of placing constraints on a particular path for the amount of bandwidth available, the latency of a path, or specifying an explicit primary and backup path for traffic of a particular class. This flexibility gives administrators the ability to ensure strict SLA across different customers and traffic characteristics. MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE) functions by learning the topology and resources available in a network and then mapping traffic flows to a particular path, called a label switched path (LSP). The LSP is a unidirectional tunnel from a source MPLS node (headend) to a destination MPLS node (tailend). The tunnel calculation uses a link-state database that contains flooded topology, and resource information operates at the LSP headend node. This mapping can be based on resource requirements and network resources, such as bandwidth. One of the other concepts of MPLS TE is the capability to protect a link, a node, and even to protect a complete end-to-end path via TE. MPLS TE uses extensions to either IS-IS or OSPF. If configured, OSPF or IS-IS can automatically route the traffic onto the LSPs. RSVP can be leveraged as part of MPLE TE to automatically establish and maintain the LSPs. Finally, one interesting feature supported with NX-OS and MPLS TE is AutoBandwidth. The AutoBandwidth feature enables traffic to be mapped to a specific LSP based on the QoS class and policy set configured on the system. This functionality enables complete class-based tunnel selection. MPLS TE requires one of the IGP features (OSPF or ISIS) to be enabled. Enabling feature mpls traffic-engineering can automatically enable other required NX-OS components (RSVP, OAM, MPLS MGR, and ULIB). The following is a listing of steps to configure LDP on a Nexus 7000, with examples of each step: 1. Enable the TE feature (see Example 12-16). 2. Disable/Enable MPLS TE globally (enabled by default) (refer to Example 12-16). 3. Configure TE for the IGP (IS-IS or OSPF), as shown in Example 12-17 and Example 12-18. Example 12-16. Enabling MPLS TE Click here to view code image N7k-1(config)# feature mpls traffic-engineering N7k-1(config)# mpls traffic-eng configuration N7k-1(config-te)# [no] shutdown N7k-1(config)# interface loopback0 N7k-1(config-if)# ip address 188.8.131.52/32 Example 12-17. Configuring MPLS TE for IS-IS
Click here to view code image N7k-1(config)# router isis p1 N7k-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng level-2 N7k-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id loopback0 Example 12-18. Configuring MPLS TE for OSPF Click here to view code image N7k-1(config)# router ospf p1 N7k-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng area 0 N7k-1(config-router)# mpls traffic-eng router-id loopback0 MPLS and IPv6: 6PE and 6VPE Over the next few years, a transition to IPv6 is imminent because IPv4 address space is nearing exhaustion. One of the key features introduced with MPLS Layer 3 VPN and TE support in NX-OS 5.2(1) for the Nexus 7000 is the capability to implement IPv6 on routers across a IPv4 transport, which is known as 6PE, and native IPv6 VPNs over MPLS, which is known as 6VPE. Leveraging 6PE enables the capability to aid in migration to IPv6 by supporting IPv6 transport across both data center and in the campus networks on top of an existing IPv4 infrastructure. This is possible with minimal operational overhead whether a dual stack or a tunnel-based IPv4 to IPv6 transition mechanism is in place. 6PE also has the capability to further traffic separation between IPv4 and IPv6. 6PE and 6VPE are two completely different features, although each has similar acronyms. While 6PE is leveraged in environments with existing IPv4 MPLS configurations, if native IPv6 VPNs are deployed, 6VPE can be leveraged. Note At press time, static routes and BGPv6 are supported as a CE-PE routing protocol for 6PE and 6VPE. Management and Troubleshooting NX-OS and the Nexus 7000 support a number of tools to help enable support, management, and troubleshooting of the platform. One feature included in NX-OS is Ethanalyser, which is a built-in protocol analyser that can be leveraged to capture inbound control plane packets for troubleshooting and debugging. NX-OS includes OAM services along with tools such as LSP ping and LSP traceroute for a label-switched path and traffic engineering tunnel troubleshooting. NX-OS also supports a number of SNMP MIBs based on both RFCs and certain IETF. These include LSR MIB, LDP MIB, Traffic Engineering MIB, and FRR MIB (IETF draft).
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