11 months ago


Brinzila et al.

Brinzila et al. /Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 6 (2007), 6, 517-520 available and the results are distributed/ communicated. Many different options are occurring as regards reports publishing, data sharing, and remotely controlling the applications (Girao, 2003). 2. The presentation of the system architecture An adaptive architecture based on web server application is proposed, in order to increase the performance of the server that hosts a dedicated (environmental monitoring) Web site, and customize the respective site in a manner that emphasizes the interests of the clients. The most virtual laboratories normally provide access either to one remote application, or accept only one user at a time. The system presented below provides a multitask connection, by accessing different detectors, working with different clients, and offering different variants for dedicated remote jobs, including technical tests of terminals, direct measurements of environment parameters, remote expertises, technical demonstrations or vocational training and education (Fig. 1). soil etc. and web-E-nose pollution monitor). The following procedures are implemented on laboratory server: dynamically allocation, web interfaces and Slab-SL interface. The communications between Centre server and each measurement workstation are performed by bi-directional interfaces SL-Slab and Slab-SL. On the front panel of application, the setup parameters are prescribed, and the data are transferred to the e-multitask interface. From the main web page of the centre server, the operator has the possibility to directly and selectively supervise the measurements protocols and select the parameters display, the publishing procedure, warning degree etc. On the other hand, due to the multitask facility, the number of users (clients) connected in the same time - to exploit the results - may become unlimited. We propose an Internet Based Environmental Monitoring Center with an increasing data exchange speed of information between the small meteorological distributed centers and the other hand all the world can see the evolution of meteorological parameters using World Wide Web. In this case we can warn the people in utile time about bad weather. Electronic mail messages are automatically generated to notify researchers about any identified anomalies. The data are then stored in secure electronic databases and made available for retrieval and analysis via standard web browsers. Authorized users may select any portion of the data and conduct a variety of predefined, automated analysis procedures or import the data into local spreadsheets, databases, or other local analysis software. Fig. 1. System architecture for remote and distributed environmental measurement center The instrumentation control and communication software has been designed under LabView graphical programming language. In particular, the PC-server – via TCP/IP protocol and the client-server - via CGI (Common Gateway Interface) technology, have the important role of developing the PC-instruments communication. CGI simply defines an interface protocol by which the server communicates with the applications. A dedicated software package supports the CGI applications in form of virtual instruments, used to develop interactive applications for Web-enabled experimental set-ups (that may be geographically distributed stations or expensive instruments, distributed areas of specialized sensors for water, air, Fig. 2. The main page of the virtual environmental measurement center and Virtual Laboratory for on-line measurements The authors propose in the same time an educational measurement remote system. Today, many academic institutions offer a variety of webbased experimentation environments so called remote laboratories that support remotely operated physical experiments. Such remote experiments entail remote operation of “distant” physical equipment offering students more time for laboratory work. This is one 518

Virtual environmental measurement center based on remote instrumentation way to compensate for the reduction of lab sessions with face-to-face supervision without significant increase of cost per student. Remote experiments are adapted to the flexible environment of the students of today and permit low cost methods for lab work evaluation. Web-based experimentation is an excellent supplement to traditional lab sessions. The students can access lab stations outside the laboratory and perform experiments around the clock. It is possible to design virtual instructors in software which will protect the equipment from careless use; also theft of equipment will not be a problem. Interfaces enabling students to recognize on their own computer screen the instruments and other equipment in the local laboratory may easily be created. Apart from the fact that each student or team of students works remotely in a virtual environment with no faceto-face contact with an instructor or other students in the laboratory, the main difference between a lab session in the remote laboratory described here and a session in a local laboratory is that it is not possible for students to manipulate physical equipment e.g. wires and electronic components with their fingers in a remote laboratory. In this way, the architecture of the system has two mains components: • client user that uses a client computer and • measurement provider who disposes the server with the web site of the virtual laboratory. Two cases are possible for remote teaching and education. In the first case, the professor from server room, after he set the students connected in this way, the students from their home study points can receive and follow the lessons. The number of students connected in the same time is unlimited. All communication software is designed under LabVIEW graphical programming language. The main web page is located in server that allows the access to every station, using a connection link. In this machine a web server is running. The LabVIEW server represents the back up for the individual stations. In the second case the server is set to all user masters. The students are able to perform the connection via modem and provider until server, in order to training and practice the programs. An adaptive Web server application tries to increase the performance of the Web server that hosts a Web site, as seen from the point of view of clients. The adaptiveness is based on the customization of the Web site in a manner that emphasizes the interests of the clients. Our server with dynamic allocation of client number is auto restarting. The monitories parameters are the fallowing: air temperature (T1-T4), humidity (HR1-HR2), pressure (P), wind speed (WS) and wind direction (WD), rain gauge (RG), solar radiation (SR), and air quality (AQ) using the Web-E-Nose. The sensor types and accuracies are listed in Table 1. The meteo-system architecture is composed as follows: • the specialized sensors, • signal conditioning circuit, • power supply - rechargeable batteries • a data acquisition board with data transfer by RS232 port, • PC meteo-host, and the server provided with an Ethernet controller, • PC video-host The main components of the Web E-Nose with data distribution by Internet: • sensor array that “sniffs” the vapors from a sample and provides a set of measurements. • prototype data acquisition board SADI • a microcontroller • Tibbo Ethernet server, The microcontroller is the WebE-Nose “brain” having the roll to communicate with the SADI and Tibbo Ethernet server, acquiring information from the gas sensors and SHT11 temperature and humidity sensor, processing data for pattern recognition and transmit the decision by RS232 protocol to the Ethernet server. Table 1. Gradients of environmental sustainability Parameter Sensor Accuracy 0.5°C accuracy precision integrated-circuit Temperature guaranteeable (at centigrade temperature. +25°C) Humidity Wind speed Wind direction Rain gauge Pressure Solar radiation (total sun and sky) the RH sensor is a laser trimmed thermoset polymer capacitive sensing element with on-chip integrated signal conditioning. the sensor consists of a lightweight 3-cup anemometer, which is mechanically coupled to an AC generator. the sensor consists of a vane and counterweight assembly, which is mechanically coupled to a potentiometer tipping bucket 0.01 inch resolution the sensor is made up of a bellows, which is directly coupled to the core of a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) photovoltaic sensor 3. Applications and perspectives ±2% RH, 0-100% RH noncondensing, 25 °C, Vsupply = 5 Vdc ± 2.0 mph (0.90 m/s) over entire range m/s). operating range: 0- 100 mph ± 3.0° ±1% at 1” per hour ±0,02” Hg over any ±2,00” Hg span ±10% of the standard(48 junction thermopile black and white pyranometer) Pilot research cooperation for a regional high speed environmental measurement centre, based on remote instrumentation, was established in 2007 with the kind support from the Local Council, Town Hall and the local Environmental Agency in Iasi. The research is still under development, and the target lies in mapping all the residential and industrial areas of the county, improving the remote instruments and developing the fast communication with all distributed meteorological stations in the related area and centralizing the data at the central station level. 519

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