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Robu et al.

Robu et al. /Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 6 (2007), 6, 573-592 In consequence, the risk assessment involves an estimation (including the identification of the hazards, the magnitude of the effects and the probability of occurrence) and a calculus of the risk (including the quantification of the danger importance and consequences for humans and/or environment). Risk assessment aims at controlling the risks produced on a site by identification of: pollutant agents or the most important hazards; resources and receptors exposed to the risk; mechanisms of risk accomplishment; important risks that emerge on the site; general measures needed for reduction of the risk to an accepted level. The risk depends on the nature of impact upon the receptors but also on the probability of the occurrence of this impact. Identification of the critical factors that influence the relationship source-path-receptor involves the detailed characterization of the site from physical and chemical point of views. Also, this paper briefly described a quantitative risk analysis for port hydrocarbon logistics, proposed by Ronza A., 2006, which consists in the following steps: data collection, scenarios identification, frequency estimation, event tree analysis, consequences analysis, individual risk estimation and the estimation of global risk for population. Mathematic models for environmental analysis and assessment are described too. The modeling of the environmental systems is a very difficult problem owing to their complexity, as well to the complexity of their interaction with different other systems, interaction that is sometimes hard to be defined. In this paper, two environmental mathematic models were described. The first, probabilistic model for risk evaluation uses a repartition function for a random vector that describes the concentrations of the atmospheric pollutant factors. The latter, an optimization model is based on multiple criteria, to appropriate financial funds for pollution reduction. For the second model, the solving modality consists in reduction to an optimization problem with a single objective function. The paper presents some selection and probabilistic methods for risk assessment, particularly for risks related to the emissions of the pollutants gas originated from a source. The sensitive analysis is also presented as a key factor that may have a significant impact in risk assessment. This example is not a very critical one, but in industrial processes critical situations exist. The study can offer an increased reliability and confidence in prediction of the safety states. The enhanced values of the safety factor lead to lower values of the risk, some approaches as the current one, resulting in minimizing the need of excessive safety borders in design and in reducing the expensive analytic and experimental approaches. The method can be used for prediction of the limit state in risk or for estimation of fault occurrence probability in reliability analysis. These types of studies that lead to consistent conclusions regarding the functioning of the technological plants are not only recommended but also necessary for engineers, particularly for the chemical engineers that analysis and manage the risk for taking the optimum decisions on safety. Lately, the trend is to integrate the environmental risk principle into impact assessment procedure, or to base risk assessment on life cycle assessment. Thus, the method SAB, described herein is settled up to evaluate the environmental impact and risk, considering the main environmental components: surface water, ground water, air and soil. To characterize the quality of environment, the specific quality indicators for each environmental components considered in evaluation process, were taken into account. It was also considered the specific of activity, installation, equipment assessed. This new method for integrated environmental impact and risk assessment (EIRA) can be applied for different activities, various industrial installation, processes, industrial sites and other related activities which are performed on. Considering the following environmental components: ground and surface water, soil and air, the evaluation of environmental impacts is done using a matrix in order to calculate the importance of each environmental component, potentially affected by the industrial activities. Concordant to this new method, the impact on environmental component directly depends on pollutants concentration into environment. This way, the impacts for each environmental component considered representative for the evaluated situation were calculated. The next step is the quantification of risks that arise from the activities considered, in the view of the results for environmental impacts. It has to be emphasized that if the impact and risk have very high values, then the impact induced by the considered activities on the environment is great and the environmental risks are at an unacceptable level (major/catastrophic risks). High values for environmental impacts and risks underlay the presence of pollutants in environment in very high concentrations, because impact directly depends on the measured concentration of pollutants. Considering the impact classification from method of global pollution index, a classification of impacts and risks is proposed. This new method has the advantages that it is very easy to be used by non environmental experts; it calculates the impacts and risks, correlated with measured concentrations of quality indicators for environmental component, considered representative in assessment process; it is not a subjective method because the subjectivity is removed applying mathematical steps (the developed soft - SAB). Also, the lack of experience of evaluator doesn’t influence the evaluation results that will reflect the real situation from the evaluated site, where the industrial activities are performed. 590

Methods and procedures for environmental risk assessment Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Program IDEI, Grant ID_595, Contract No. 132/2007, in the frame of the National Program for Research, Development and Innovation II - Ministry of Education and Research, Romania. References Andrews R.N., (1988), Environmental risk assessment and risk assessment: learning from each other. Environmental Impact Assessment: Theory and Practice, Routledge, NY, USA. AICE, (1992), Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, American Institute of Chemical Engineers 2 nd edition, USA. Aven T., Kristensen, V. (2005), Perspectives on risk: review and discussion of the basis for establishing an unified and holistic approach, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 90, 1-14. Barrow C., (1997), Environmental and social impact assessment. An Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Calow P., (1998), Environmental Risk Assessment and Management: the What’s, Why’s and How’s?;’ In: Calow J. 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