. Pearce F., (1999), Rivers of Doubt, New Scientist, London, UK. Petruc V., Robu B., Macoveanu M., (2006), Prediction and quantification of environmental impact and risk for sand blasting and varnishing processes, Proc. of 6th International Congress Of Chemistry, Chemistry And Sustainable Development, Puerto de la Cruz, December 2006, Tenerife, Spain, vol. 2, pg.697, ISBN 84-690-2349-7 Radulescu C.Z., (2002), Mathematical models for environmental risk evaluation and analysis (in Romanian), Romanian Journal of Informatics and Automatics Bucharest, 12, 30-35. Robu B., (2005), Environmental impact and risk assessment for industrial activities, PhD Thesis, Technical University of Iasi, Ecozone Press, Iasi, Romania. Robu B., Macoveanu M., (2005a), Integration of risk assessment into environmental impact assessment procedure – case study for steel processing, Proc. of the 9 th Int. Conf. on Environmental Science and Technology Rhodes, September 2005, Rhodes Greece. Robu B., Macoveanu M., (2005b), Environmental impact and risk assessment of an industrial site used for solid wastes disposal, resulted from steel processing, Proc. of the 3 rd Int. Conf. on Ecological Chemistry, 551-560, Chisinau. Robu B., Macoveanu M., (2005c), Integrated method for environmental impact and risk assessment – case study for a shipyard, Ecological Journal BENA, Greece. Robu B., Petruc V., Macoveanu M., (2006a), Assessment of the impact induced on environment by oil distribution, Scientific Journal of „Al. I. Cuza” University from Iasi, Chemistry series, Tom XIV, No. 1, January-June 2006, p 117-128. Robu B., Petruc V., Macoveanu M., (2006b), Comparative evaluation of impact induced in environment by a refinery, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, Iasi, 5, 457-471. 591

RECENT ADVANCES in ACOUSTICS & MUSIC ... - Wseas.us
Risk Assessment/Risk Management - Environmental Business ...
ADVANCES in ENVIRONMENTAL and GEOLOGICAL ... - Wseas.us
Maritime Services Overview - ABS Consulting
Texte 04/2009 - Umweltbundesamt
Tracking Material Flows in Foreign Lands - Eawag
Challenges of implementing urban horticulture: a growing public ...
Land affected by contamination - 2nd Edition - Basildon District ...
ADVANCES in ENVIRONMENTAL and GEOLOGICAL ... - WSEAS
Environmental Health 2011-2012 Baseline Report - New Gold
Sustainability of Constructions - Universidade do Minho
Texte 04/2009 - Umweltbundesamt
Sustainable Construction A Life Cycle Approach in Engineering
SVT Engineering Consultants capability statement - K.J. Beer Pty Ltd
technical guidance documents - Institute for Health and Consumer ...
Report65-GreyWaterFootprint-Guidelines
Experienced in Assuring Safe Project Delivery - Mustang ...
ESP-Skills-and-Services
Natural Resources Canada Headquarters - Canadian Consulting ...
Irina Mariuca Asavoae Alexandu Ioan Cuza University, Iasi,Romania
Annual Report 2008 - pt tiparire - ICAR Foundation