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2007_6_Nr6_EEMJ

Lazar et al.

Lazar et al. /Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 6 (2007), 6, 529-535 Fig. 6. The block-diagram for the process of catalytic purification of pollutant emission resulted stationary sources 5. Reduction of pollution with VOC in the case of a degreasing plant For obeying the limit values of VOC emissions in accordance to Directive 1999/13/CE, the solvents users may choose a reduction plan. In this context, one may appeal to the primary measures for pollution reduction in the case of these types of emissions: a) taking into account the primary measures for replacement of solvents containing high amounts of VOC with other containing lower amounts; b) insertion of a new technology for treatment of the residual emissions inside the technological flux. In the case of emissions of gases containing low VOC content (< 5000 ppm COV), an advantageous treatment is the oxidative destruction in the presence of a catalyst, process named catalytic incineration. This is based on the principle of thermal–oxidative destruction of VOC, in the presence of a catalyst, ensuring conditions for a total oxidation reaction up to formation of CO 2 and H 2 O. The catalytic incinerators are constructed in function of the user specific requirements, the nature and concentration of the organic pollutant, the amount of the treated effluent and the method of heat recovery (Dumitriu and Hulea, 1999; Heck and Farrauto, 2002). In figure 6, the block-diagram for the process of catalytic treatment of gaseous emissions polluted with VOC resulted from the stationary technological sources, is depicted. In general, the incineration technological process involves unit operations such as: trapping and transport of the pollutant gases, separation of the components that may occur to catalyst deactivation, heating of the gases based on the external energy or on recovered heat, mixing with oxidizing agents, catalytic treatment and heat recovery (Balasanian and Lazar, 2002). 6. Conclusions In this paper, an analysis of the polluting sources with VOC was accomplished, being also done a solvents mass balance for the process of decreasing of the metallic surfaces, that constitute the basis of the solvents management plan, as well as the resulting emissions reduction plan. The volatile organic compounds are an important category of environmental pollutants being emitted into the atmosphere in a significantly amount as a result of the industrial activities were organic substances are used as solvents or diluents. The diversity, from the point of view of the chemical nature and the physical characteristics specific to the solvents (high volatility, flammability, toxicity, specific odor, carcinogenic effect etc.), confers to VOC emissions a major risk for the human health, even when they are present in low concentrations. For these reason, the prevention, control reduction at the source of pollution with VOC is required, obeying the admissible maximum concentration regulated by Directive 1999/13/CE. Any user of solvents containing VOC should give a great importance to the management solvents, that is based on the mass balance, which is further used for establishment of solvents consumption for a period of one year, proving the compliance with the limit values for the diffusive emissions, in conformity with the yearly consumption threshold, regulated by law (HG 699, 2003). The solvents mass balance is utilized as a system for control and management and for the reduction of the costs of plant operation. The economic agents gain, in the first time, a total view on using domains that need a replacement of the utilized solvents being thus, able to recognize easier the weak points of the industrial activity. 534

Environmental pollution with VOCs and possibilities for emission treatment For complying with the limit values concordant to the Directive 1999/13/CE, the economic agents may achieve a plan for reduction of the environmental pollution with VOC, choosing the replacement of the solvents containing high amounts of VOC, with others having a lower content or inserting in the technological flux of a technology for residual gases treatment. References Balasanian I., Lazar L., (2002), Waste Management, (Chapter 6.2. Removal and Treatment of Gas and Vapour Polluants), Oros V., Draghici C. (Eds), EnvEdu Series, Transilvania University Press, Romania, Brasov, 150-171. Dumitriu E., Hulea V., (1999), Heterogeneous Catalytic Methods Applied in the Environment Protection, BIT Press, Iasi, Romania (In Romanian). EPA, (1995), Survey of Control Technologies for Low Concentration Organic Vapor Gas Streams, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) and Office of Research and development (ORD), Control Technology Center, EPA-456/R-95-003, May 1995, on line at: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/catc EC Directive, (1996), Directive of concerning integrated pollution prevention and control, Directive 96/61/EC. EC Directive, (1999), Directive on the limitation of emissions of VOCs due to the use of organic solvents in certain activities and installations, Directive 1999/13/EC. EC Directive, (2004), Directive on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain paints and varnishes and vehicle refinishing products and amending Directive 1999/13/CE, Directive 2004/42/EC. Heck R.M., Farrauto R.J., (2002), Catalytic air pollution control: Commercial Technology, 2 en ed., Wiley- Interscience, New York - USA. HG 699, (2003), Governmental Decision 699/2003 concerning the establishment of measures for reduction of emission of volatile organic compounds resulted from use of organic solvents in certain activities and plants, published in Romanian, Official Journal M.Of. No. 489/8.07.2003. HG 1902, (2004), Governmental Decision 1902/2004 for modifying and adding up of HG no. 699/2003, published in Romanian Official Journal , M. Of. No. 1102/25.11.2004. Lazar L., (2006), Air treatment for volatile organic compounds removal, Ph.D. Thesis, Gh. Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania. Lazaroiu Gh., (2000), Modern Technologies for Depollution of Air, AGIR Press, Bucharest, Romania (in Romania). MAPPM Romania (2001), Inventory of the emissions of the atmospheric pollutants at national level for the year 2001, On line at: http://www.mappm.ro/legislatie/inventar%202001.ht ml PHARE Program, (2002), Implementation of the VOC’s, LCP and Seveso II Directives, Twinning project between the Romanian Ministry of Environment and Water Management and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Twinning Project RO/2002/IB/EN/02. SR 13253, (1996), Standard concerning the packaging and labeling of the hazardous substances and compounds. The inventory of the atmospheric pollutants at national level including heavy metals and persistent organics for the years, 2000 and 2001, using the methodology EEA/EMEP/CORINAIR (2000), ICIM Bucharest, On line at: www.mmediu.ro Preliminary inventory of the activities and plants that lye on the incidence of the regulations of the Directive1999/13/CE, MMGA, by APM (2002, 2003, 2004). On line at: www.mmediu.ro 535

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