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Orha et al.

Orha et al. /Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 6 (2007), 6, 541-544 The influence of both Ag cation and thermal treatment on the IR vibration is gathered in Table 3, and it can be underlined that the shoulder at 1205 cm - 1 corresponding the internal tetrahedral asymmetric stretching disappeared in the presence of silver. Also, small changes related to the transmittance intensity of the vibration bands at 456 cm -1 , 1053 cm -1 in the presence of Ag cation were found out. The changes of the vibration bands, i.e., internal tetrahedral bending and internal tetrahedral asymmetric stretching in the presence of Ag gave information about the Ag incorporation into zeolite lattice. Table 2. The vibration bands for Romanian natural zeolite from Mirsid Vibration modes Wavenumber [cm -1 ] Intensity Internal tetrahedral bending 456 strong External tetrahedral double ring 604 medium External tetrahedral linkage symmetric 791 weak stretching External tetrahedral linkage asymmetric 1053 strong stretching Internal tetrahedral asymmetric stretching 1205 shoulder O-H bending 1650 wide Table 3.The transmittance values at each wave number for unmodified/modified zeolite Sample T 1650 (%) T 1205 (%) T 1053 (%) T 791 (%) T 604 (%) T 456 (%) Natural zeolite 60.7356 25.014 6.72181 68.6638 42.8188 18.0681 Ag doped 58.6873 - 1.97174 63.8796 36.7916 8.58711 zeolite Z-Ag 81.0015 - 23.1584 81.0711 71.9144 38.5474 4. Conclusions The ion exchange total capacities of natural and sodium forms of zeolite from Mirsid, Romania with the dimension of pores ranged between 0.8-1.2 mm for silver depended slightly on the zeolite form (natural or Na-form). The presence of Ag into zeolite was identified by LIBS and the quantitative assessment of Ag modified zeolite obtained for its use in water disinfection was achieved by ICP-AES, the Ag amount incorporated into zeolite lattice was 0.0065 mg/g zeolite. Ag amount incorporated into zeolite was about twenty times smaller than ion exchange total capacity of the zeolite for silver, this aspect being suitable for its use as antibacterial material due to the avoiding of undesired precipitation of silver oxide on zeolite surface. The comparative characterization of natural and Ag - doped zeolite performed by XRD proved the trace existence of AgAlO 2 form into the zeolite lattice. The existence of smaller particles in the presence of Ag proved by the structural characterization provided by SEM and AFM showed the specific surface area increasing of the Ag doped zeolite. The changes of internal tetrahedral bending and internal tetrahedral asymmetric stretching vibration bands of IR spectrum supported the Ag incorporation into zeolite lattice. Acknowledgements The structural analyses were made by co-operation with University of PECS, Institute of Physics and Laser Spectroscopy within the framework of the Romanian - Hungarian bilateral scientific research Project RO-Hu- 20/2002 – 2005. This study was supported by the Romanian National Research of Excellence Programs-CEEX, Grant 631/03.10.2005 - PROAQUA and 115/01.08.2006 SIWMANET. References Cerjan-Stefanovic S., Siljeg M., Bokic L., Stefanovic B., Koprivanac N., (2004), Removal of metal – complex dyestuffs by Croatian clinoptilolite, Proceedings: 14 th International Zeolite Conference, 1900-1906. Cooney E.L., Booker N.A., Shallcross D.C., Stevens G.W., (1999), Ammonia removal from wastewaters using natural australian zeolite, Separation Science and Technology, 34, 2741-2760. Hagiwara Z., Hoshino S., Ishino H., Nohara S., Tagawa K., Yamanaka K., (1990), Zeolite particles retaining silver ions having antibacterial properties, United States Patent, No. 4, 911,898. Inoue Y., Hoshino M., Takahashi H., Noguchi T., Murata T., Kanzaki Y., Hamashima H., Sasatsu M., (2002), Bactericidal activity of Ag-zeolite mediated by reactive oxygen species under aerated conditions, Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 92, 37-42 Orha C., Manea F., Burtica G., Barvinschi P., (2007) A study of silver modified zeolite envisaging its using as water disinfectant, submitted to Revue Roumaine de Chimie. Rivera-Garza M., Olguin M.T., Garcia-Sosa I., Alcantare D., Rodriguez-Fuentes G., (2000), Silver supported on natural Mexican zeolite as an antibacterial material, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 39, 431-444. Rodriguez-Fuentes G., Ruiz-Salvador A.R., Mir M., Picazo O, Quintana G., Delgado M., (1998), Thermal and cation influence on IR vibrations of modified natural clinoptilolite, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 20, 269-281. Top A., Ulku S., (2004), Silver, zinc and copper exchange in a Na-clinoptilolite and resulting effect on antibacterial activity, Applied Clay Science, 27, 13- 19. Woinarski A. Z., Stevens G. W., Snape I., (2006), A natural zeolite permeable reactive barrier to treat heavy-metal contaminated waters in Antarctica: kinetic and fixedbed studies, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 84, 109-116. 544

Environmental Engineering and Management Journal November/December 2007, Vol.6, No.6, 545-548 “Gh. Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Romania ______________________________________________________________________________________________ USING GPS TECHNOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTED MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR AIR QUALITY MAPING OF REZIDENTIAL AREA Alexandru Trandabăţ 1∗ , Marius Branzila 1 , Codrin Donciu 1 , Marius Pîslaru 2 , Romeo Cristian Ciobanu 1 1 Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, 51-53 Mangeron Blvd., 700050, Iasi, Romania 2 Technical University of Iasi, Dept. of Management and Engineering of Production Systems, 53 Mangeron Blvd., 700050, Iasi, Romania Abstract The project’s idea is really simple: using the LabView environment, we have realized a virtual instrument able to get from the GPS the information about latitude, longitude, altitude and from a prototype data acquisition board for environmental monitoring parameters the information about air pollution factors. The perfect solution regarding the costs, the covered area and the accuracy of the measured data is the use of a glider for flight, because of its characteristics: free flights (without engine – meaning no local air polluting source), mobility (it is able to cover in one flight hundreds of kilometers) and low cost maintenance. All the information obtained during the measurement flights are corroborate with the meteorological information obtained from the local automatic meteorological station This mapping system can be used to map the information about the air pollution factors dispersion in order to answer to the needs of residential and industrial areas expansion. Key words: Virtual Instrumentation, Distributed Measurements, GPS, Air Quality Assurance 1. Introduction The atmospheric environment needs to be examined in consideration of the following three phenomena: global warming, ozone-layer depletion, air pollution. Among these three, global warming is the most critical in terms of environmental conservation. Global warming is a result of greenhouse-gas emissions; therefore, to prevent it, greenhouse-gas emissions must be reduced. A major greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide (CO2). Therefore, reducing energy use, or saving energy, is the most effective way to help prevent global warming. There are some other gases that have a considerable influence on global warming. The first step to cutting the emissions of these gases as another environmental conservation measure is to monitor them in order to find a way to control those (Branzila et al., 2004). The decisions related to the environment safety are often taken in the belief that they are scientifically well founded, i.e. by placing an excessive faith in the reliability of the expert information on which they are based. But, during the last century, such a pursuit was denied by an alarming number of environmental injuries, causing a continuously growing societal concern. Today – more than ever – the public demands credible and understandable information about the quality of the environment in which they live or work the trend of environmental indicators, the priority problems related to environment pollution and long term associated risks. Accordingly, the common uncertainty and/or ignorance in decision-making AIR QUALITY AND POLLUTION MAPPING SYSTEM 317 must be balanced by innovative and multidisciplinary methods in order to carry out an efficient exchange of information across the different sectors and aspects involved in environmental monitoring (Trandabat and Pislaru, 2005). ∗ Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed:

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