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Soceanu et al. /Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 6 (2007), 6, 593-596 Concentrations of iron found in the bulb of carrot (825.51 mg/kg), in stem (506.03 mg/kg) and in leaves (1207.18 mg/kg) of cucumber were over the allowable maximum limit of iron in vegetables; of 425.5 mg/kg. Iron concentrations are higher in leaves of bean and pea plant compared with the others parts of these plants. While Cu concentration was under detection limit in bulb of carrot, a high concentration of Cu (157.84 mg/kg) was detected in carrot leaves, which is over the allowable maximum limit (73.3 mg/kg). All the studied samples are under the recommendable maximum limit of Mn in vegetables (500 mg/kg). Iron concentrations found in fruits are in higher quantities than the other studied metals. The above results show that content of the investigated elements in various vegetables depends on the organ of the plant, the growing stage and also on the level of area pollution. References Adhikari T., Manna M. C., Singh M. V., Wanjari R. H. , (2004), Bioremediation measure to minimize heavy metals accumulation in soils and crops irrigated with city effluent, Food Agric. and Environ., 2, 266-270. Angelova V., Ivanova R., Ivanov K., (2003), Accumulation of lead, cadmium and zinc from contaminated soils to various plants, 2 nd International Conference on Ecological Protection of the Planet Earth. Agriculture and Land Use, Sofia, Bulgaria, 5-8 June. Beebe S., Gonzalez A.V, Rengifo, (2000), Research on trace minerals in the common bean, J. Food Nutr. Bull., 21, 387-391. Belakova M., Havranek E., Bumbalova A., (1995), Heavy metals and some other elements in medicinal plants determined by x-ray fluorescence, J. of Radioanal. and Nucl. Chem., 201, 431-437. Cobb G., Sands K., Waters M., Wixson B., Dorward-King E., (2000), Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes, Env. Toxic. and Chem., 19, 600-607. Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO) Food additives and contaminants.Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme 2001, ALINORM 01/12A:1- 289 Dobra M., Viman V., (2006), Determination of the concentration of heavy metals in soil and plants by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 5, 1197-1203. Gergen I., Gogoasa I., Dragan S., Moigradean D., Harmanescu M., (2006), Heavy metal status in fruits and vegetables from a non-poluted area of Romania (Banat Country), Proc. of 7 th Int. Symp. Of Romanian Academy-Branch Timisoara, Nov. 6-8, Timisoara, Romania. Ivanova J., Korhammer S., Djingova R., Heidenreich H., Markert B., (2001), Determination of lanthanoids and some heavy and toxic elements in plant certified reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Spectro. Acta., 56, 3-12. Lacatusu R., Voiculescu A., Kovacsovics B., Lungu M., Breaban I., Rusu C., Bretan A., (2006), Heavy Metals in Soil-Plant System in a City with Non-Ferrous Ores Extraction and Processing Industry, The 18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9-15, 2006, Philadelphia, USA. Li Y.C., Jiang S.J., Chen S.F., (1998), Determination of Ge, As, Se, Cd and Pb in plant materials by slurry sampling–electrothermal vaporization–inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, Anal. Chim. Acta, 372, 365-372. Masson P., (1999), Matrix effects during trace element analysis in plant samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with axial view configuration and pneumatic nebulize, Spectro. Acta., 54, 603-612. Moraghan J.T., Padilla J., Etchevers J.D., Grafton K., Acosta-Gallegos J.A., (2002), Iron accumulation in seed of common bean, Plant and Soil, 246, 175-183. Perronnet K., Schwartz C., Morel J., (2003 Distribution of cadmium and zinc in the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens grown on multicontaminated soil, Plant and Soil, 249, 19-25. Pettersson O., (1976), Heavy-metal ion uptake by plants from nutrient solutions with metal ion, plant species and growth period variations, Plant and Soil, 45, 445- 459. Pless-Mulloli T., (2001), Pcdd/Pcdf and heavy metals in vegetables samples from Newcastle allotments: Assessment of the role of ash from the Byker incinerator, Byker Ash Vegetable Report, July, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Psaras G.K., Manetas Y., (2001), Nickel Localization in Seeds of the Metal Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi pindicum Hausskn, Annals of botany, 88, 513-516. Secer M., Bodur A., Elmaci O.L., Delibacak N., Iqbal N., (2002), Trace element and heavy metal concentrations in fruits and vegetables of the Gediz River region, Int. J. of Water, 2, 196-211. Tahvonen R., Kumpulainen J, (1991), Lead and cadmium in berries and vegetables on the Finnish market 1987– 1989, Fresenius Journal Anal Chem., 340, 242-244. Varga A., Martinez R., Zaray G., Fodor F., (1999), Investigation of effects of cadmium, lead, nickel and vanadium contamination on the uptake and transport processes in cucumber plants by TXRF spectrometry, Spectro. Acta., 54, 1455-1462. 596

Environmental Engineering and Management Journal November/December 2007, Vol.6, No.6, 597-599 “Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Romania ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Book review CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN AND CONTROL William L. Luyben Wiley-Interscience, A John Wiley&Sons, Inc., Publication, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA ISBN: 978-0-470-09770-0, 2007, XVI+419 pages. The book Chemical Reactor Design and Control is based on the experience of author William L. Luyben, who is a professor of chemical engineering at Lehigh University, and who has also gained rich experience as an engineer with Exxon and DuPont. The great variety of chemical reactions leads to a great variety of chemical reactors with various configurations, operating conditions, sizes. As a result of this, the book offers along 8 chapters a wide spectrum of information concerning reactor basics, as well as design and control of CSTR, tubular and batch reactors. Several types of heat transfer to or from the reactor vessel are presented. Chapter 1, Reactor Basics, reviews some aspects concerning the fundamentals of kinetics and reaction equilibrium (power-law kinetics, heterogeneous reaction kinetics, biochemical reaction kinetics), together with the effects of temperature on rate and equilibruim for different types of reactions, particularized through several examples. Multiple reactions are also discussed, given that they have a major impact on the design of the entire process. In order to supress undesirable sidereactions, it is often necessary to operate the reactor with a low concentration of one of the reactants and an excess of other reactants which have to be recovered in a separation section and then recycled back to the reaction section. Parallel reactions, series reactions are analyzed briefly, in order to allow further discussions on the possibilities to determine the kinetic parameters of the chemical reactions. The classical types of reactors are discussed in a qualitative way, pointing out the features of a batch, continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and plug-flow reactor (PFR), as idealizations of real industrial reactors. An important feature highlighted in this chapter is the that batch and CSTR reactors can be cooled or heated in a variety of ways, which accounts in part for their superior controllability compared to tubular reactors. Many tubular reactors are operated adiabatically, because of the problems in providing heat transfer. The author also writes about one of the most challenging aspects of chemical engineering: the problem of scaling up a process unit from a small laboratory or pilot plant to a large commercial size, the reactors being one of the more difficult systems to deal with. Chapter 2, Steady-state Design of CSTR Systems studies the steady-state design of perfectly mixed continuously operating liquid-phase reactors, which can provide valuable information which gives reasonably reliable indications of how effectively the reactor can be dynamically controlled. The contents of the chapter include analyses of several important types of reactions and the equations describing each of these systems. Matlab programs are used for hypothetical chemical examples, while the commercial software Aspen Plus is used for real chemical examples. The following types of reactions are analyzed: irreversible, single reactant; irreversible, two reactants; reversible exothermic reactions; consecutive reactions; simultaneous reactions, in a single unit or multiple CSTRs (multiple isothermal CSTRs in series with single reactions; multiple CSTRs in series with different temperatures; multiple CSRTs in parallel; multiple CSTRs with reversible exothermic reactions). Chapter 3, Control of CSTR Systems, deals with steady-state designs of a vareity of CSTR systems previously discussed in Chapter 2, but with additionally including their dyanmics and control. There are quantitatively explored the effects of reaction types, kinetics, design parameters and heat removal schemes on system controllability. The first

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