AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE MARCH ISSUE

africanpeacemag

African Peace Magazine

ISSUE 02 2014

AFRICAN PEACE

N1,000 / $ 6 / 4

...Providing a friendly platform towards achieving peace in Africa

A F R I C A N P E A C E MA G A Z I N E

Bringing

Peace Back To

Guinea Bissau

Fernando Jorge Almada

Africa’s Energy Needs

Alternative Power To

The Rescue

Maternity Tourism

And The Dilemma

Of Anchor Babies

Rising Tide:

Incidents Of Child

Rape In Africa

Tribute:

Robert Mugabe

At 90


19th June, 2014

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PUBLISHER'S

NOTE

Chief Alfred Solomon ( UK)

Joy Umekwe (UK)

Prof. Dr. Lloyd C. Williams ( USA)

www.africanpeacemag.org

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Some of the largest nations in Africa

including some whose past elections

have proven to be tumultuous will hold

important elections this year and in the

coming year, with outcomes that could

affect the continents political landscape

profoundly.

These countries include Nigeria with her

th

general elections coming up on the 14

February 2015, South African general

th

elections coming up on 7 May 2014,

th

Guinea Bissau general election 16

March 2014, Libyan constituent

assembly election and a host of others

coming up afterwards.

Nigeria and South Africa have entered

the election fever season, with all the

sound and fury that it brings.

In this exclusive interview Mr Jorge

Almada Fernando, Guinea Bissau's

th

Presidential candidate for the 16 March general elections, bares his mind on

how to achieve peace in Guinea Bissau and the continent in general.

In a continent battling with the reality of self determination, in a world now

dotted with democracies, and the attendant revolutions. National votes in

Nigeria, South Africa and Guinea Bissau should command significant attention

as all have the ability to improve or set back the growth and overall stability of the

continent.

In these two huge African democracies of Nigeria and South Africa, corruption

and lowered growth expectations will dominate political debate. The opposition

parties seem weak so far, but voters in the two giants states look likely to spark a

power change after more than a decade of consistent rule by one party.

Also in Egypt, an interim regime promises parliamentary polls in the spring and a

presidential ballot in summer all against a backdrop of questionable legitimacy

and violent protests by the Islamists ousted after winning the last national

elections.

It should be noted that African economies easily rank among the most resilient in

the world. In the middle of the 2009 global economic recession, Africa was the

only region apart from Asia that grew positively, at about 2%. The continent's

growth has been on an upward trajectory ever since then- 4.5% in 2010 and 5.0%

in 2011 and we expect a better statistic for 2014 And it will get even better in

nd

2014. Africa is favorably positioned to become the 2 fastest growing region in

the world.

Africa is becoming an increasingly attractive hub for foreign investors in light of

various economic, political and social reforms that are sweeping through the

continent, resulting in a much improved business environment conducive for

foreign direct investment. Apart from that, there is widespread development of

critical social and physical infrastructure, and there is an increasing pool of welleducated,

English-speaking, enterprising workers in most countries across the

continent.

There is also a significant boost in the spending power of Africans. According to

the African Development Bank, ' Africas fast-emerging middle class is now

comprised of over 300 million people, and analysts from the McKinsey Global

Institute estimate that general consumer spending across the continent will hover

past the $1 trillion mark next year.

If you're a foreign investor who has yet to make a foray into Africa, now is the

time to step in and capture a share of Africa's $1 trillion opportunity. These are 5

lucrative sectors you should consider investing in agriculture, tourism, mining of

solid minerals, infrastructure and fast moving consumer goods.

To enjoy this wonderful opportunity we need a peaceful African continent. And

this is the more reason why all hands must be on deck. With ongoing armed

conflicts taking place around the continent and which continue to result in

violent deaths. It would obviously negatively affect development in the African

sub region. Areas affected include; Nigeria, Sudan, Central African Republic,

Egypt, Libya and Mali just to mention but a few and many other pocket of

insurgencies in most African nations, now is obviously the time to act.

Welcome on board the Africans peace magazine's effort in providing a friendly

platform towards achieving peace in Africa.

Noah Ajare


C

O

N T E N T

3 . Editorial / Publishers Note

5 . Contents

6 . Politics/Policy - Good Governance is

the Best Vaccine Against Malaria

7. Economy -Civil Unrest In Africa

8 .Peace FootPrint - Irena Sendler

10 .Article -The Right Of a Child to Access to

Both parents in Matrimonial Causes In Africa

12 . Cover Story - Bringing Peace Back To

Guinea Bissau -Fernando Jorge Almada

19. Energy- Africa’s Energy needs

Alternative Power to the Rescue

22 . Culture -Weird Culture In Africa

24. Independence Page

25 . Rising Tide - Incidents Of Child Rape

26 . Places - Zimbabwe

27. Peace Makers - UNESCO

28 . Noble Nobel

31 . Health - Hepatitis B Infection

Silent Killer Disease

33 .Issues -Maternity Tourism and the Dilemma

Of Anchor Babies

35. Opinion - The Leadership Question

36 . Fashion - Luscious Lips

38 . Fashion - Mascara On Lashes

39. Entertainment - African Richest musicians

46. Tribute - Robert Mugabe Longest Serving

African President


POLICY

Good Governance

Is The Best Vaccine

Against Malaria

By Elvis Iyorngurum

The World Health Organizations' Malaria Report 2013, released in December 2013 indicates that the world

has made remarkable gains in the fight against the disease, worldwide, including in Africa.

According to the report, between 2000 and 2012, the scale-up of interventions led to a global drop in malaria

infection rate, by 29% and 31% in the WHO African region. This, the report says, led to a reduction in the

global malaria mortality rate by 45% and 49% in the WHO African region, within the same period. An

estimated 3.3 million lives were saved, 90%, or 3 million, of these lives saved were in the under-five age

group, in sub-Saharan Africa.

In spite of these gains however, malaria still remains a big threat to the lives of millions across the world and

particularly in Africa. An estimated 3.4 billion people are at risk of malaria infection, 1.2 billion of which are at

high risk. In high-risk areas, more than one malaria case occurs per every 1000 population.

In 20012, malaria claimed an estimated 627 000 lives. 90% of all malaria deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa,

and 77% occur in children under five.

The World Health Assembly's global target is to reduce by 75%, deaths caused by malaria before the end of

December 2015. With 22 months to the deadline, African governments and their development partners must

double their current efforts. This is more so because of increasing concerns that the progress against malaria is

at risk of slowing down. This concern has arisen out of the emerging resistance to drugs by the malaria

parasite. In Africa, there is evidence also of an alarming increase against insecticides by mosquitoes.

The implication is that governments must shift the concentration from treatment and focus more on

prevention. In this regard, the current intensive distribution of mosquito treated nets must be sustained.

New approaches to fighting malaria must include screening and treatment for individuals infected with the

parasite, including those who do not show symptoms yet remain a source of transmission. Exciting scientific

advances – including the development of better drugs and prevention tools - are making it increasingly more

feasible and cost-effective to implement this approach and help eliminate the risk of malaria across the globe.

The state of the environment is a very vital factor in the war against malaria. How much African governments

have done in this regard remains a source of worry. Malaria occurs mostly among people within the low

income bracket in society. This class is vulnerable because they often live in slums and environments that are a

good breeding ground for mosquitoes and other vectors. People live next to mountains of refuse dump and

drainages that are blocked and filled with waste and stagnant water. It is near-impossible for people to escape

malaria infection in such places. The low economic strength of this segment of society also makes it difficult

for them to access quality and efficient healthcare and many die of malaria because they cannot afford a dose

of anti-malaria when they are infected by the parasite.

Governments must therefore, design and implement policies that will ensure a quality and healthy

environment for all their citizens, regardless of their social and economic status.

Millions of lives have been saved in the efforts to combat malaria, yet the disease remains one of the world's

deadliest killers. African leaders must sustain the current efforts, most of which have been made possible by

the goodwill of foreign governments and international donor agencies. They must realize that there is a limit to

which their efforts will help the fight and the larger responsibility falls on the quality of governance they

render to the people. Poverty, for example, remains intricately tied to disease prevalence. African

governments must therefore, increase the quality of governance they render their people, with specific efforts

towards the creation of job opportunities, development of the needed infrastructure that will support smallscale

investment and the guarantee of lives and property. These are the hallmarks of good governance, which

remains the most potent weapon in the push for a malaria-free Africa.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 6


CIVIL UNREST IN AFRICA

Causing Investors Cold Feet

Investment is a key driver of

growth in any economy. It forms

one of the fundamental bedrock

to economic growth and

sustainability. The African

continent is blessed with abundant

natural resources thereby

attracting potential investors from

developed and developing

nations. Blessed as the region is, it

is faced with so many difficulties:

corruption, poverty bad

governance, low economic

growth, civil unrest, health

problems, and the likes.

Despite these challenges, the

region has made visible

appreciable achievements on a

number of fronts. Today, there is

increased market liberalization

and privatization, improved

access to education, greater

infrastructural development, and

so on. The continent in most parts

is taking giant strides towards

achieving sustainable growth and

development. This effort is

however constantly being

sabotaged by the incessant civil

unrests that keep springing up

here and there. Although by no

means isolated to one continent,

Africa is especially blighted by

such issues – from the Boko

Haram in Nigeria to the M23 in the

Democratic Republic of Congo. In

Nigeria, the Boko Haram terrorist

attacks have greatly shaken the

nation's economic foundations.

The stories are no different from

t h o s e i n r e c e n t l y w a r‐ t o r n

countries like South Sudan, Libya,

Uganda and Democratic Republic

of Congo. Foreign investors are

getting unnerved and there is a

sharp decline of Foreign Direct

I n v e s t m e n t ( F D I ) . T h e y a r e

gradually divesting their interest

from the region and this loss of

confidence is reflecting negatively

on African economies. Even though

African states know they can draw

upon their rife natural resources to

deal with challenges militating

a g a i n s t t h e i r g r o w t h a n d

development they are certainly not

deluded in believing that their

resources along are sufficient.

This realization raises a need to

create conducive and favorable

environments that will attract and

utilize foreign resources especially

in the area of foreign direct

investment. African governments

must tackle the challenge of civil

u n r e s t i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e

meaningful development. If an

investor cannot adequately price

risk, such an investment, cannot

increase growth and employment.

Adequate security measures must

to be taken to safeguard investors.

Companies need to be able to price

risk – that is, plan reasonably

successfully – in order to operate

profitably. African states must find

a way of ending these unrests and

begin wooing new investors.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 7


In this edition of Peace Footprint, we

look at the life of Irena Sendler, a

Polish Nurse/social worker who

saved the life of over 2,500 Jewish

children during the Holocaust. The

Nazis uncovered her activities,

tortured her and sentenced her to

death, but she managed to escape

and survive the war.

. In 1965, Sendler was recognized by

the State of Israel as Righteous

among the Nations. Later in life she

was awarded Poland's highest honor

for her wartime humanitarian

efforts. She appears on a silver 2008

Po l i s h c o m m e m o r a t i v e c o i n

h o n o r i n g s o m e o f t h e Po l i s h

PEACE FOOTPRINT

Department, she had a special

permit to enter the Warsaw

Ghetto to check for signs of

typhus – something the Nazis

feared would spread beyond the

Ghetto. During these visits, she

wore a Star of David as a sign of

solidarity with the Jewish people

and so as not to call attention to

herself.

Professor Dwork, the author of

“Children With a Star” (Yale

University Press, 1991), said

about 400 children had been

directly smuggled out by Mrs.

Sendler. She and her co‐workers

buried lists of the hidden children

IRENA SENDLER

Every child saved with my help is the justification of my existence on this Earth, and not a title to glory

Righteous among the Nations.

Irena Sendler was born as Irena

Krzyżanowska on 15 February 1910

i n W a r s a w t o D r. S t a n i s ł a w

Krzyżanowski, a physician, and his

wife, Janina. Her father died in

F e b r u a r y 1 9 1 7 f r o m t y p h u s

contracted while treating patients

whom his colleagues refused to treat

in fear of contracting the disease,

among them many Jews. After his

death, Jewish community leaders

offered her mother help in paying for

Sendler's education. Sendler studied

Po l i s h l i t e r a t u r e a t W a r s a w

University, and joined the Socialist

party. She opposed the ghettobench

system that existed at some

prewar Polish universities and

defaced her grade card. As a result of

h e r p u b l i c p r o t e s t s h e w a s

suspended from the University of

Warsaw for three years. She married

Mieczyslaw Sendler, but the couple

divorced in 1947. In 1947, she

married Stefan Zgrzembski, a

Jewish friend from her university

days. They had three children,

Janina, Andrzej (who died in infancy)

and Adam (who died of heart failure in

1999). She divorced Zgrzembski in

1959, and remarried her first husband,

Mieczyslaw Sendler. This rematch also

failed. She lived in Warsaw for the rest

of her life, and is survived by daughter,

Janina "Janka" Zgrzembska.

During the German occupation of

Poland, Sendler lived in Warsaw (prior

to that, she had lived in Otwock and

Tarczyn while working for urban Social

Welfare departments). As early as 1939,

when the Germans invaded Poland, she

began aiding Jews. She and her helpers

c r e a t e d m o r e t h a n 3 , 0 0 0 f a l s e

documents to help Jewish families,

prior to joining the organized Żegota

resistance and the children's division.

Helping Jews in German‐occupied

Poland meant all household members

risked death if they were found to be

hiding Jews, a punishment far more

severe than in other occupied European

countries. In August 1943, Sendler

(known by her nom de guerre: Jolanta)

was nominated by the underground

Polish Council to Aid Jews Żegota, to

head its Jewish children's section. As an

employee of the Social Welfare

in jars in order to keep track of

their original and new identities.

Żegota assured the children that,

when the war was over, they

would be returned to Jewish

relatives. In 1943, Sendler was

arrested by the Gestapo, severely

tortured, and sentenced to death.

Żegota saved her by bribing

German guards on the way to her

execution. She was listed on

public bulletin boards as among

t h o s e e x e c u t e d . F o r t h e

remainder of the war, she lived in

hiding, but continued her work for

the Jewish children. After the war,

she and her co‐workers gathered

together all of their records with

the names and locations of the

hidden Jewish children and gave

them to their Żegota colleague

Adolf Berman and his staff at the

Central Committee of Polish

Jews. However, almost all of their

parents had been killed at the

Treblinka extermination camp or

gone missing.

On 14 March 2007, Sendler was

honored by the Polish Senate.


FACTS ABOUT

IRENA SENDLER

. Aged 97, she was unable to leave

her nursing home to receive the

honor, but she sent a statement

through Elżbieta Ficowska,

whom Sendler had helped to save

as an infant. Polish President Lech

Kaczyński stated she "can justly

be nominated for the Nobel Peace

Prize”. Also in 2007 the Polish

government presented her as a

candidate for the Nobel Peace

Prize. This initiative was officially

supported by the State of Israel

Born in Warsaw, Poland on February 15, 1910.

Died in Warsaw on May 12, 2008

She spent her young childhood in Otwock, Poland.

Her father, Stanislaw Krzyzanowki, was a doctor and

passed away with typhus when she was seven years

old.

She was an only child.

She a ended Warsaw University.

Sendler is the surname of her first husband.

She married Stefan Zgrzebski a er World War II; he

passed away with heart disease in the early '60s. Irena

and Stefan had two children: their son Adam passed

away with heart disease on

Irena was dismissed from Warsaw University for failing

to comply with Jewish segrega on laws. She was readmi

ed one year later.

Irena started making false documents for Jewish

friends when the war started in 1939.

Irena was an administrator at the Warsaw Social Work

Department during the war. She did pose as a nurse in

the Ghe o from me to me.

She had a network of helpers who rescued people

(adults and children) from the Warsaw Ghe o, made

false papers for them and found hiding.

The first children they took off the streets were the

orphans.

The network used dozens of ways to rescue children,

including using a dog on a couple of occasions. The

most common route was through the old courthouse.

Irena was caught by the Gestapo and put in Pawiak

Prison. She was tortured and had a leg and foot

fractured. She had buried some of the names of the

children in jars, along with the help of a friend, to

reconnect the children to their Jewish families a er

the war.

Zegota bribed a guard to have Irena released in the

night to a member of the Underground. She was

scheduled to be executed.

She remained in hiding throughout the rest of the war.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 9


even be adjourned to judge's

chambers where in informal

hearing the children's view

could be assessed along with

those of the parents.”

There is one consideration

which I think quite properly

should enter into the mind of

the final arbiter in such

matrimonial cause, and that

i s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,

expressed by the ancient

proverb that “Blood is thicker

than water”: See Re A. (an

infant) (Supra) per Evershed,

M.R.

THE RIGHT OF A CHILD TO ACCESS TO BOTH

Barr. Victoria Francis

PARENTS IN MATRIMONIAL CAUSES

In matrimonial causes, it is commonplace to

observe the bitter battle of gladiator-parents

in the desperate contest for custody rights

over the children of the marriage. In most

cases, the embittered lovers barge each other

with a retinue of interlocutory applications,

brandishing their arguments and eliciting

facts (including otherwise privileged

communication) in the attempt to prove to be

the better custodian of the child (or children)

of the collapsing marriage, each proffering

persuasions for the grant or refusal of such

applications.

In most cases, these embittered parents make

much ado about the welfare and best interests

of the child. Oftentimes, these spouses

produce volumes of material provisions made

for the material care of the child (children) in

the hope that they would elicit the

qualification of “better custodian of the child

(or children)”.

In a plethora of cases, the Courts have made

resounding pronouncements on which spouse

will best promote the welfare of the child in a

matrimonial cause. The paramountcy of the

best interests of the child has now become the

parameter in determining the custody of the

child, in matrimonial causes.

Although it is now settled presumption of law

that a child of tender years whose parents are

separated would be happier with the mother

unless it is abundantly clear that the contrary

is the situation, not much has been said about

the child's right to the complementary care of

both parents during the pendency of the

matrimonial cause. Very little is ever said

about the right(s) of the child (or children) of

the marriage to access the parents.

The columnist has observed matrimonial

cases where one spouse surreptitiously moves

the child (or children) to an undisclosed

location while fighting tooth and nail to

oppose any and every attempt by the other

spouse to access the offspring(s).

In quite a number of cases, spouses who have

custody of the children prior to the

proceedings go to great lengths, including:

restricting visits of the other spouse to the

child or children at school, thereby depriving

the child of the complementary care of the

other parent.

Does the child in a matrimonial cause, where

the arbiter determines which parent would

take custody of him/her,

not have a right to access both parents? Would it not

better serve the best interests of the psychological

development of a child to retain the practical care of

both parents, even though both parents choose to

part with each other?

At the time of writing this column, I stumbled on

the pronouncement of Hon. Justice S. M. A. Belgore,

JSC in the case of ODUGWU v. ODOGWU (1992) 1

NSCC 337 – 338, where the learned jurist states as

follows:

“Welfare of a child is not the material provisions in

the house – good clothes, food, air-conditioners,

television, all gadgets normally associated with

middle class – it is more of the happiness of the child

and his psychological development. While it is good

if a child is brought up by complementary care of the

two parents living happily together, it is

psychologically detrimental to this welfare and

u l t i m a t e h a p p i n e s s a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l

development, if material care, available is denied

him. … Welfare of the child is of paramount

consideration. If possible the court could consult the

child's wishes in considering what order ought to be

made: Re A (an infant) (1955) 2 All ER 202 (also in

(1955) 1 W.L.R. 465) …. Custody proceedings could

In any case, Article 27 of the

United Convention on the

Rights of the Child clearly

enshrines the right of every

child to a standard of living

adequate for the child's

physical, mental, spiritual

and social development. Does

this right not also include the

r i g h t o f a c h i l d t o t h e

p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y

c r e a t e d b y t h e

complementary care of both

parents?

While it is permissible that a

child is entitled to access

his/her parents during the

pendency of matrimonial

causes, it is mind boggling to

note that the exercise of this

right may not be

justiciable, in all cases. The

exercise of this right can, in

itself, occasion risks to the

psychological and, even,

physical development of the

child, - e.g. where the other

parent is immoral or suffers

from an infectious disease,

insanity or is prone to treat

the child cruelly.

Be that as it may, the welfare

of a child and his/her best

interest in matrimonial

causes is paramount. His/her

wishes are also important,

bearing in mind that they

often bear the brunt of the

bitter clashes of the putative

titans

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 10


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Nelson

Mandela

Nelson

Mandela

MAN OF PEACE

(1918 - 2013)

Nelson

Mandela

MAN OF PEACE

(1918 - 2013)

Nelson

Mandela

RISE OF MILITIA GROUPS

IN NIGERIA

MAN OF PEACE

(1918 - 2013)

MAN OF PEACE

(1918 - 2013)

RISE OF MILITIA GROUPS

IN NIGERIA

AFRICA’S CHILD SOLDIERS

RISE OF MILITIA GROUPS

IN NIGERIA

AFRICA’S CHILD SOLDIERS

THE SOUTHERN

KADUNA POGROMS

AFRICA’S CHILD SOLDIERS

RISE OF MILITIA GROUPS

AFRICA’S CHILD SOLDIERS

IN NIGERIA

THE SOUTHERN

KADUNA POGROMS

THE SOUTHERN

KADUNA POGROMS

THE SOUTHERN

KADUNA POGROMS

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

IN RELATIONSHIPS

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

IN RELATIONSHIPS

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

IN RELATIONSHIPS

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

IN RELATIONSHIPS

Africa’s Energy Needs

Alternative Power To

The Rescue

Africa’s Energy Needs

Alternative Power To

The Rescue

Bringing

Peace Back To

Guinea Bissau

Bringing

Peace Back To

Guinea Bissau

Fernando Jorge Almada

Maternity Tourism

And The Dilemma

Of Anchor Babies

Fernando Jorge Almada

Maternity Tourism

And The Dilemma

Of Anchor Babies

Rising Tide:

Incidents Of Child

Rape In Africa

Rising Tide:

Incidents Of Child

Rape In Africa

Technology

Developed

By Africans

Technology

Developed

By Africans

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COVER STORY

Bringing

Peace Back To

Guinea Bissau

Fernando Jorge Almada

Humble, Accomplished, Charismatic,

Calm, Passionate, Suave, and

Distinguished; are a few words that

can be used to describe Dr. Jorge

Fernando Alves D'Almalda. The

African Peace Magazine Team met

with the presidential Candidate for

the upcoming Guinea Bissau Election

for an exclusive. He talks about the

election, the policies he plans to

implement should he become

president and how he plans on

curbing the excesses associated with

violence in the country. Born in

rd

Guinea Bissau on 23 December 1965,

this father of eight had his primary

education at July 5 Primary School

Bissau and his secondary education

at the Kwame Nkrumah National High

School Bissau. His passion for politics

began at an early age when he

joined the PAIGC party and a main

speaker in the program Radio Blufo

a i r e d b y t h e N a t i o n a l R a d i o

Broadcasting Service which was

aimed engaging in political activities.

This former Director of Cabinet of the

Minister of Social Solidarity, Family and

Fight against Poverty, had his tertiary

education at the University of Social

Sciences, Toulouse, France, where he

obtained a bachelors degree in

Public International Law and another

Bachelors degree in Political Science.

He holds a Masters degree in Public

International Law and wrote his PhD

thesis on “The Principle of State

S o v e r e i g n t y a n d t h e N e w

International Policy Order Policy”.

African Peace Magazine met with Dr.

Jorge at his ECOWAS office where he

currently heads the Social Affairs

D i v i s i o n i n t h e D i r e c t o r a t e o f

Humanitarian and Social Affairs of

the ECOWAS where he spoke about

his plans for his dear country, his

aspirations and inspiration.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 12


COVER STORY

You are a candidate for Presidential

election in 2014. What do you think

you can do if you are elected

president?

If elected president my first mission

would be bring to lasting peace to

Guinea-Bissau. It is time to end all

hostilities. We need to fight to

eradicate poverty more actively and

change the negative image of

Guinea-Bissau.

“Peace, national reconciliation,

economic revival and war against

poverty”

Taking into consideration the fact that the end of the

st

transition period was set on 31 December 2013, what is

the feasibility of the general elections holding in 2014?

There are many challenges as I have earlier said. These

difficulties have led to postponements and shifting of

election dates. The ECOWAS and the international

st

community had earlier fixed the 31 December 2013 for the

elections but had it rescheduled so the challenges I had

earlier mentioned would be taken into consideration and

sorted. Any further delays or postponements would be a

major setback to the development of Guinea-Bissau. For the

sanctions placed on the country's Transition Government it is

absolutely necessary that the elections hold for any

meaningful development to take place .

Your nation has experienced a longstanding

challenge with electoral

p r o c e s s e s a n d s u s t a i n a b l e

democracy. What structures do you

think the present government should

establish to forestall such electoral

hiccups in future?

You know that democratic process in

Guinea-Bissau started in 1994. This

marked the beginning of democratic

process and multiparty system. The

1994 election was very successful and

well organised. There have also been

other elections after 1994. The 2013

elections could not hold due to

several challenges. The elections had

to be postponed to allow the

a u t h o r i t i e s t o a d d r e s s t h e s e

challenges and to put in place

structures that would allow for free

and fair elections. One the biggest

problem is the lack of a completely

autonomous and independent

electoral body to conduct credible

elections without any influence or

partiality. Other problems include

poor voter education, electoral fraud,

inadequate logistics, very low voter

confidence, frequent postponements

of election timetable and inadequate

ballot materials. For example there

were only thirty (30) electoral kits

available for the entire country. All

these issues need to be addressed for

us to have credible elections in 2014. I

believe the elections will hold on the

th

16 of March 2014 if I'm not mistaking.

Recently, the UN established a UN Integrated Peace Building

Office in Guinea Bissau and some other West African nations,

how do you think this will further the cause of peace in your

nation?

The issue of peace in Guinea-Bissau is a crucial and

reoccurring decimal. In the absence of peace there can be

no development, foreign investments and aids. The United

Nations Organisation established the United Nations

Integrated Peace-Building Office in Guinea-Bissau otherwise

known as U.N.I.O.G.B.I.S which was once headed by Shola

Omoregie is mandated to address issues of peace,

development and reintegration of Guinea-Bissau. If you pay

close attention to the current events in Guinea-Bissau you

would have noticed that there are tribal tensions and

religious conflicts going on. I am of the view that peace must

first be established before any meaningful developments

can take place. If elected president, my strategy would be

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 13


COVER STORY

president, my strategy would be

t o e m b a r k o n m a s s i v e

sensitisation campaigns to

educate the people on the

need to shun violence and

embrace democratic values. I

would also engage all the key

actors such as the international

community, civil societies,

political parties and the people

in addressing these issues

collectively. I aim to promote

unity, peaceful co-existence

and development in Guinea-

Bissau. As I had stated earlier “a

nation cannot thrive in chaos”

nobody would be willing to

invest in such a country.

Like many other West African nations, conflicts have been a

perennial feature in Guinea Bissau since independence

posing significant challenges to regional security, How

would you make Guinea Bissau rise up to this challenge if

you get elected?

Guinea-Bissau has a history of political instability since

gaining her independence. Between 1956 to 1974 during

the armed struggle for her independence, a lot of arms

found their way into many homes in the entire region. And

the result is that there is a proliferation of arms in Guinea-

Bissau which have helped fuel religious, tribal and political

tensions and conflicts.

There is therefore a need to educate and enlighten the

citizens of Guinea-Bissau on the benefits of dialogue, the

menace of armed conflicts and the importance and

benefits of peaceful coexistence. There have been too

many coups, attempted coups, assassinations, murders

and a civil war. All these have only resulted in

underdevelopment, stagnation, unproductivity and

frustration for the citizens of Guinea-Bissau.

These conflicts could spread to other countries like cholera if

they are not addressed urgently. Even though the United

Nations and the ECOWAS have put some measures on

ground to address these issues, more needs to be done.

One area in which more could be done is in terms of reforms.

The security and defence force of Guinea-Bissau need

sweeping reforms to be equip it to function in a democratic

environment under elected officials.

Emerging threats to peace include

D r u g / H u m a n t r a f fi c k i n g a n d

organised crime. To what extent

would you say that illiteracy,

poverty and religious extremism

have contributed to these?

Drug trafficking is a big problem

globally. Even though some people

have wrongfully labelled Guinea-

Bissau as a Narcotic State, it is far

from the truth. While there may be

government officials or an

individual who help facilitate drug

and human trafficking but that

doesn't make Guinea-Bissau a

narcotic state. Moreover Guinea-

Bissau lacks the capacity or power

to tackle the menace of human

and drug trafficking on her own.

Combating drug or even human

trafficking requires international

cooperation. Due to internal

conflicts and porous borders,

Guinea-Bissau is not able to police

her borders adequately to prevent

such illicit trades by Latin American

drug dealers. If elected I would

promote international cooperation

in dealing with trans-border crime

to curb the menace drastically.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 14


COVER STORY

Secondly the illiteracy level in

Guinea-Bissau continues to remain

high. My vision is to promote

compulsory education for children

and mass adult literacy campaign It

is through mass literacy that we can

enlighten our citizens, promote

peace and encourage foreign

direct investments. Illiteracy has the

tendency to expand problems. For

example an illiterate is likely to view

drug trafficking as a good way to

make money without being aware

of its danger to the society.

Thirdly poverty is very prevalent in

Guinea-Bissau. Many years of

conflicts have left the people poor

and vulnerable. In my time with the

Ministry of Social Solidarity working to

reduce poverty, I had experienced

first-hand the abject poverty

prevalent in Guinea-Bissau. Its easy

to recruit a poor person to commit an

a t r o c i t y w i t h t h e p r o m i s e o f

remuneration. If the people are

economically empowered, their

standard of living would increase

and crime rates will also drop.

The issues of drug trafficking, human

trafficking, illiteracy and poverty are

an explosive cocktail for Guinea-

Bissau. No meaningful development

c a n t a k e p l a c e w i t h o u t fi r s t

addressing these issues.

A more recent development is that

of religious conflicts which as a result

of the influence of extremists'

movements coming in from northern

Africa. This problem also has to be

dealt with internally and through

international cooperation.

Africa as a continent is continually hailed as potentially great.

What steps would you advise that this generation take to

make that an actual reality as against the potentiality?

It's true that Africa is potentially rich; however the reality on

ground suggest otherwise. The people of Africa continue to

wallow in sickness and poverty. It is said that 10 of the 15

potentially great nations are African countries. Between 2000

to 2014, the direct foreign investment rose from 19 to 60 billion

Dollars. This show an increase in confidence towards the

African market. The major problem is transforming these

figures into reality for the average African as the wealth seems

to be concentrated in the hands of a certain few. For

development to occur an equitable distribution of resources is

essential.

The legality of same sex relations remains a debate in the

forefront of Global discourse. What in your opinion should be

Guinea Bissau's stand on the same sex relations controversy?

This issue is a very controversial topic that is generating diverse sentiments and opposing views. In African

cultures the concept of same sex relationship is a taboo as it is totally forbidden and unacceptable. Same

sex marriages and relationships have been outlawed in many African countries constitution, carrying stiff

penalties. European countries have opposed these laws against same sex relationships and view them as

a violation of human rights. But in these countries where these laws exist, they exist by popular mandate of

the people through their representatives in parliament as is the case with Guinea-Bissau. The issue of

legalization of same sex relationship has not yet risen in Guinea-Bissau; if it does it will be deliberated upon

using constitutional means opened to everyone for debate. I am heterosexual but I respect the rule of

law and a person's right to pick how he or she chooses to live. But we must abide by our constitution.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 15


ICT is being hailed as the bridge

st

between 1 world and the 3rd world.

Has Guinea Bissau leveraged this

bridge?

In other countries around Africa

there exists a digital space. Internet

access in Guinea-Bissau is every

limited, expensive and difficult to

operate. There is a lot of work to be

done in this area to make internet

access available in Guinea –Bissau. If

elected president I would invest in

I C T , e n c o u r a g e t r a i n i n g a n d

capacity building in ICT. I would

make ICT education compulsory

from the elementary to the tertiary

level. I would encourage direct

foreign and local investment by

providing an enabling environment

for ICT development through the

provision and development of

necessary infrastructures and

policies. ICT is a veritable tool for

social and economic development.

T h e f o s t e r i n g o f p e a c e f u l

coexistence between Nigerians and

y o u r c o u n t r y m e n s h o u l d b e

imperative to both Nigeria and

Guinea Bissau. How well have both

nations fared in terms of harmonious

living?

COVER STORY

What is your counsel to Africans

resident in Guinea Bissau and vice

versa?

All Africans including Nigerians living

in Guinea-Bissau are welcome to

invest, live and help develop the

country by engaging in positive and

lawful practices. If I am elected

president, I would encourage

regional integration, movement,

trade and investment as tools for

development.

I look around your office and i notice

the pictures of Barack Obama all

around. Would I be right to assume

he serves as an inspiration to you?

Obama for me represents hope. Of

course in Africa we have had great

leaders who have served their

people selflessly. Such great leaders

inspire me. Obama for example is a

young, charismatic and brilliant

leader. Indeed as the first black

president of America Obama

represents hope that if we as Africans

aspire to greatness we can achieve

our goals and realize our dreams.

There is hope indeed for Africa.

The relationship between Guinea-

Bissau and Nigeria is very cordial.

Both countries belong to the same

economic and political block the

ECOWAS. As ECOWAS member

States, there is a strong bilateral tie

between the two countries. There

are many Nigerians living and

working in Guinea-Bissau. As

ECOWAS citizens Nigerians are free

and encouraged to move and go

about their business legitimately.

Except for the misunderstanding

involving some Nigerian in October

2013 which led to disputes; Nigerians

in have had no cause to be alarmed.

Many Nigerians are married and

settled in Guinea-Bissau.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 16


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ENERGY

Africa's Energy Needs,

Alternative Power to the Rescue

By Elvis Iyorngurum

Access to energy remains a key factor in Africa's quest for

development. Industrialization, education, mechanized

agriculture, water supply etc, all depend on sufficient and

efficient supply of electricity to thrive. For much of the

continent however, access to energy remains a wish that is

far-fetched. Even in the urban areas where there is

considerable level of development, electricity supply is

often scarce and unreliable. Many businesses depend on

private power plants to run their production processes. This

raises the cost of production and with the increasing influx

of cheap goods from Asia they find it hard to match up to the

competition and are soon pushed out of the market. This is

just a little picture of how lack of energy supply is being a

heavy impediment to the continent's drive for economic

prosperity.

The inability of governments in Africa to make electricity

available and affordable to their citizens has been attributed

chiefly to the high cost of electricity generation and

distribution. As the governments continue to explore

cheaper and safer means of generating power for their

citizens, a remarkable development in their efforts is their

resort to alternative sources of power generation. This is not

only in conformity with world's quest for green energy, but

also the continent's appreciation of its vast resources that

could make it the world leader in clean and safe

energy generation.

Africa is indeed, demonstrating that it is an ideal

location for the application of renewable energy

technology. At the moment, there are already

small-scale solar, wind and geothermal plants set

up in many countries across the continent. The

plants cater for the power needs of communities in

remote places where the cost of reaching them

with electricity supply from the large power

stations in the urban areas.

Wind and wave power are viable ways to come by

alternative energy, as Africa's long coastline on the

east coast has plentiful wind and wave power if

properly utilized. The Board of Directors of the

African Development Bank approved $150

million for a wind power project in Kenya's Lake

Turkana region. Kenya's power generation

capacity will grow by 300MW. This project will

allow the Great Rift Valley region to be connected

to the rest of the country with a road, fiber-optic

cable and electrification.

Morocco has launched one of the world's largest


and most ambitious solar energy projects. Called

the Moroccan Solar Plan, it is regarded as a high

point on the country's path towards a secure and

sustainable energy supply. Morocco, being the

largest energy importer in North Africa, is making

concerted efforts to reduce its reliance on imported

fossil fuels.

The aim of the plan is to generate 2 GW of solar

power by the year 2020 by building five large solar

power projects with modern solar thermal,

photovoltaic and concentrated solar power

mechanisms.

With a population of over 160 Million people,

Nigeria is the seventh most populous country in the

world and is Africa's second largest economy, after

South Africa, yet over sixty percent of Nigeria's

population has no access to electricity. Nigeria's

federal government awarded a contract to Siemens

to build three gas-turbine power plants under its

National Integrated Power Project (NIPP). Nigeria

has one of the largest gas reserves in the world and

the country is keen on harnessing it, alongside

wind and hydroelectric generation to meet the

country's target of generating 10,000 megawatts

before the end of 2014.

The government has also initiated the 10 MW Katsina Wind

Farm. The wind farm consists of 37 wind turbines with a

rated power of 275 KW each, which will go a long way in

realizing the government's target. The project was awarded

to the French company, Vergnet S.A as the EPC contractor.

In the Democrat Republic of Congo (DRC), the government

is attempting to harness the potential of the Congo River by

building the world's largest hydroelectric project, named

Grand Inga. Its 40 GW output would move Africa into a new

world of industrialization, potentially lighting up the

continent from Cape Town in South Africa to Cairo in Egypt.

If the Grand Inga Hydropower Project is built, it would

dwarf China's Three Gorges Dam, which is currently the

world's largest energy generating project, with almost

double its capacity.

Africa has a very long way to go in its quest to light up its

cities and villages but what is certain is that the continent has

commenced the journey. The slow pace of progress

notwithstanding, it is remarkable that the continent has

appreciated the abundant opportunities in its sunshine, wind,

gas reserves and huge water bodies and its efforts at

harnessing these blessings of nature as a tool for the

liberation of its peoples from the vicious hold of poverty and

stagnation that has been occasioned by lack of

industrialization.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 20


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CULTURE

WEIRD CULTURE

IN AFRICA

Africa is undoubtedly one of the most

blessed continents in the world. Filled

with abundance of natural resources,

beautiful landscapes you can't get

enough of looking at, to the amazing

people and culture. The diversity in

religion, ethnicity ad tradition makes

Africa what it is today. But some

traditions are........ well, a bit diverse

which makes a person who is not a

part of the tradition to wonder which

planet your ancestors migrated from.

But I say it is the tradition and culture

that makes us who we are no matter

how unusual or strange it is.

LOBOLA

This tradition has to do with the

institution of marriage. Families of

bride and groom will be punished if

they didn't agree to this tradition.

Lobola involves negotiation of price

that groom will pay to marry the girl.

T h e L o b o l a p r o c e s s i s o f t e n

complicated and has certain protocols

that have to be adhered to. For

example, although the two families

concerned might have lived next to

each other for years, all negotiation

b e t w e e n t h e p a r e n t s m u s t b e

conducted in writing and not by

telephone or by a quick visit. The

reason for this seemingly absurd rule

is that although the families might

have known each other for years, they

do not know each other on the level of

the Lobola exchange. In other words,

they do not know each other at the

level of the seriousness and sanctity of

marriage.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 22


ANKOLE

In Ugandan Ankole culture (or

Banyankole as they call themselves), it

is not unusual for a groom to have sex

with his bride's aunt before sleeping

with his wife. The aunt's wedding gi

to her niece was to teach her

everything she knew about being a

wife, looking a er the home and

pleasing a man. It is also considered

her duty to confirm the sexual potency

of the groom. This can be done by

listening in or watching as the bride

and groom have sex! Some mes the

aunt's duty of teaching her niece how

to be a wife will go as far as the aunt

showing the bride prac cally on the

wedding night how to please her

husband by sharing the groom's bed.

She can also prove his sexual potency

this way.

LATWOKA

In Latwoka , a tribe in Sudan, If a man

wants to marry a girl, he kidnaps her.

A er kidnapping elderly people of his

family go to girl's father and ask for her

hand. If girl's father agrees he beats

the guy as a symbol of acceptance and

if he doesn't agree, the kidnapper

marries the girl forcefully.

CHEWA

This is probably the most disturbing of

all. The Chewa people have this burial

ritual. When somebody belonging to

Chewa culture dies, his rela ves take

the dead body to a sacred place, take a

knife, slit the throat open. They then

pour water through to clean the

bowels of all filth by squeezing the

stomach to let it all out through the

rear, stopping only when the water is

clean.

Now the worst part is that they use

this water to cook the food for the rest

of the people.

SAN

The San people are simple arid

dwellers they live off the land by

gathering and hun ng, they are more

popularly known as Bushmen and can

be found in far regions like South

Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe and

Mozambique. Well known as prolific

hunters who are famed at warding off

lions with arrows and s cks. The major

challenge for the San people is water

since their land is prone to severe

drought and hash desert condi ons.

They have the ancient knowledge of

the land and easily know where to find

a water source by using basic tools like

s cks. They live in small communal

groups and the women help out

through gathering of insects, tubers

and edible shrubs, the dress code is

animal skin made into leather and

worn waist down leaving the top bare.

KIRIBATI

Republic Of Kiriba , is an island na on

in the central tropical pacific ocean.

Kiriba people have a belief that

different types of seafood consumed

whilst pregnant will bestow different

characteris cs upon the unborn child.

It is deemed that on no account may a

pregnant woman touch crayfish

because it could cause her child to

grow s ff hairs on its face. Turtle and

eel should be avoided because they

are deemed "crawlers". Ea ng

crawlers will impart a cowardly nature

on the child. Fla ish is also a big no as it

has both eyes on one side of its head, a

characteris c which you don't want to

be passed on to the baby. Just think

about how difficult it'll be for the poor

kid to look both ways before crossing

the road. Also consuming any slowmoving

sea creature is feared to cause

sluggishness and idleness in the

unborn. However, shark and swordfish

are celebrated as great things to eat

whilst pregnant. The nature of them as

figh ng creatures is thought to inspire

strength and courage in the child.

SHARO

Sharo is one of the craziest and most

inhuman tradi ons you can ever

have. Some villages in Mali, Nigeria

a n d C a m e ro o n p ra c c e t h i s

tradi on by publicly bea ng a boy,

who has come of age and wants to

take a wife. He is beaten by a

challenger and he has to suppress

the signs of pain. If he is able to take

the bea ng successfully he is

declared a real man and if he fails,

he simply cannot take a wife. Many

people lose their lives while proving

SOMALIA

In Somalia it is forbidden to be licked

by a dog! If a Muslim touches the

saliva of a dog then he or she must

wash their hands seven mes

before praying. This is true for all of

Islamic Somalia as in Islam a dog's

saliva is deemed impure. Modern

science has indeed proved there are

numerous germs in the saliva of a

dog that can be harmful to humans

and pass on diseases. It is also

deemed Haram (or forbidden) to

keep a dog unless it is for the

purposes of hun ng or protec on.

ZIMBABWE

In Zimbabwe, there exists the

contro vers i a l c u stom w h i c h

r e q u i r e s a y o u n g g i r l o f

marriageable age to undergo a

'virginity test'. This is performed by

inser ng a finger into the girl's

vagina to verify her hymen is

unbroken. This may take place in

churches or at home as well as at

ceremonies sanc oned by rural

chiefs. The prac ce may be carried

out by the girl's mother, aunt,

prospec ve husband or even just a

neighbor!

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 23


AFRICAN PEACE

...Providing a friendly platform towards achieving peace in Africa

THE AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE WISHES TO CELEBRATE

WITH THESE COUNTRIES ON THEIR INDEPENDENCE THIS MARCH.

MOROCCO 2ND MARCH 1956 GHANA 6TH MARCH 1957

MAURITIUS 12TH MARCH 1968 TUNISIA 20TH MARCH 1956

NAMIBIA 21ST MARCH 1990


INCIDENTS OF CHILD RAPE IN AFRICA

In Africa today, rape is a monster on rampage. Barely a day passes by without stories of women or children being

raped. The statistics are staggering. No doubt, rape, no matter the form it takes is unequivocally detestable.

There is however, a sickening variant dangerously gaining ground in African countries – the rape of minors. Last

year in South Africa, two toddlers were kidnapped, raped and killed in Dietsloop Township and their bodies

dumped in a public toilet. In Ituridistrict of eastern Congo, 59 children aged between 1‐3 years old were raped,

while those between ages 5‐15 were 182 in number. Two thirds of raped victims in Liberia in 2013 were children.

While 60% of women raped in South Africa, 15% are children below 11 years. Just recently in Akwa Ibom state,

Nigeria, an eight year old girl was serially raped to death by some men. The stories are endless. The statistics are

rising.

Sadly, most of these cases often go unreported or unpunished. Most times, the perpetuators of these heinous

crimes are friends or close relatives. Parents or guardians of victims in these circumstances usually choose to

stay mute, for fear of stigmatization or choose to “settle the matter within the family”. Where reported, law

enforcement agents handle the matters unimpressively, or prosecution of the cases are carried out without

diligence, thereby robbing the victims of the justice they deserve.

One is impelled to ask, could this surging wave of sexual assault on minors be attributable to decline of moral

standards and cultural values in Africa? Could it be lack of existing laws or poor enforcement measures? Where

we stand today though, the reasons do not matter as much as what measures ought to be taken in dealing with

this endemic.

The rape of minors has terrible ramifications not only for the victims, but society at larger. This has necessitated

the adoption of various methods of tackling this menace. Countries like Denmark, Russia, Poland and more

recently, Macedonia, have adopted chemical castrating as penalty for persons who sexually assault children.

Some countries prescribe imprisonment for a term of years. In some quarters, there have been calls for the

prescription of death sentence for child rapists.

Whatever approved punishment African countries choose to adopt or modify, they must put into consideration

the workability and enforceability of same, the possibility of such punishment serving as positive deterrent, and

the need to tackle this problem with a heightened sense of urgency.

For the individual to the government, from religions organization and non‐government organization, loud

voices must be raised, Action must be taken. This monster must be contained.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 25


From Victoria Falls to the Zambezi River, to Photographic

Safaris and Bungee jumping, Zimbabwe stands as one of

the most beau ful countries in Africa. Its richness in

culture and colour is a beauty to behold. If you plan to visit

Zimbabwe you can join a tour group, or pay and plan your

own trip, then a country of charm, poli cal intrigue and

magnificent wilderness awaits. No ma er who you are

and where you come from, Zimbabwe has something for

you.

English is the official language of Zimbabwe, though only

2% consider it their na ve language, mainly the white and

coloured (mixed race) minori es. The rest of the

popula on speak Bantu languages like Shona and

Ndebele. English is spoken primarily in the ci es, but less

so in rural areas. Zimbabwe is blessed with exquisite

nature and breath taking sceneries that will remain stuck

in your memory for the rest of me.

PLACES

ZIMBABWE

BUNGEE JUMP

HWANGE NATIONAL PARK

VICTORIA FALLS FLIGHT OF ANGELS

CHIMANIMANI MOUNTAINS

LAKE KARIBA

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 26


PEACE MAKERS

Peace Makers, exists to recognise

organisational/institutional efforts in

peace building and elimination of all

elements of violence. This edition, we

look at the United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organisation

(UNESCO). UNESCO, was established

after WWII to create and maintain peace

through economic, social or political

agreements. But this is no longer enough

today. The foundations of peace still

need to be laid, with the help of the

specialized agencies which make up the

United Nations system such as

UNESCO. Made up of 196 member

states and 9 associate members,

UNESCO has national and regional

offices scattered around the globe with

its headquarters in Paris, France.

UNESCO pursues its objectives through

five major programs: education, natural

sciences, social and human sciences,

culture, and communication and

UNESCO

Founded on November 4, 1946,

UNESCO, being referred to as the

"intellectual" agency of the United

Nations, exists to bring this creative

intelligence to life; for it is in the minds

of men and women that the defences of

peace and the conditions for sustainable

development must be built. At a time

when the world is looking for new ways

to build peace and sustainable

development, people must rely on the

power of intelligence to innovate,

expand their horizons and sustain the

hope of a new humanism. UNESCO

promotes, among other things a culture

of Peace and Non-Violence which is a

commitment to peace-building,

mediation, conflict prevention and

resolution, peace education, education

for non-violence, tolerance, acceptance, mutual respect, intercultural and

interfaith dialogue and reconciliation. In UNESCO's view, since wars begin in

the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be

constructed.

ON PEACE AND NON-VIOLENCE.

UNESCO's Director-General, “Peace is more than the absence of war, it is living

together with our differences – of sex, race, language, religion or culture – while

furthering universal respect for justice and human rights on which such

coexistence depends”. Therefore, peace is a choice to be made on each situation,

an everyday life decision. With a view to foster conditions where such every day

peace is a tangible reality for all, UNESCO has established a new Programme to

enhance a culture of peace and non-violence at global, regional, national and

local levels, which will aim at the following results:

*Fundamental principles of peace universally shared to be appropriated by

different cultures, thanks to a genuine dialogue and mainstreamed into public

policies;

*Tension between universality and particularism, cultural identities and

citizenship in a globalized world analyzed and better understood;

*Everyday Peace to be conceived as an everyday living experience, not only in

periods of conflict, but also in ordinary times.

The culture of peace and non-violence is a commitment to peace-building,

mediation, conflict prevention and resolution, peace education, education for

non-violence, tolerance, acceptance, mutual respect, intercultural and interfaith

dialogue and reconciliation. It is a conceptual as well as a normative framework

envisaged to inspire thoughts and actions of everyone. Therefore, it requires

cognitive as well as the emotional abilities to grapple with our own situation in a

rapidly changing world as well as with the emerging world society. Sustainable

Peace and Development cannot be achieved by one person or organisation alone.

It takes the collective effort and decision of each person to decide to be on the

side of peace.

To learn more about UNESCO, visit: www.unesco.org

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 27


NOBLE NOBEL

6 MOST CONTROVERSIAL

NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNERS.

Since its inception, the Nobel Peace Prize has endlessly recognised individual and

organisational efforts in promoting peace. These immeasurable efforts have undergone severe

scrutiny and are being subjected to both approval and disapproval of concerned people.

Different calibres of people have received the Noble Peace Prize ranging from peace and

political activists to writers and even scientists. Although its aim is to acknowledge great

strides in peace, and advancement and unity of mankind, the Nobel Peace Prize has been

awarded to some people whose lifestyle, attitude and behaviour has been questions. These

are people with violent pasts or have been exposed for lying in the so-called factual work that

earned them the award. Here are the top 6 African Peace Magazine's most controversial

Nobel Peace Prize winners.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 28


WANGARI MAATHAI 2004

Wangari Maathai was the first African woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.

She received the award for her efforts in empowering rural women in Kenya to

reverse deforestation. She was a human rights advocate, politician, feminist,

and an environmentalist. The one time Kenyan Deputy Minister of

Environment won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2004 but her sweet victory was

superceeded by an 'alleged' comment she made. The day before she was due to

collect the peace prize in Stockholm, a story appeared in an African newspaper

that claimed she had likened Aids to a "biological weapon" and told participants

in an Aids workshop that the disease was "a tool" to control Africans "designed

by some evil-minded scientists." Maathai confronted the storm of controversy by

insisting her comments had been taken out of context. "I neither say nor believe

that the virus was developed by white people or white powers in order to destroy

the African people," she said in a statement released by the Nobel committee.

"Such views are wicked and destructive." She was described by TIME as

someone who "inspired women to stand up for themselves against a corrupt and

th

patriarchal government. She died on September 24 2011 in Nairobi, Kenya.

BARRACK OBAMA 2009

As America's first Black president, Barrack Obama was chosen for his

"extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation

between peoples," which raised more than a few eyebrows, considering the

nomination came just 12 days after he took office. At the time he accepted the

award, he said it was an award he didn't deserve, four years down the line,

people seem to agree with him. Lots of people. One is Kirsten Powers who said

it's time for Obama to give his Nobel Peace prize back. She cites his

determination to attack Syria, with or without a UN Security Council

resolution, as one reason; the escalation of a "pointless and failing" war in

Afghanistan is another. But the main reason Obama should turn in his prize is

his "five-year Middle East drone war" which has killed an estimated "500 to 800

innocents", writes Powers.

The Nobel Committee was accused of having political motivations. For their

part, the committee acknowledged the award honored Obama's "efforts" to

advance global harmony rather than his concrete achievements to date.

RIGOBERTA MENCHÚ 1992

RigobertaMenchú won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 for I, RigobertaMenchú,

her autobiographical account of her life as a Mayan and, more specifically, the

genocide of the indigenous Guatemalan people in the late '70s and early '80s.

Menchú's book was first published in 1982 and would eventually be translated

into 12 different languages, making it one of the first cohesive accounts of the

atrocities against the Mayans and garnering international interest that would

lead to her Nobel Peace Prize win. But did everything in Menchú's book really

happen the way she described? Thanks to the work of American anthropologist

David Stoll, Menchú's book — and her Nobel Peace Prize — became the topic of

great debate after he discovered that she had stretched the truth to make her

story more emotionally persuasive. Menchú was not, as she had written,

entirely uneducated, and she did not witness the torture and murder of her

brother (although her mother did.) While Stoll supported Menchú's win

regardless of these discrepancies, he also pointed out that Menchú's account

was not a realistic portrayal of what actually caused the genocide to take place.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 29


HENRY KISSINGER 1973

Easily one of the most controversial Nobel Peace Prize winners of all time is

Henry Kissinger, who was a joint winner in 1973 with North Vietnamese leader

Le DucTho. Le DucTho rejected the award, given for the pair's peace work in

South Vietnam, because he felt that peace had not yet been achieved in the area

— and doubly, didn't want to share the award with Kissinger. Kissinger,

President Nixon's Secretary of State, accepted the award “with humility,” but

many felt that it should never have been offered to him in the first place. There

were two reasons for this controversy: Kissinger was accused of war crimes for his

assistance in America's secret bombing of Cambodia from 1969-1975, as well as

for helping to contribute arms to South American dictators who would slaughter

thousands of people during the terror campaign Operation Condor. His win was

also called premature since North Vietnam invaded South Vietnam two years

after the prize was awarded, voiding his work. Two Norwegian Nobel Committee

members resigned to protest Kissinger's win.

YASSER ARAFAT 1994

Irrespective of what your views may be on Yasser Arafat, he is in fact a Nobel

Peace Prize winner. Palestinian leader Arafat won in 1994 along with then Israeli

Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and then Foreign Minister Shimon Peres for their

work on the Oslo Peace accords, which created "opportunities for a new

development toward fraternity in the Middle East" and mutual recognition

between the Israel and the Palestinian Liberation Organisation. While his critics

condemned the award, calling Arafat an "unrepentant terrorist with a long legacy

of promoting violence," his supporters offered praise and compared the

Palestinian leader to Nelson Mandela. As for his efforts toward fraternity in the Middle East: an uneasy

relationship with Hamas, allegations of corruption and an aversion to compromise mean the ambitions of

the Oslo accords were never fully realized. “One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter,” says

TIME of the heated debate surrounding Yasser Arafat's controversial Nobel Peace Prize win. Although

Arafat publicly spoke out against terrorism, he's been called “ The worst man to ever win the Nobel Peace

Prize” by critics who also stated he was an “unrepentant terrorist with a long legacy of promoting violence”

for terrorist campaigns against Israel. Actions under scrutiny include his hand in overseeing military

groups responsible for bombings, hijackings, assassinations, and even the murder of 11 Israeli Olympic

athletes under his “direct or indirect command.” Norwegian Nobel Committee member Kaare Kristiansen

resigned to protest Arafat's Nobel Peace Prize win. The long laundry 'list detailing Arafats numerous crimes

has spurned many to call the Palestinian leader a “monster” and “ the father of modern terrorism.”

Cordell Hull although nominated several times in the 1930s, received the

Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his prominent role in establishing the UNO

While his efforts to start the UNO were admirable, his actions six years earlier

caused widespread consternation and many felt he was undeserving of the

award. Hull was President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Secretary of State during

the S.S. St. Louis crisis when 950 Jewish refugees, seeking asylum from Nazi

persecution, set sail for the U.S. from Hamburg. Despite President's Franklin

showing willingness to help, Hull, together with Southern Democrats, voiced

strong opposition and threatened to withdraw support for FDR in the

forthcoming election if he didn't follow suit. On June 4, 1939, the President

denied the ship entry, forcing it to return to Europe, where more than a quarter

of its passengers subsequently died in the Holocaust.

CORDELL HULL 1945

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 30


HEPATITIS B INFECTION

A SILENT KILLER DISEASE

Beware!-It spreads faster than AIDS and has no Definite Cure

HEALTH

What is hepa s B?

It is a systemic disease caused by Hepa s B virus; it is primarily

associated with the viruses incriminated in viral Hepa s

(inflamma on or swelling of the liver due to viral infec on).

The liver is the biggest organ in the human body; it serves as a

workshop where the metabolic func ons of the body are carried out

and that includes the manufacturing of protein and other chemicals

that are essen al for the healthy growth and defense mechanism of

the body, removal of poisonous substances from the body through

the process of detoxifica on and a lot more. The liver is a very tough

and resilient organ and is able to withstand all the assaults to be able

to carry out its ac vi es but it can be overwhelmed when its

integrity is compromised as a result of the infec on with such as the

HBV.

Hepa s B infec on is a great threat to humanity, unfortunately

because of the current sensa onal nature of the HIV/AIDS pandemic

people in the general popula on especially in developing countries

in Africa are hardly aware of the life threatening danger this illness

presents. The capacity of Hepa s B to progress to chronic infec on,

cirrhosis and ul mately liver cancer is frightening and everybody

should take possible steps to curtail the disease and fortunately most

efforts made to prevent HIV transmission will also prevent Hepa s

B infec on to a large extent.

How does it spread?

Hepa s B is about 300 mes more infec ous than AIDS, that

sounds incredible but it is true; the preponderance of the viral

replica on is that high and the HBV can survive rela ve adverse

condi ons for a long me of which such as HIV cannot. The chief

source of the infec on is human blood and other body fluids such as

semen, vaginal discharges and secre on from wound--You can get

Hepa s B in four ways

1. Through transfusion of blood and blood products or through

infected syringes during ta ooing, acupuncture and drug abuse.

2. Contact with blood or other body fluid.

3. From an infected mother to a newborn.

4. From an infected sexual partner.

Who can be infected?

Almost anyone, nobody is safe from this silent killer disease; Doctors, Nurses, Construc on workers, whichever works

of life with children being the worst affected, their exposure to HBV can prove to be serious especially for those less

than seven (7) years of age.

How do you know you have hepa s B?

In spite of being infected with the virus, you may not show any signs of the disease un l very late, different people will

show different symptoms and one in three falls seriously ill which is why it is called silent killer disease. Ini al

symptoms of weakness, redness, body ache, fever, nausea and vomi ng, diarrhea, mild abdominal pains, loss of

appe te that may progress to jaundice, yellowing of skin and eyes, pale feaces and dark urine.

While many pa ents recover without major problem, some suffer a severe a ack of fulminate Hepa s which can be

fatal. You also become a silent carrier if the virus is not completely eliminated. In the absence of any specific symptom

Hepa s B o en goes undiagnosed and the only way to be absolutely sure is a blood test called Hepa s B surface

an gen (HBsAg) test

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 31


Is there any cure for Hepa s B?

It is a bad news, there is no definite cure for Hepa s B but there

is the good news; it can be prevented though vaccina on for

those that tested Nega ve. Vaccina on alone can help you fight

Hepa s B; the course includes three injec ons at definite

intervals over a period of three months. A er the course your

body produces an bodies that can help you fight against this

silent killer disease.

Vaccina on for children; if the mother is a carrier of HBV, the first

dose of the injec on should be given at birth followed by two

other doses at an interval of one month each. If the mother is not

a carrier of HBV the child can be vaccinated along with childhood

vaccina on in accordance with WHO-guidelines.

WORLD-WIDE FACTS ABOUT HEPATITIS B

Over five hundred thousand people die yearly of cases directly

related to Hepa s B.

Over two billion people have been infected cumula vely.

Over three hundred and fi y million people worldwide are living

with the disease.

About one person has died from Hepa s B in the me it takes

you to read one to three above.

Hepa s B is about three hundred mes more infec ous than

HIV.

Unlike HIV, Hepa s B can survive outside the body for a long

me.

AND IN NIGERIA

1. One out of every five has the virus.

2. One percent death of all adult is due to Hepa s B.

3. 68% of chronic liver disease and 80% of all liver cancer is due to

Hepa s B.

REDUCING THE SPREAD.

Your Organiza on/Agency can also be a beneficiary by ge ng

your staff screened and immuniza on provided for those that

tested nega ve.

Help stop Hepa s B, get screened and get immunized-Also

available are rapid screening test kits for HCV, HAV, VDRL, HIV 1 &

2, TB Serology, PSA and lipid profile.

Courtesy:

Adonai Laboratories Ltd.

priadonai2000@yahoo.com

+2347032190500

AFRICAN

ISSUE 02 2014

N1,000 / $ 6 / 4

PEACE

ISSUE 02 2014

Africa’s Energy Needs

Alternative Power To

The Rescue

...Providing a friendly platform towards achieving peace in Africa

Bringing

Peace Back To

Guinea Bissau

Fernando Jorge Almada

Maternity Tourism

And The Dilemma

Of Anchor Babies

Rising Tide:

Incidents Of Child

Rape In Africa

Technology

Developed

By Africans

All material is copyright and all rights are

reserved. No part of this publica on may be

reproduced without wri en permission of the

copyright holder. While every effort is made

to ensure all prices and data are correct at the

me of publica on African Peace Magazine is

not responsible for editorial errors.

Opinions expressed in African Peace

Magazine are not necessarily those of African

Peace Magazine and African Peace Magazine

does not accept responsibility for adver sing

content. Any images or transparencies

supplied are at the owner's risk.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 32


ISSUES

In the search for “greener pastures”

and the “American dream”, the rise of

anchor babies have called for great

concern. Anchor baby is the term used

to refer to children born in the United

States of America to illegal alien

mothers. Under current practice, these

children are U.S. citizens at birth, simply

because they were born on US soil. They

are called anchor babies because, as US

citizens, they become eligible to

sponsor for legal immigration most of

their relatives, including their illegal

alien mothers, when they turn 21 years

of age, thus becoming the US "anchor"

for an extended immigrant family. "Jus

soli" (right of soil) is the right of anyone

born in the territory of a state to claim

the nationality or citizenship of that

state while jus sanguinis (right of blood)

is a right to claim the citizenship of the

country of one's parents.

F r o m 20 0 4 , a l l E u r o p e a n

countries refused to grant birthright

citizenship, it is based solely on jus

sanguinis. This law shifted all the

burden of anchor babies on the United

States and Canada. You find majority of

immigrants (both legal and illegal)

making deliberate plans to make sure

the are in the US before their Expected

Delivery Date. Africans are not an

exception to this trend. It has now

become 'fashionable' to give birth to an

offspring in the US and has somewhat

become something to be envious about

when your child has the citizenship of

the United States boldly transcribed on

his/her passport. Thus, the US‐born

children of illegal aliens not only

represent additional US population

g r o w t h , b u t a c t a s ' a n c h o r s ' t o

eventually pull a large number of

extended family members into the

country legally. In fact, an entire

industry has built up around the US

system of birthright citizenship.

Thousands of pregnant women who are

about to deliver come to the United

States each year from countries as far

away as South Korea and as near as

Mexico so that they can give birth on US

soil. Some come legally as temporary

visitors; others enter illegally. Once the

MATERNITY TOURISM

AND THE DILEMA OF

ANCHOR BABIES

they get a US birth certificate and passport for the child, and their future

link to the country is established and irreversible. While there is no formal

policy that forbids deporting the illegal alien parents of children born in the

US, they rarely are actually deported. In some cases, immigration judges

make exceptions for the parents on the basis of their US‐born children and

grant the parents legal status. In many cases, though, immigration officials

choose not to initiate removal proceedings against illegal aliens with USborn

children, so they simply remain in the country illegally.

This poses a great problem for the United States and all other developed

countries who practice jus soli. In 2010, lawmakers in several states urged

an amendment to the Constitution to turn the United States into a jus

sanguinis country, or right of blood; you are American if your parents were

Americans. Bill and American citizen, is of the view that; Maternity

tourism is just the beginning of the silliness of birthright citizenship that

goes to the babies of foreign students, temporary foreign workers,

international travellers and the millions who break the law to criminally

enter this country. Each of these babies becomes an anchor who retards

deportation of unlawfully present parents and who eventually will be an

anchor for entire families and villages as chain migration leads to the

immigration of grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins. Birthright

citizenship is an antiquated practice that has been abandoned by nearly all

wealthy nations and emerging nations (recently India and Indonesia) and

by the majority of poor nations. This poses the question of whether the

th

right of jus soli should be abandoned for right of blood? Should the 14

Amendment which reads in part that,

"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the

jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and the State wherein

they reside."

Be amended to address the current trend of Anchor babies and maternity

tourism?. Africans like earlier said are not exempted from this trend.

Should we continue to flee from our heritage and culture in the name of

giving our children the possibility of a bright future which may or may not

be in existence?

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 33


ON THE ROCK RAISING HOPE FOR NIGERIA

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 34


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Mobile: 0803 336 1905


FASHION

LUSCIOUS LIPS

PRINCESS EMIKE UMOLE

(Professional Makeup Artist)

Are you tired of having dried,

unattractive and chapped lips?

Do you need attractive and

luscious lips? Then why don't you

try lip gloss. Lip gloss serves as

the most popular and handy

cosmetic product, the lip gloss

rules a women's world. If you

want to give your lips a shiny and

wonderful color you must try out

the lip gloss. Although lipsticks

are in demand but these new lip

care products have created their

own place in the market.

Particularly, if you are the one

who want simple, yet attractive

and appealing look then you must

try lip gloss. It's available in

various colors and flavors. The

moisturizing and dazzling effects

acts as the added feature to these

lip care products. They not only

make your lips beautiful by

adding color but also make it soft

and smooth by giving the

moisturizing effect. Some of the

benefits of lip gloss are as

follows:

Just like lipstick, lip gloss

also comes in different forms.

You can find lip gloss of

numerous colors and even in

different fruity flavors. For

smoothening and softening

your lips, apply lip balm. To

highlight your beautiful lips,

apply moisturizing lip gloss.





Lip gloss can be used as a part of makeup, to give color to your

lips, or as a moisturizer to hydrate your lips. The basic ingredients in

most lip gloss are glycerin, aloe, and vitamin E. All the ingredients of

lip gloss help in moisturizing the lips. There is another kind of lip

gloss that is basically used to give shiny effect to the lips. Apart from

the usual ingredients, this type of lip gloss also contains certain oils.

Lip gloss has many more benefits, even more than petroleum jelly

or any other lip products. Apart from giving a soft and smooth touch to

the lips, lip gloss also make them shiny. During dry season, lip gloss

can protect the lips from getting dry and chapped. Further, some of the

lip glosses available today makes the lips look plump, thereby helping

it to appear bold and beautiful. Although, the effect of these lip

glosses are temporary and short lived, many welcome this as it doesn't

have harsh affect.

Lip balms also maintain the quality of the lips and keep them soft

and beautiful due to the presence of vitamin and soybean extracts. In

some of the lip glosses the antioxidant and moisturizing property

keeps the lips hydrated for the whole day.

Those who think that lip stick is too dark and thick for the lips can

use lip gloss, as the colors add a mild and pleasing touch. Moreover,

apart from the vibrant colors, the moisturizers and sparkles present in

lip gloss makes the lips look more appealing.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 36


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MASCARA ON LASHES

PRINCESS EMIKE UMOLE (Professional Makeup Artist)

Mascara is a key component to making your eyes stand out. Mascara has the ability to not only make your lashes darker; it

also adds length and thickness. It does not matter how wonderful your eye shadow looks, or what great techniques you have

used, without great looking lashes no one will notice. To apply mascara on your lashes to make them stand out, one must

follow these five tips to achieve vibrant lashes.

1. Do not pump the wand in and out of the bottle. This pushes air into the tube which will make the mascara dry out

faster causing clumping and flaking. Instead, gently twist the back and forth or in circular motions to pick up the desired

amount of product.

2. If you decide to curl your lashes, begin at the root of the lashes being careful not to get any skin into the eyelash

curler. Press the curler together and hold for about 10 seconds and move the curler out to the end of your lashes and

repeat. Again, this step is optional but it does make for longer looking lashes and opens the eye.

3. When you remove the wand from the bottle make sure to scrap off any excess mascara from the wand. This will help

you avoid making your lashes clumpy.

4. Whether you start with your top or bottom lashes is completely up to you, although beginning with the bottom

lashes will prevent those tiny dots that appear on your eyelids when you look down to apply mascara to your bottom

lashes. For the top lashes, look straight forward, take the wand and place it at the base of your lashes. Using a back-andforth

motion while moving the wand up your lashes and sweep upward, this will help give

your lashes a curled effect. Keep repeating this until you get your lashes as thick as you want,

usually 2-3 coats. When it comes to the bottom lashes, tilt your head forward slightly to keep

from getting mascara onto your cheek. Use the same side to side motions until you get a good

coat of mascara on your lower lashes.

5. To make your eyelashes look even thicker a trick is to apply a coat of black eyeliner to

the upper waterline of your eyes. To do this, pull up your lashes just a bit, and run the black

eyeliner on the top of the inner waterline. To give it more staying power, dip your eyeliner

pencil in black waterproof gel eyeliner and line the waterline. Even though this is a subtle

difference, the black base it creates automatically gives the appearance of thicker, fuller

lashes.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 38


ENTERTAINMENT

The list of musicians who rake in millions of dollars are

usually reserved for international megastars like

Beyonce, Kanye West, Jay Z, Madona, Jenifer Lopez and

people who largely hail from the western world.

However, there are artistes across Africa whose stars are

rapidly rising and they are able to command larger

paychecks around the world. Highly influential and each

bringing their own unique sound, these artistes

represent the richest African musicians, according to

Answers Africa. JEMIRIYE ADENIJI brings you the list.

RICHEST

AFRICAN

MUSICIANS


10. Jose Chameleone

Jose (or Joe) Chameleone is a Ugandan

artiste who found his niche blending

traditional Ugandan folk music, a bit of

rumba and a heavy reggae inuence. He

sings in English, Swahili and Luganda. His

mansion outside of Kampala and four cars

(including a Cadillac Escalade and a Benz)

are evidence of his success, particularly with

his hit, ValuValu. He's been credited with

changing the face of music in Uganda, as

well as making local music accessible to the

rest of the world.

9. Banky W

010

Born Olubankole Wellington in the U.S,

Banky W moved back to Nigeria and grew

up in Lagos, where he began singing at an

early age. Finding success early in singing

competitions, most of his wealth has come

from endorsement deals with companies

such as Etisalat mobile and Samsung in

Nigeria. He also started the Mr Capable

Foundation, an education charity that

provides tuition scholarships for

disadvantaged children.

008

8. Hugh Masekela

009

Musical sensation Hugh Masekela is a South

African artiste who plays variety of instruments

including the trumpet, ugelhorn and cornet,

along with singing and composing his own work.

He has been highly praised for his work, with

everything from a Grammy nomination to the

Order of the Ikhamanga by President Jacob

Zuma (for achievements in arts, culture, literature,

music, journalism and sports in South Africa.) He

has graced prestigious festivals across the world.

He is perhaps best known for his acapella style

singing and collaboration with Paul Simon and

Ladysmith Black Mambazo on the Graceland

album and 1987 Graceland tour.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 40


007

7. 2 Face Idibia

Nigerian singer and songwriter, 2Face Idibia,

began his career as a member of the hip hop

group, Plantashun Boyz, but went solo in 2004

after the group split. His most popular song,

African Queen, took off after being featured in

the movie Phat Girlz in 2006, but all of his ve

albums have been very well received around

the world. His wealth comes from various real

estate investments across Nigeria, as well as

the $80,000 he commands per show.

006

6. Fally Ipupa

Fally Ipupa, a former member of Quartier Latin

International (along with Kof Olomidé, to be

mentioned later), went solo in 2006 and has been

incredibly successful, both in his home country of

the Democratic Republic of the Congo as well as

internationally. With MTV Africa Music and Kora

awards under his belt, he's racked up clothing

endorsement deals in Paris as well as high

commissions for his shows across the world which

are almost always sold out.

5. Salif Keita

005

Born and raised in Mali, singer and songwriter Salif

Keita has been referred to as the "Golden Voice of

Africa," with his original take on Afro pop music.

Despite his royal heritage (he's directly descended

from Sundiata Keita, the founder of the Mali

Empire), he chose a path of music, bucking the

Malian caste system. But this means that he was

loaded even before his music career took off,

explaining his private island and properties across

Europe.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 41


4. Kof Olomidé

Along with fellow Congolese star,

Fally Ipupa, Kof Olomidé formed

Quartier Latin as lead singer and

vocalist before launching his solo

career. Dubbing his style of music

as tchatcho, he considers it a

blend of soukous music (dance

music that originated from African

rumba music). He's notorious for

taking on controversial subjects in

his lyrics, which has led him to be

widely praised and criticised

worldwide. Raking in over

100,000 Euros per show, Olomidé

is extremely popular across Africa

and the world. One of his albums

is listed in Robert Dimery's book,

"1001 Albums You Must Hear

Before You Die."

004

3. D'Banj

Dapo Daniel Oyebanjo, D'Banj

aka the Koko Master, has been

killing it in his country, Nigeria and

around the world since 2007, and

was the rst African artiste who

signed with the music label

GOODMusic, owned by Kanye

West. The recipient of countless

awards, D'Banj is known for his

unique sound of dance music and

afro beats. He is involved in a

variety of investments including a

nightclub in Nigeria, brands such

as Koko water, and was given his

own reality show, "Koko Mansion."

He also rakes millions in shows

and brand endorsements.

003

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 42


002

2. P-Square

P-Square is made up of identical

twins, Peter and Paul Okoye, who

began singing and dancing

together back in their small

Catholic high school in Jos,

Nigeria. After forming the group in

2005, their music developed a

devoted following, particularly in

South Africa, and each album

outsold the previous one. They

were named Artistes of the Year at

the 2010 Kora Awards and now

bring in more than $150,000 per

show. Best of all, their shared

home is worth more than $3

million and has been dubbed

"Squareville." Talk about product

placement!

01

1. Youssou N'dour

Not surprisingly, YoussouN'dour brings it

home in the No. 1 spot. This Senegalese

singer is widely considered the most famous

singer alive in Senegal and much of Africa.

His style of music is known as mbalax, a mix

of Senegalese traditional music in the Serer

language and various styles from around the

world including Cuban rumba, hip hop, jazz

and soul. With millions around the world in

his fan base, he is now the owner of the

biggest media house in Senegal (complete

with radio and TV stations) and was

appointed tourism and culture minister in

2012. More importantly, before K'naan had

"Waving Flag" in 2010, N'dour was

responsible for the 1998 FIFA World Cup

national anthem, "La Cour des Grands,"

along with Axelle Red.

Having presented the list, I have a simple

question for African Female Musicians as

well as their promoters; Where are the

African Female Musicians? are they so poor

that we cannot even find one on the Top Ten

list? Going by there counterparts in here in

the USA we can see that the list of the

richest musicians is not just the Men's

game, rather its for for both genders.

Moreso, being a musician myself I

remember vividly how you have to double

proof yourself that you are marketable,

otherwise no record label will be ready to

spend a dime on you. And if eventually you

get a label to sign you on, then comes the

issue of how to dress and look sexy, what to

sing and so on. Even though the female

musicians in Africa shares the same stage

with the male musician, its not a guarantee that they

make the same money, in other words African

Female musicians like Angelique Kidjo (Republic of

Benin), Asa (Nigeria), Becca (Ghana), Amani (Kenya),

Siphokazi (South Africa), Juliana (Uganda) Ary

(Angola) to mention a few are all not good enough to

make the list.

Its breaks my heart to see that our female singers are

not doing so well financially in Africa. This is a

challenge and I hope the next list will reflect the

change, and event organizers will pay both male and

female musicians equally regardless of the gender.

Let Peace reign in Africa. I Love You All.

JEMIRIYE ADENIJI

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 43AFRICAN


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TRIBUTE

ROBERT MUGABE AT 90!

THE LONGEST SERVING AFRICAN PRESIDENT

rd

Sunday the 23 of February 2014 was a

very joyful day for Zimbabwe as

thousands gathered to wish president

Robert Mugabe a happy birthday , who

threw 90 balloons into the air to mark

th

his 90 birthday. Dressed in a black

suit, red tie and white shirt, he moved

around the venue on the back of a

truck waving his fist to a crowd made

up largely of school children bussed in

for the occasion. "I feel as youthful and

energetic as a boy of nine," Mugabe

said, before cutting his cake.

Although he had just got back from

Singapore, where he had travelled for

eye surgery last week, Mugabe

unrepentantly remained joyful as he

cut his cake amidst gleeful shouts of

people wearing red scarves as it is

customary on the president’s birthday.

Robert Mugabe has ruled Zimbabwe

since the former rebel led the country

to independence from Britain in 1980.

Robert Mugabe is a Zimbabwean

revolutionalist and politician. As one of

the leaders of the rebel groups against

white minority rule, he was elected as

Prime Minister, head of government,

in 1980, and served in that office until

1987, when he became the country's

first executive head of state. Having

been repeatedly re‐elected, he retains

this post to this day. He has led the

Zimbabwe African National Union

Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF) since 1975.

Robert Mugabe rose to prominence in

the 1960s as the Secretary General of

ZANU during the conflict against the

conservative white minority

government of Rhodesia. Mugabe was

a political prisoner in Rhodesia for

more than 10 years between 1964 and

.

1974 Upon release Mugabe, along with

Edgar Tekere, left Rhodesia in 1975 to

re‐join the fight during the Rhodesian

Bush War from bases in Mozambique.

At the end of the war in 1979, Mugabe

emerged as a hero in the minds of

many Africans. He won the

general elections of 1980 after

calling for reconciliation between

the former belligerents, including

white Zimbabweans and rival

political parties, and thereby

became Prime Minister on

Zimbabwe's independence in April

1980.

In August 2008, Robert Mugabe

suffered a narrow defeat in the

first round of a presidential

election but he subsequently won

the run‐off election in a landslide

after opposition rival Morgan

Tsvangirai withdrew from the

race, and extended a hand to the

opposition with the signing of a

power‐sharing deal with

opposition leaders Morgan

Tsvangirai and Arthur Mutambara

of the –MDC‐T and –MDC‐M

opposition party.


Election Commission said Mugabe won his seventh term as President, defeating Tsvangirai with 61 percent of the vote.

Born near the Kutama Jesuit Mission in the Zvimba District northwest of Salisbury in Southern Rhodesia to a Malawian

father Gabriel Matibili and a Shona mother Bona, both Roman Catholic, Mugabe was the third of six children. He had two

elder brothers, Michael (1919–1934) and Raphael. Both elder brothers died when he was young, leaving Robert and his

younger brother, Donato (1926–2007), and two younger sisters – Sabina and Bridgette. His father, a carpenter, abandoned

the Mugabe family in 1934 after Michael died, in search of work in Bulawayo.

Raised as a Catholic, He qualified as a teacher, but left to study at Fort Hare in South Africa graduating in 1951,

while meeting contemporaries such as Julius Nyerere, Herbert Chitepo, Robert Sobukwe and Kenneth Kaunda.

Mugabe joined the National Democratic Party (NDP) in 1960. After the administration of Prime Minister Edgar

Whitehead banned the NDP in September 1961, it almost immediately reformed as the Zimbabwe African

Peoples Union (ZAPU), led by Joshua Nkomo. Mugabe

left ZAPU in 1963 to join the breakaway Zimbabwe

African National Union (ZANU), which had been

formed by the Reverend Ndabaningi Sithole, Edgar

Tekere, Edson Zvobgo, Enos Nkala and lawyer Herbert

Chitepo.

ZANU was influenced by the Africanist ideas of the

Pan Africanist Congress in South Africa and influenced

by Maoism while ZAPU was an ally of the African

National Congress and was a supporter of a more

orthodox pro‐Soviet line on national liberation. Similar

divisions can also be seen in the independence

movement in Angola between the MPLA and UNITA.

It would have been easy for the party to split along

tribal lines between the Ndebele and Mugabe's own

Shona tribe, but cross‐tribal representation was

maintained by his partners. ZANU leader Sithole

nominated Robert Mugabe as his Secretary General.

During early 1964 tension between the two rival

nationalist parties boiled over into violent conflict

within the black townships. "Many people were

killed as rival former colleagues [within the

nationalist movement] turned against each other,"

write David Martin and Phyllis Johnson; "Homes and

stores were burned and looted." The government

reacted by arresting political agitators for criminal

offences and jailing Nkomo in Gonakudzingwa Restriction Camp, a remote detention unit in the south‐east of the

country. After members of ZANU murdered a farmer, Petrus Oberholzer, on 4 July 1964, ZANU and ZAPU

were officially banned on 26 August 1964; their leaders, including Mugabe, were shortly arrested and

imprisoned indefinitely. ZAPU figures joined Nkomo at Gonakudzingwa while the leaders of ZANU were

briefly held in turn at two similar units near Gwelo (Gweru since 1982), first Wha Wha, then, from 15 June 1965,

Sikombela, before being transferred permanently to Salisbury Prison on 8 November 1965.Mugabe earned

numerous further degrees by correspondence courses while detained, including three from the University of

London: degrees in Law and Economics respectively and a Bachelor of Administration. When his three‐year‐old

son Nhamodzenyika died from malaria in Ghana in late 1966, Mugabe petitioned the prison governor to leave

on parole to attend the funeral in Accra, the Ghanaian capital, but was refused permission by Prime Minister Ian

Smith personally. Mugabe unilaterally assumed control of ZANU after the death of Herbert Chitepo on 18

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 47


control of ZANU after the death of

Herbert Chitepo on 18 March 1975. Later

that year, after squabbling with Ndabaningi

Sithole, Mugabe formed a militant ZANU

faction, leaving Sithole to lead the

moderate ZANU (Ndonga) party. Many

opposition leaders mysteriously died

during this time. Under pressure from

Henry Kissinger, Prime Minister of South

Africa B. J. Vorster persuaded Ian Smith, the

sitting prime minister at the time, to

accept in principle that white minority rule

could not continue indefinitely. In 1987,

the position of Prime Minister was

abolished and Mugabe assumed the new

office of executive President of Zimbabwe

gaining additional powers in the process.

He was re‐elected in 1990 and 1996, and in

2002 amid claims of widespread voterigging

and intimidation. Mugabe's term

of office expired at the end of March 2008,

but he was re‐elected later in 2008 in

another election marred by allegations of

election fraud and intimidation.

A number of people have accused Mugabe

of having a racist attitude towards white

people. John Sentamu, a Uganda‐born

Archbishop of York in the United Kingdom,

calls Mugabe "the worst kind of racist

dictator," for having "targeted the whites

for their apparent riches" Almost thirty

years after ending white‐minority rule in

Zimbabwe, Mugabe accuses the United

Kingdom and the United States of

p r o m o t i n g w h i t e i m p e r i a l i s m a n d

regularly accuses opposition figures to his

government of being allies of white

imperialism.

The United Kingdom once condemned

Mugabe's authoritarian policies and

a l l e g e d r a c i s t a t t i t u d e s a s b e i n g

comparable to those of German Nazi

dictator Adolf Hitler. A response came

during the state funeral for a Zimbabwean

Cabinet minister in March 2003. Mugabe

telling journalists "I am still the Hitler of the

time,This Hitler has only one objective,

justice for his own people, sovereignty for

h i s p e o p l e , r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e

independence of his people, and their

right to their resources. If that is Hitler,

If that is Hitler, then let me be a Hitler tenfold. Ten times, that is

what we stand for." Mugabe has been uncompromising in his

opposition to LGBT rights in Zimbabwe. In September 1995,

Zimbabwe's parliament introduced legislation banning

homosexual acts. In 1997, a court found Canaan Banana, Mugabe's

predecessor and the first President of Zimbabwe, guilty of 11

counts of sodomy and indecent assault. He has previously

referred to lesbians and gays as being "worse than dogs and pigs".

In 2005, Mugabe ordered a raid conducted on what the

government termed "illegal shelters" in Harare, resulting in

10,000 urban poor being left homeless from "Operation

Murambatsvina (Operation Drive Out the Rubbish)." The

authorities themselves had moved the poor inhabitants to the

area in 1992, telling them not to build permanent homes and that

their new homes were temporary, leading the inhabitants to

build their own temporary shelters out of cardboard and wood.

Since the inhabitants of the shantytowns overwhelmingly

supported the Movement for Democratic Change opposition

party in the previous election, many alleged that the mass

bulldozing was politically motivated. The UN released a report

stating that the actions of Mugabe resulted in the loss of home or

livelihood for more than 700,000 Zimbabweans and negatively

affected 2.4 million more.

As of September 2006, Mugabe's family owns three farms:

"Highfield Estate" in Norton, 45 km west of Harare, "Iron Mask

Estate" in Mazowe, about 40 km from Harare, and "Foyle Farm" in

Mazowe, formerly owned by Ian Webster and adjacent to Iron

Mask Farm and renamed "Gushungo Farm" after Mugabe's own

clan name. These farms were seized forcibly from their previous

owners. Mugabe has continued to win elections, although

frequently these have been criticised by outsiders for violating

various electoral procedures.Mugabe faced Tsvangirai of the

Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) in presidential elections

in March 2002. Mugabe defeated Tsvangirai by 56.2% to 41.9%

amid violence and the prevention of large numbers of citizens in

urban areas from voting. The conduct of the elections was widely

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 48


viewed internationally as having been manipulated. Many groups, such as the United Kingdom, the European

Union, the United States, and Tsvangirai's party, assert that the result was rigged.

Mugabe was re‐elected in 2013 with 61 percent of the vote. U.N Secretary‐General Ban Ki‐Moon, having followed

the elections in Zimbabwe closely, commended the Zimbabwean people for a broadly peaceful election day

and for exercising their democratic rights. He stressed, at the same time, that the concerns which have been

raised about certain aspects of the electoral process should be pursued through established channels. These

concerns should then be considered transparently and fairly. The most important thing was that the will of the

people of Zimbabwe be respected. Independent poll monitors reported widespread irregularities, and the

state‐appointed election commission reported that many voters were either turned away or received

assistance from election officials. All in all SADC & the African Continent's main body African Union endorsed the

Zimbabwean general elections which had an AU Observer team on the ground led by former President General

Olusegun Obasanjo. Mugabe's critics accuse him of conducting a "reign of terror" and being an "extremely poor

role model" for the continent, whose "transgressions are unpardonable". In solidarity with the April 2007

general strike called by the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), British Trades Union Congress general

secretary Brendan Barber said of Mugabe's regime: "Zimbabwe's people are suffering from Mugabe's appalling

economic mismanagement, corruption, and brutal repression. They are standing up for their rights, and we

must stand with them." Lela Kogbara, Chair of ACTSA (Action for Southern Africa) similarly has said: "As with

every oppressive regime women and workers are left bearing the brunt. Please join us as we stand in solidarity

with the people of Zimbabwe in their struggle for peace, justice and freedom".

Robert Mugabe is undoubtedly a great leader who stood up for his nation amidst all trials and tribulations, but

his endless reign in Zimbabwe seems to be a point of concern. One thing is certain we wish Mugabe a very long

th

and fulfilled life on his 90 birthday.

AFRICAN PEACE MAGAZINE / 49


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