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Review of Pharmacology - 9E (2015)

Review

Review of Pharmacology Glucocorticoids • Prednisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone and budesonide are used in the treatment of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. • Purine analogs • Azathioprine and 6-MP are important agents for the induction and maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Methotrexate • It is used for the induction and maintenance of remission of Crohn’s disease but not ulcerative colitis. Anti TNF-a therapy • Infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab are useful in Crohn’s disease. Efficacy in ulcerative colitis is doubtful. Infliximab is given by i.v. route whereas other two are administered s.c. Certolizumab is a pegylated anti-TNF-α indicated for crohn’s disease. Gastrointestinal Tract Monoclonal Antibodies for Crohn’s Disease • Infliximab • Adalimumab • Certolizumab • Natalizumab • Vedolizumab Anti-Integrin Therapy • Natalizumab is recently approved for moderate to severe Crohn’s disease not responding to other therapies. It is targeted against α 4 subunit of integrins. The patient on natalizumab therapy should not be on other immunosuppressants due to risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). • Vedolizumab is a new anti-integrin that block α4 b7 in GIT but not in brain. It is, thus, less likely to cause PML. 494 https://kat.cr/user/Blink99/

Gastrointestinal Tract Condition • Peptic ulcer Drug of Choice Drug of choice -- Gastric ulcer Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) -- Duodenal ulcer PPI -- Stress ulcer PPI -- NSAID-induced PPI -- H. pylori associated Lansoprazole + Amoxycillin + Clarithromycin -- Zollinger Ellison syndrome PPI -- Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease • Vomiting -- Chemotherapy induced 5-HT 3 antagonists like palonosetron PPI -- Levo-dopa induced Domperidone -- Migraine associated Metoclopramide -- Drug or disease associated Metoclopramide -- Post-operative Ondansetron -- Radiation induced Ondansetron -- Cisplatin - induced * Early 5-HT 3 antagonists * Delayed Aprepitant -- Prophylaxis of motion sickness Hyoscine -- Pregnancy (Morning sickness) Doxylamine + Pyridoxine • Opioid induced constipation Methyl naltrexone • Diarrhea in carcinoid syndrome Octreotide • To prevent dehydration in diarrhea ORS • Crohn’s disease Corticosteroids • Ulcerative colitis 5-ASA derivatives • Hepatic encephalopathy Lactulose General Gastrointestinal Pharmacology Tract 495 https://kat.cr/user/Blink99/

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    Review of Pharmacology Ninth Editio

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    Dedicated to My parents, wife Prave

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    Preface to the Ninth Edition We wan

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    Acknowledgments When emotions are p

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    References • Harrison’s Princip

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    Contents 1. History of Pharmacology

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    CHAPTER 1 History of pharmacology S

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    CHAPTER 2 General Pharmacology Phar

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    General Pharmacology Note: It is si

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    General Pharmacology Drug metaboliz

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    General Pharmacology Order of kinet

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    General Pharmacology Therapeutic Dr

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    General Pharmacology Fig. 2.4: G-pr

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    General Pharmacology sigmoid shaped

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    General Pharmacology Phase 1: Here,

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    General Pharmacology 5. Essential m

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    General Pharmacology (b) Bioavailab

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    General Pharmacology (c) Are highly

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    General Pharmacology (c) Strong aci

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    General Pharmacology (a) 50 mg/hour

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    General Pharmacology 140. Phamacoge

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    General Pharmacology (c) Piroxicam

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    206. Which of the following drugs s

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    General Pharmacology 29. In which t

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    General Pharmacology Explanations 1

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    General Pharmacology • Other fact

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    General Pharmacology -- Suppose, 10

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    General Pharmacology 77. Ans. (a) W

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    = 40 L × 4 mg/L = 160 mg Clearance

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    General Pharmacology 126. Ans. (c)

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    General Pharmacology 154. Ans. (d)

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    General Pharmacology Intolerance is

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    General Pharmacology 6. Ans. (b) b

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    CHAPTER 3 Autonomic Nervous System

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    Autonomic Nervous System Functions

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    Autonomic Nervous System • Carbac

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    Autonomic Nervous System used for g

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    Autonomic Nervous System -- Central

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    Autonomic Nervous System • Theref

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    Autonomic Nervous System • Eye: S

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    Autonomic Nervous System • Dopami

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    Autonomic Nervous System • Phenox

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    Autonomic Nervous System Lipid Inso

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    Autonomic Nervous System Drug of Ch

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    Multiple Choice Questions Autonomic

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    Autonomic Nervous System (c) Organo

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    (c) Physostigmime (d) Hyoscine hydr

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    Autonomic Nervous System (c) Tropic

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    132. A drug that blocks the uptake

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    165. Clonidine is used for: (Kolkat

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    as an effective substitute which do

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    Autonomic Nervous System 13. Which

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    Autonomic Nervous System (c) Increa

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    Autonomic Nervous System 9. Ans. (a

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    Autonomic Nervous System 39. Ans. (

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    Autonomic Nervous System - Temazepa

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    Autonomic Nervous System 103. Ans.

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    Autonomic Nervous System have no ef

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    Autonomic Nervous System 166. Ans.

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    Autonomic Nervous System 194. Ans.

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    Autonomic Nervous System 23. Ans. (

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    CHAPTER 4 Autacoids These are the s

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    Autacoids All second generation ant

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    Autacoids v v v v v Calcium channel

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    Autacoids nary bypass. It can also

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    Autacoids to presence of sulfur con

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    Autacoids Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheu

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    Autacoids It is a monoclonal antibo

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    Autacoids Drug of choice Condition

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    15. Anti-vertigo drug which modulat

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    49. Sumatriptan is: (DPG 1999, TN 2

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    81. All of the following effects ar

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    114. Which prostaglandin helps in c

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    Autacoids 148. Which of the followi

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    Autacoids 30. A 15 year old boy was

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    Autacoids 16. Ans. (b) Dangerous ve

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    Autacoids 56. Ans. (c) Cyclooxygena

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    Autacoids 85. Ans. (b) Aspirin supp

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    Autacoids 125. Ans. (b) Indomethaci

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    Autacoids 13. Ans. (a) Naproxen (Re

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    CHAPTER 5 Cardiovascular System CON

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    Cardiovascular System In atrial fib

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    Cardiovascular System Treatment of

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    Cardiovascular System should be use

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    Cardiovascular System tive α 1 blo

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    Cardiovascular System nifedipine an

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    Cardiovascular System Treatment of

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    Cardiovascular System ANGINA PECTOR

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    Cardiovascular System BETA BLOCKERS

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    Cardiovascular System The action po

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    Cardiovascular System depolarized c

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    Cardiovascular System • Digoxin i

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    Cardiovascular System Contd... •

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    Cardiovascular System DRUG OF CHOIC

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    15. Digoxin toxicity is aggravated

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    (c) Treat digoxin toxicity (d) Rapi

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    (c) Decreases sodium and increases

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    Cardiovascular System 113. All of t

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    146. Which of the following drugs i

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    Cardiovascular System 180. Characte

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    213. In a patient with hypertriglyc

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    247. ACE inhibitors cause: (PGI Dec

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    Cardiovascular System 16. Dialysis

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    Cardiovascular System 53. Which of

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    • Nesiritide is a recombinant BNP

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    Cardiovascular System 43. Ans. (d)

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    Cardiovascular System 81. Ans. (a)

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    Cardiovascular System -- Hypertensi

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    Cardiovascular System Cyanide has v

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    Cardiovascular System 178. Ans. (a)

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    Cardiovascular System 217. Ans. (a)

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    Cardiovascular System 237. Ans. (a)

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    Cardiovascular System 13. Ans (b) P

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    CHAPTER 6 Kidney Diuretics Diuretic

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    Kidney Uses Main use of loop diuret

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    Kidney • Amiloride is more potent

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    Kidney Amiloride It is the agent of

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    Kidney Multiple Choice Questions di

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    30. Which of the following statemen

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    66. Advantage of desmopressin over

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    Kidney Explanations 1. Ans. (b) Hyp

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    16. Ans. (b) Bumetanide (Ref: KDT 6

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    Kidney 55. Ans (d) V 4 : Central Ne

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    CHAPTER 7 Endocrinology Hormones ar

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    Endocrinology Prolactin It causes g

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    Endocrinology • In the liver and

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    Endocrinology I 131 can be used for

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    Endocrinology Drug interactions •

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    Endocrinology Lactic acidosis (more

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    Endocrinology 3. amylin analogs Pra

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    Endocrinology Important Points Maxi

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    Endocrinology • Steroids with sel

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    Endocrinology • Vitamin D 2 is er

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    Endocrinology Denosumab Osteoclasts

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    Endocrinology • SERMs are targete

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    Endocrinology Contd... • Uliprist

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    Endocrinology only pills. Chances o

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    Endocrinology Pharmacokinetics Test

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    Endocrinology Ergot Derivatives Erg

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    Endocrinology Contd... • Hyperpro

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    completion of therapy, the patient

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    (c) Glucose (d) Starch 47. True abo

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    (c) Na + exit/K + entry (d) K + ent

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    Endocrinology 113. Which of the fol

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    147. Bisphosphonates act by: (AI 20

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    180. Women receiving estrogen thera

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    (c) Clomiphene (d) Mifepristone (RU

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    246. Mechanism of Calcitriol is: (R

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    Endocrinology 32. Drug used to cont

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    (b) Glimepiride (c) Repaglinide (d)

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    Endocrinology Explanations 1. Ans.

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    Endocrinology 24. Ans. (c) Propylth

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    Endocrinology • When this drug is

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    Endocrinology Hypoglycemia is cause

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    Endocrinology Drugs causing Addison

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    Endocrinology Raloxifene is a selec

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    Endocrinology • Enzyme inducers l

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    Endocrinology 197. Ans. (b) Blocks

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    Endocrinology A spider angioma (als

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    Endocrinology 4. Ans (c) Glaucoma (

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    Endocrinology 70. Ans. (c) Mifepris

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    NOTES _____________________________

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    CHAPTER 8 Central Nervous System Se

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    Central Nervous System It is admini

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    Central Nervous System • Abnormal

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    Central Nervous System useful in AD

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    Central Nervous System Wilson’s D

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    Central Nervous System Important Dr

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    Central Nervous System • Lamotrig

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    Central Nervous System play a role

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    Central Nervous System According to

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    Central Nervous System bulimia, pre

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    Central Nervous System Anti Manic D

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    Central Nervous System dependence,

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    Central Nervous System increase hea

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    Central Nervous System Actions •

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    Central Nervous System Contd... •

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    (c) Alkalization of the urine will

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    Central Nervous System (c) Ketamine

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    79. Drug of choice for myoclonic ep

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    (c) Phenytoin (d) Valproic acid 112

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    146. Which of the following antipsy

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    (c) Regular measurements of blood c

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    210. A patient Rajnish having depre

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    242. Drug useful in malignant hyper

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    279. Preferred drug for alcohol wit

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    314. Morphine can administered by a

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    (c) Analgesia (d) Mydriasis 348. Di

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    17. Antiparkinson drug known to cau

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    53. Which drug is the most useful i

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    Central Nervous System 15. Ans. (c)

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    Central Nervous System 39. Ans. (b)

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    67. Ans. (a) Phenytoin (Ref: Katzun

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    97. Ans. (a) Hepatitis (Ref: KDT 6/

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    Central Nervous System 145. Ans (c)

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    Central Nervous System 159. Ans. (d

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    Central Nervous System 187. Ans. (b

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    Central Nervous System 212. Ans. (a

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    Central Nervous System 258. Ans. (a

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    Central Nervous System 286. Ans. (b

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    Central Nervous System 303. Ans. (c

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    Central Nervous System 326. Ans. (c

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    Central Nervous System 366. Ans. (b

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    Central Nervous System 60. Ans. (a)

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    CHAPTER 9 Anaesthesia Local Anaesth

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    Anaesthesia trigeminal nerve, cervi

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    Anaesthesia Centrally Acting Muscle

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    Anaesthesia • These drugs release

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    Anaesthesia Anaesthetic MAC (% atm)

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    Anaesthesia Methemoglobinemia and l

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    Anaesthesia Chloroform • It is a

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    Anaesthesia Contd... • It does no

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    Anaesthesia Anaesthetic agents of c

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    Anaesthesia Multiple Choice Questio

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    33. Post dural (Spinal) puncture he

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    (b) Dantrolene (c) Succinylcholine

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    103. Which of the following drugs a

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    Anaesthesia 138. Thiopental sodium

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    Anaesthesia Explanations 1. Ans (c)

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    Anaesthesia 20. Ans. (d) Seizures a

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    Anaesthesia 49. Ans. (b) Meprobamat

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    Anaesthesia • The patient underwe

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    Anaesthesia 91. Ans. (b) Sevofluran

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    Anaesthesia • In pheochromocytoma

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    CHAPTER 10 Hematology HAEMATINICS T

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    Hematology • Deficiency of folic

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    Hematology • Main drugs acting as

  • Page 455 and 456: Hematology 1. Oral Anticoagulants
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  • Page 465 and 466: Hematology 46. Tirofiban is a: (RJ
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  • Page 483 and 484: Respiratory System fast acting also
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  • Page 495 and 496: Respiratory System • Inhalational
  • Page 497 and 498: CHAPTER 12 Gastrointestinal Tract P
  • Page 499 and 500: Gastrointestinal Tract Contd... --
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  • Page 503 and 504: Gastrointestinal Tract Domperidone
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  • Page 517 and 518: Gastrointestinal Tract 30. Ans. (b)
  • Page 519 and 520: Gastrointestinal Tract 1. EarlyPhas
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  • Page 525 and 526: Chemotherapy A: General Considerati
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  • Page 537 and 538: Clinical Uses Chemotherapy A: Gener
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  • Page 545 and 546: Important Points About Antimicrobia
  • Page 547 and 548: Chemotherapy A: General Considerati
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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    128. Ans. (b) Trovafloxacin (Goodma

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    Chemotherapy A: General Considerati

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    CHAPTER 14 Chemotherapy B: Antimicr

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Clofazimine It is a dye with lepros

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Foscarnet It is not an antimetaboli

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    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    16. Bactericidal drugs in ATT are:

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    50. Ethambutol should be used very

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    120. Regarding ritonavir use in AID

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    ACTs). All of the following combina

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    ecent Questions asked by National B

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Explanations Chemotherapy B: Antimi

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    25. Ans. (b) Ethionamide (Ref: KDT

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    Chemotherapy B: Antimicrobials for

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    CHAPTER 15 Chemotherapy C: Antineop

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    4-5 years). Another distinguishing

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    GnRH Antagonists Cetrorelix, ganire

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    This drug was used in 1960s as a se

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    Multiple Choice Questions Chemother

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    37. Which of the following statemen

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    Chemotherapy C: Antineoplastic Drug

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    CHAPTER 16 Immunomodulators IMMUNOS

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    Immunomodulators 9. Antibodies Poly

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    Immunomodulators Examples of each t

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    Immunomodulators Clinical Diagnosis

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    (b) Podophylline (c) Interferon (d)

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    (c) Cytarabine (d) Cycloserine 51.

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    Immunomodulators Explanations 1. An

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    Immunomodulators 14. Ans. (a) Syste

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    Immunomodulators 33. Ans. (a) Gluco

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    CHAPTER 17 Other Topics and Adverse

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    Other Topics and Adverse Effects Co

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    Other Topics and Adverse Effects Co

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    Other Topics and Adverse Effects Co

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    17. A 2 years old child without fev

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    54. Isotretinoin is: (PGI June, 200

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    Other Topics and Adverse Effects (c

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    Other Topics and Adverse Effects

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    Other Topics and Adverse Effects

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    Other Topics and Adverse Effects 39

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    Other Topics and Adverse Effects 55

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    Other Topics and Adverse Effects Dr

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    CHAPTER 18 Drugs of Choice Drug of

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    Drugs of Choice Contd... Hypertensi

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    Contd... VRSA LINEZOLID/STREPTOGRAM

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    CHAPTER 19 New Drugs 1. Abatacept:

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    New Drugs 52. Canakinumab: A human

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    New Drugs 100. Ecallantide: A plasm

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    New Drugs 153. Laronidase: Recombin

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    New Drugs 204. Peginesatide: A pept

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    New Drugs been approved for the tre

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    New Drugs and B lymphocytes after e

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    New Drugs prevents nausea and vomit

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    CHAPTER 20 Recent Topics TRICYCLIC

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    Recent Topics 2. Drugs 5-HT 2 recep

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    Recent Topics Arginine NOS NO + Cit

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    Recent Topics Contd... Drug Tetracy

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    Recent Topics -- If the patient has

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    CHAPTER 21 Latest Papers AIIMS Nove

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    Latest Papers explanations 1. Ans.

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    • Clindamycin and erythromycin ar

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    Latest Papers AIIMS May 2014 1. Whi

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    Latest Papers explanations 1. Ans.

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    13. Ans. a. Hypokalemia (Ref: Harri

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    NOTES _____________________________

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    Image Based Questions https://kat.c

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    Image Based Questions 1. The result

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    5. A new antiarrhythmic drug is fou

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    10. Amarnath, a 58 year old busines

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    14. A 72-year-old male, Hemraj was

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    (rapid vs slow induction of anesthe

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