Tafsir by Ibn Kathir (Quran)

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Siirah 3. Al '1m ran (Part-4) 321

Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have

provision.,PI

Qatadah, Ar-RabI' and AeJ-l)al).l)ak said that these Aydt were

revealed about the martyrs of Ul)ud. [2)

Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah recorded that Jabir bin 'Abdullah

said, "The Messenger of Allah looked at me one day and

said, '0 Jabir! Why do I see you sad?' I said, '0 Messenger of

Allah! My father was martyred and left behind debts and

children.' He said,

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((ShOUld I tell you that Allah never spoke to anyone except from

behind a veil? However, He spoke to your father directly. He

said, 'Ask Me and I will give you.' He said, 'I ask that I am

returned to life so that I am killed in Your cause again.' The

Lord, Exalted He be, said, 'I have spoken the word that they

shall not be returned back to it (this life).' He said, '0 Lord!

Then convey the news to those I left behind. ')) Allah revealed,

I

~~;·\..1;1 .--. W.:,.jr ~ ·r~·

y, ~ y , ',' Yl'

~Think not of those as dead who are killed in the way of

Allah .. .~" [3)

Imam Al)mad recorded that Ibn 'Abbas said that the

Messenger of Allah ~ said,

, oJ!: :,'\';u:, 'I'o.:-.! . ~I G'~ "(.;"\;:.'1'4-1.\1»

~ ('"+'J.,J n-:- [..i'"'-' ,. ~ ~ cI- ',. '-;'.; ~ ";.,J . ...r- •

((The martyrs convene at the shore of a river close to the door of

Paradise 1 in a green tent 1 where their provisions are brought to

them'from Paradise day and night. »

(1) Al}.mad 1 :265.

[2] At-Tabari .7 :389-390.

[3\ Dala'iI An_}'vubuwwah by Al-Bayhaqi 3 :299.


322 Tafsfr Ibn Kathfr

A1;lmadP] and Ibn JarIr[2] collected this I;ladrth, which has a

good chain of narration. It appears that the martyrs are of

different types, some of them wander in Paradise, and some

remain close to this river by the door of Paradise. It is also

possible that the river is where all the souls of the martyrs

convene and where they are provided with their provision day

and night, and Allah knows best.

Imam Al:1mad narrated a I;ladrth that contains good news for

every believer that his soul will be wandering in Paradise, as

well, eating from its fruits, enjoying its delights and happiness

and tasting the honor that Allah has prepared in it for him.

This I;ladith has a unique, authentic chain of narration that

includes three of the Four Imams. Imam A1;lmad narrated this

I;ladrth from Mul:1ammad bin Idns Ash-Shafi'i who narrated it

from Malik bin Anas AI-Asbul:1i, from Az-Zuhri, from 'Abdur­

Ral:1man bin Ka'b bin Malik that his father said that the

Messenger of Allah said,

«The soul of the believer becomes a bird that feeds on the trees

of Paradise, until Allah sends him back to his body when He

resurrects him .11[3]

This I;ladith states that the souls of the believers are in the

shape of a bird in Paradise. As for the souls of martyrs, they

are inside green birds, like the stars to the rest of the believing

souls. We ask Allah the Most Generous that He makes us firm

on the faith.

Allah's statement,

~They rejoice in what Allah has bestowed upon them"

indicates that the martyrs who were killed in Allah's caus'{f

are alive with Allah, delighted because of the bounty P~d

happiness they are enjoying. They are also awaiting ('their

brethren, who will die in Allah's cause after them, for ~!;:(ey will

be meeting them soon. These martyrs do not have fear about

---~ ......---­

[1] AQmad 1 :266

[2] At-Tabari 7 :387

(3) ~~ad 3 :455.


Surah 4. An-Nisa' (Part-5)

465

,*There will then be no test for them but to say: "By Allah, our

Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with

Allah./I,

but He also says,

«c.;. ~\ 5~ 1;"

,*but they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allah.,

They have indeed hid something.' Ibn 'Abbas said, 'As for

Allah's statement,

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,*There will then be no test for them but to say: "By Allah, our

Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with

Allah./I"

~hen they see that on the Day of Resurrection that Alliih does

n2t forgive, except for the people of Islam, and that He forgives

the sins, no matter how big they are, except Shirk, then the

Musi~riks will lie. They will say,

«~~ (t ~ 8~ .&~l.

.."... 1J" T

,*"By (ill&:, our _Lo;,d, we were not those who joined others in

worshW wtth Allah. "

hoping th'&t Allah will forgive them. However, Allah will then

seal their mouths, and their hands and feet will disclose what

they used to ~o. Then,

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~those w/w liisbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger will wish

that they wife buried in the earth, but they will never be able

to hide a single fact from Allah.",,!l]

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ii ~t.ii ~ ~ .:;:., -..t:::; it .;:.:. .¥- i' W P 00 l;~:;~ ~ .}:f­

-~t


466 Tajsfr Ibn Kath;;r

~43. a you who believe! Do not approach $alah while you are

in a druken state until you know what you are saying, nor

while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through,

until you bathe (your entire body), and if you are ill, or on a

journey, or one of you comes from the Gha'# (toilet), or from

Ltimastum (touching) women, but you do not find water, then

perform Tayammum with clean earth, rubbing your faces and

hands. Truly, Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.,

The Prohibition of Approaching Prayer When Drunk or

Junub

Allah forbade His believing servants from praying while

drunk, for one does not know the meaning of what he is

saying in that state, and He forbade them from attending the

Masjids while sexually impure, except when one is just

passing through the Masjid from one door to another. Thi~

Ayah was revealed before alcohol consumption was complete~;

prohibited, as evident by the Ifadlth that we mentioned/ in

Silrat AI-Baqarah when we explained Allah's statement,

~~~ ;:Ql J .a;~,

,,- " "

~They ask you about alcoholic drink and gambling,.

In that Ifadlt~, the Messenger of ~llah ~ re~ited this, Ayah to

'Vmar, who srud, "0 Allah! Explrun the ruling ab9!it Khamr

(intoxicants) for us in a plain manner." When this Ayah (4:431

was revealed, the Prophet recited it to 'Vmar, who still said,

"0 Allah! Explain the ruling about Khamr (intoxic~ts) for us in

a plain manner." After that, they would not drink alcohol~lose

to the time of prayer. When Allah's statement, ___

~ :*-1; pi ~ .;; ~; ~1:i1J ~(,;,f.j~ ~1; Jil at t;;(. £tJi ~~,

.(il~)5.:!..~

~ ~ :T"l'"

~o you who believe! alcoholic drinks, gambling, AI-An9tib, and

AI-AzltimCIJ are an abomination of 5hayattin'~ handiwork. 50

avoid that in order that you may be successful.,. [5:90], until,

(1] AI-A~ab are stone altars used for the sacrifice of animals to other

than Allah. AI-Azldm refers to a type of arrow~J;tsed for divination.

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