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5. THE RESULTS: COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICS 52 MATHEMATICS STANDARDS Operations and Algebraic Thinking Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. (1.OA.2) Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12. (Associative property of addition.) (1.OA.3) Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8. (1.OA.4) Add and subtract with 20. Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2). (1.OA.5) Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13). (1.OA.6) Work with addition and subtraction. Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2. (1.OA.7) Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = – 3, 6 + 6 = (1.OA.8) Geometry Analyze, compare, create, compose shapes. Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/ “corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). (K.G.4)

5. THE RESULTS: COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICS 53 MATHEMATICS STANDARDS Reason with shapes and their attributes. Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quartercircles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. 12 (1.G.2) Measurement and Data Measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units. Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps. (1.MD.2) Represent and interpret data. Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another. (1.MD.4) 12 Students do not need to learn formal names such as “right rectangular prism.”

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