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Archambault and

Archambault and Ulibarr/Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 6 (2007), 6, 491-495 The stakeholder analysis allows for the identification of points of intervention where policy measures or activities can be implemented to strengthen the cultural and environmental attributes of acequias. Through the government’s support of acequia rehabilitation, methods could be introduced that decrease acequia water consumption. The government could support lining the acequias to minimize seepage, or fund the removal of non-native trees that consume large amounts of water along acequia banks. The government and policy groups, such as NMAA and environmental organizations, should encourage acequias to grow crops that are less water intensive. These organizations may aim to educate farmers about such subjects as drip irrigation and other techniques that would reduce the water needed for crops. Improving their environmental performance is likely to cause stakeholders and the general public to increase the value they assign to acequias. Increases in the cultural value achieved from acequias may be wrought through the promotion of tourism that focuses on New Mexico’s acequia cultural heritage. Tourism could further promote the benefits of the riparian habitats associated with acequias, bringing visitors to view birds and other wildlife that are found in the bosque habitat. Such improvements may also bring added value to the residential neighborhoods that exist or are being planned near acequias. Developers may recognize the benefit of maintaining the environmental and cultural attributes of acequias, to increase the value of their development projects. The nonmarket values of acequias are likely to increase if society is more familiar with the environmental and cultural contributions acequias provide. This could be achieved through educational and promotional efforts, and through the sponsorship of academic research focused on acequias. 4. Conclusions Infrastructure changes, the promotion of tourism, and educational activities are likely to require additional investment by the government and other organizations. A quantitative study of acequia nonmarket value could assist in determining society’s WTP for acequias, through increased taxes, fees, or other payment vehicles. The current dollar figure spent by the government to support acequias may be either below or above society’s WTP. An actual WTP value would assist the state in designing a more accurate budget for acequia support. A hedonic study may assist developers in adjusting their projects to account for additional revenue they may receive from striving to maintain acequias within their urban development projects. A travel cost study may indicate the WTP of tourists for certain acequia cultural and landscape amenities when they visit New Mexico. The stakeholder analysis approach is useful for unraveling the complexities that may exist in valuing an activity or policy. It draws attention to those potentially competing stakeholder preferences for nonmarket goods. In this study, stakeholders are seen to recognize a non-market value of acequias. However, the actual monetary value placed on acequias by the government, local developers, members of the Church’s ecological ministry, environmental groups, and other stakeholders is likely to vary. Such context is useful for fully interpreting nonmarket valuation estimates. Understanding the value preferences of individual stakeholders allows for policy and management decisions that may lead the way to strengthened cultural and environmental attributes to maximize the utility of all stakeholders. References Alliance for the Rio Grande Heritage, (2000), Forest Guardians, Rio Grande Restoration, Defenders of Wildlife, Land and Water Fund of the Rockies, Amigos Bravos, Diverting the Rio Grande: Inefficient, wasteful and illegal water use by the MRGCD, On line at: Amigos Bravos, (2007), Fiesta de San Isidro & blessing of the waters, Amigos Bravos Bulletin, Spring, On line at: bulletin/BulletinSpring2007.pdf. Archambault S., (2004), Ecological modernization of the agriculture industry in southern Sweden: reducing emissions to the Baltic Sea, Journal of Cleaner Production, 12, 491-503. Berrens R., Brookshire D., Ganderton P., McKee M., (1998), Exploring nonmarket values for the social impacts of environmental policy change, Resource and Energy Economics, 20, 117-137. Brugha R., Varvasovszky Z., (2000), Stakeholder analysis: A review, Health Policy and Planning, 15, 239-246. Brunstad R., Gaasland I., Vardal E., (1999), Agricultural production and the optimal level of landscape preservation, Land Economics, 75, 538-546. Faux J., Perry G., (1999), Estimating irrigation water value using hedonic price analysis: A case study in Malheur County, Oregon, Land Economics, 75, 440-452. Forest Guardians, (2007), Agriculture water use: The key to living rivers, On line at: Interstate Stream Commission, (2004), Annual report 2003- 2004, New Mexico Office of the State Engineer, On line at:, 04-annual-report/03-04-AnnualReport.pdf. Kontogianni A., Skourtos M., Langford I., Bateman I., Georgiou S., (2001), Integrating stakeholder analysis in non-market valuation of environmental assets, Ecological Economics, 37, 123–138. Los Lunas, (1997), Los Lunas Comprehensive Plan, Village of Los Lunas, New Mexico. Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District (MRGCD), (2007), Albuquerque, New Mexico, On line at: New Mexico Acequia Association (NMAA), (2007), On line at: New Mexico, (2005), Interstate stream commission, additional powers: strategic water reserve, NM Statute 72-14-3.3. 494

Nonmarket valuation of acequias: stakeholder analysis New Mexico Compilation Commission (NMCC), (2007), New Mexico One Source of Law, State of New Mexico, On line at: icense.aspx?dest=cg. Ready R., Abdalla C., (2005), The amenity and disamenity impacts of agriculture: Estimates from a hedonic pricing model, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 87, 314-26. Rivera J., (1998), Acequia Culture: Water Land and Community in the Southwest, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 49-62. Rivera, J., Brown, J., (2000), Acequias de Común: The tension between collective action and private property rights, International Association for the Study of Common Property, Proceedings, Bloomington, Indiana, May 31-June 4, On line at: ivieraj041300.pdf. Rivera, J., Martinez, L., (2000), Acequias de común and sustainable development: reflections from the upper Rio Grande watershed, Congreso Nacional: Gestión del Agua en Cuencas Deficitarias, October 5, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Orihuela, Spain. Schlapfer, F., Hanley, N., (2003), Do local landscape patterns affect the demand for landscape amenities protection?, Journal of Agricultural Economics, 54, 21–35. Think New Mexico, (2003), Rio Vivo! The need for a strategic river reserve in New Mexico, Policy Publication, Santa Fe, New Mexico. Thompson, S., (1986), Urbanization and the Middle Rio Grande Conservancy District, Geopgraphical Review, 76, 35-50. 495

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