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Brinzila et al.

Brinzila et al. /Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 6 (2007), 6, 517-520 The data will be further processed according to a statistical model, allowing the evaluation of peak, average and trend parameters and permitting a pertinent prediction of pollution - related either to temporal (season, day/night, peak hours etc.) or geographical parameters (altitude, vicinity etc.), or to atmospheric conditions (humidity, wind etc.), or even to societal demands, or to other relevant contextual circumstances. The communication system is in work at this time, and will process on-line the data towards an active database, even corroborated with other information obtained previously or independently from the (autonomous) meteorological stations or balloons, or from the individually displayed ground sensors. By this way, the system primarily receives real-time information from the monitored sites, evaluates/predicts the potential risk for environment safety and can generate automatic reports to the central control centre, from where a potential pertinent intervention can be eventually done. But, nevertheless, the proposed concept may be very useful not only for the decisional factors, local authorities, accreditation bodies etc., but also for the educational process and public aware. The proposed concept was tested already as an educational tool for the students dealing with “Environment Quality and Maintenance Management” discipline. For higher education purposes, the proposed system accomplishes some peculiar tasks of a Virtual Laboratory for environment monitoring field, according to some of the applications described by Branzila M. et al. (2005 and 2006) or Schreiner C. et al. (2006). 4. Conclusions The paper presents the architecture of a versatile, flexible, cost efficient, high-speed environmental measurement centre, based on remote instrumentation, and having as final purposes the monitoring of the air quality (physical and chemical parameters) and the advertising of the air pollution. In many locations a basic infrastructure to evaluate the environment parameters already exists, but a unitary concept of an E-environment centre can be used to deliver services of comparable or higher quality, at a clear lower cost and a higher speed and reliability. On the other hand, a prototype of Web-E-Nose system was tested, and provided to be well suited for repetitive and accurate measurements, without being affected by saturation. But the successful implementation of such Web-E-Nose concepts for air pollution evaluation at larger scales will require a careful examination of all costs, either direct or indirect, and should demonstrate its societal benefit over time. The remote and distributed measurement system developed as environmental centre may be also particularized as virtual laboratory for on-line environmental monitoring, helping the formation of well trained specialists in the domain. References Branzila M., Alexandru C.I., Donciu C., Cretu M., (2006), Design and Analysis of a proposed Web Electronic Nose (WebE-Nose), IPI , LII, 971-976. Branzila M., Fosalau C., Donciu C., Cretu M., (2005), Virtual Library Included in LabVIEW Environment for a New DAS with Data Transfer by LPT, Proc. IMEKO TC4 , vol.1, Gdynia/Jurata Poland, 535-540. Girao P., Postolache O., Pereira M., Ramos H., (2003), Distributed measurement systems and intelligent processing for water quality assessment, Sensors & Transducers Magazine, 38, 82-93. Schreiner C., Branzila M., Trandabat A., Ciobanu R., (2006), Air quality and pollution mapping system, using remote measurements and GPS technology, Global NEST Journal, 8, 315-323, 2006. Trandabat A., Branzila M., Schreiner C., (2005), Distributed measurements system dedicated to environmental safely, Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on the Manag. of Tech. Changes, vol.2, Chania, Greece, 121-124. 520

Environmental Engineering and Management Journal November/December 2007, Vol.6, No.6, 521-527 “Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Romania ______________________________________________________________________________________________ MICROWAVE-ASSISTED CHEMISTRY. A REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS Mioara Surpăţeanu 1 , Carmen Zaharia 1∗ , Georgiana G. Surpăţeanu 2 1 “Gh. Asachi”Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Bd.D.Mangeron 71A, 700050, Iasi, Romania 2 Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Antwerp Abstract The extraction of some pollutants from different matrices, the treatment of hazardous and infectious wastes, the destruction of refractory compounds and the prevention of noxious emissions are the main environmental applications of microwave-assisted chemistry. The advantages and disadvantages of this technique are also considered. Key words: microwave-assisted chemistry, environmental application 1. Introduction In the latest time, microwaves have been exceeded the stage of domestic utilization or uses in telecommunications. Thus, many other applications are reported such as: synthesis of new compounds (Ferone et al., 2006; Logar et al., 2006), particularly drugs (Larhed and Haldberg, 2001), chemical analysis based on hydrolysis (Stenberg et al., 2001), digestion reactions or extraction procedures (Chang et al., 2004), hydrometallurgy (Al-Harahsheh and Kingman, 2004) and environmental protection, especially for accelerating the destruction of some pollutants (Horicoshi and Tokunaga, 2006). These applications are based on the fact that the microwave irradiation procedures assure an efficient internal heat-transfer and make possible superheating even at atmospheric pressure (Larhed and Haldberg, 2001). Consequently, a considerable reduction of reaction time is obtained and thus microwave chemistry proves their efficiency. Other benefits of microwave homogenous heating are: milder reaction conditions, higher chemical yields or a better recovery of volatile elements and compounds, lower contamination level, minimal volumes of reagents are required, lower energy consumption, more reproducible procedures and a better working environment (Agazzi and Pirola, 2000). 2. Microwave chemistry basics Microwave is a form of electromagnetic energy with wavelength between 1 mm and 1 m that corresponds to frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. The most commonly frequency of 2450 MHz is used for microwave chemistry (Larhed and Haldberg, 2001; Al-Harhsheh and Kingman, 2004). This frequency just affects the rotation energy of molecules and the interference with telecommunications frequencies are avoided. The heating effect of microwaves is mainly based on two mechanisms: dipolar polarisation and conduction. Dipolar polarisation is due to the fact that the dipole is sensitive to external electric fields and will attempt to align with them by rotation but this motion is prevented by intermolecular inertia. Depending on irradiation frequency, the dipole may react by aligning itself in/out phase with the electric field. The microwave frequency is low enough that the dipoles have time to respond to the alternating field, and therefore to rotate, but high enough that the rotation does not precisely follow the field. As the dipole ∗ Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed:

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