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PERSONAL DETAILS

Name:

Address:

Postcode:

Mobile:

Tel No:

Email:

SCHOOL DETAILS

Name of School:

Class

Address:

Postcode:

Tel No:

IN CASE OF EMERGENCY PLEASE CONTACT:

Name:

Address:

Name:

Address:

Tel No:

Tel No:

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MY TIMETABLE Week 1

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MY TIMETABLE Week 2

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TIMETABLE WEEKLY ACTIVITIES/CLUBS

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Weekly Planner

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NOTES


LITERACY SKILLS - Language

Whatever you are writing, be it an essay, your CV or even a novel, you need to

know about the components that make up language.

• Noun

A noun is used to identify a person, place, object or idea.

Common nouns refer to any of these but proper nouns refer to

particular persons, places, objects or ideas.

Our Example: Common nouns Proper nouns

horse, city, railway Red Rum, Manchester, East Coast Line

• Pronoun

Our Example:

• Adjective

Our Example:

• Verb

Our Example:

• Adverb

Our Example:

• Preposition

A pronoun (he, she, it, they, etc.) is used in place of one or more

nouns.

When they visited London, Amy and John were taken on a guided

tour by their uncle.

An adjective modifies a noun or pronoun. It describes size, colour,

how many, what kind, etc.

The ancient tugboat blew its shrill whistle as it hauled the huge

liner out of the narrow harbour.

A verb expresses an action, state or occurrence. The tense of the

verb indicates the time of the action, state or occurrence.

John wrote an essay. (PAST) l walk to school every day.

(PRESENT) I will see you tomorrow. (FUTURE)

An adverb modifies or qualifies a verb, another adverb or an

adjective, and expresses how, when, where or how much.

The women walked slowly along the pavement. (Modifies the verb

‘walked’). James was extremely upset. (Modifies the adjective

‘upset’.) Sarah knew she had acted too hastily. (Modifies the

adverb ‘hastily’.)

A preposition (in, at, beside, over, etc.), expresses a relationship

between a noun or pronoun and another word or phrase.

Our Example: Neil Armstrong set foot on the Moon in 1969.

• Conjunction

Our Example:

• Interjection

Our Example:

Conjunctions join together words or phrases.

John missed the bus because he was late. Dan worked hard on

his homework and achieved high grades.

An interjection is used to express feeling and emotion, pain,

command, admiration, etc. It is usually followed by an exclamation

mark.

Be careful! Ouch! What a wonderful idea!

SD012 01


LITERACY SKILLS - Punctuation

When you write, it is punctuation that helps you to make the meaning clear.

• Full Stop: [.]

Our Example:

Place a full stop at the end of a sentence that is not a

direct question or exclamation.

David walked to the bus stop.

• Comma: [,]

Our Example:

Insert a comma to indicate a natural pause in a sentence

and to separate three or more items in a list or series.

No, I am not going to the park. The shopkeeper placed

sweets, pop, greetings cards and magazines on display.

• Semi-colon: [;]

Our Example:

Use a semi-colon to connect independent clauses in a

compound sentence.

Mary came home late from work; the house was in

darkness.

• Colon: [:]

Our Example:

Place a colon before a list of items and preceding an

explanation or example. (Several have been used on this

page).

I am a keen follower of several sports: soccer, rugby and

cricket.

• Quotation Marks: [“” ]

Our Example:

Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation.

“Keep as quiet as you can,” breathed Jim, “and we might

see the otter.”

• Apostrophe: [‘]

Our Example:

Apostrophes are used where letters have been omitted,

or to indicate possession.

I’ll (I shall) come over to your house. Erica isn’t (is not)

here yet. Peter’s (possessive) school bag is still on the

bus and Rob’s (Rob is) looking for it.

SD012 02

• Parenthesis: [()]

Our Example:

Use parenthesis (brackets) to enclose material which

adds explanation to a sentence.

Three colours are always used for traffic lights: red

(stop), amber (caution) and green (go).


SPELLING RULES

You can improve your spelling

It is vital to spell correctly in all your Key Stage 3 subjects, so spend time

trying to improve your spelling. If you have been told that your spelling is

poor, don’t despair; be positive and adopt some of the methods shown below.

Methods to use

Method 1

Method 2

Method 3

Method 4

Rather than trying to memorise a long list of ‘difficult’ words,

make your own list of the words you want to remember.

Write down any words you misspell. To learn each one look at

it carefully, say it out aloud, cover it up, and then write it down

without looking at your original. Check and repeat if necessary.

Learn groups of words with the same combination of letters.

Learn how words are built up,

e.g. dis + appoint + ment = disappointment.

Some spelling rules to learn

Rule 1

example:

Rule 2

example:

Rule 3

example:

Rule 4

example:

Rule 5

example:

Rule 6

example:

‘i’ before ‘e’ except immediately after ‘c’ or when sounded as ‘a’.

Receive-Neighbour

for words ending in more than one consonant do not double the

final consonant when adding a suffix.

Walk-Walked, Prompt-Prompted

for words ending in soft ‘ce’ or ‘ge’ keep the ‘e’ before ‘able’ and

‘ous’.

Advantageous-Noticeable

for verbs ending in ‘ie’ change the ending to ‘y’ before adding

‘ing’.

Die-Dying, Lie-Lying

drop the final ‘e’ before adding a suffix beginning with a vowel.

Race-Racing, Weave-Weaving

keep the final ‘e’ before a suffix beginning with a consonant.

Fierce-Fiercely, Peace-Peaceful

N.B. Unfortunately each rule has a few exceptions.

SD012 03


FIGURES OF SPEECH & POETIC DEVICES

There are literary devices you can employ to enhance the readability of

your work, such as hyperbole, oxymoron, simile, metaphor, alliteration,

onomatopoeia, although you mustn’t fall into the trap of using any of

them too often.

Hyperbole

The use of an exaggerated statement, which is not meant to be

taken literally, but to create an effect.

e.g. Thomas, for the thousandth time, fasten your top button?

I’ve had a million interruptions this afternoon.

Oxymoron

Simile

The use of (apparently) contradictory terms in conjunction with

each other.

e.g. The attack by the lions on the buffalo had a certain savage

beauty.

The Prime Minister’s statement to the House met with a

thunderous silence.

The comparison of one thing with another of a different kind as

an illustration or ornament. Similes normally begin with the words

‘like’ or ‘as’,

e.g. He was tall and lanky, like a giraffe on stilts.

Billy was as busy as a hyperactive bee.

Metaphor

Applying a name or descriptive term or phrase to an object or

action to which it isn’t literally applicable. (A whole story can be a

metaphor for something else!)

e.g. Simon made a glaring error.

The Dauphin ran his cold finger down Justine’s alabaster

cheek.

‘Juliet is the sun’ (Romeo and Juliet).

SD012 0


FIGURES OF SPEECH & POETIC DEVICES

Alliteration

The occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent

or closely connected words. Although much used in poetry, alliteration

can also enhance other forms of writing.

e.g. The owl on wings of silence seeks unwary prey his scions to sustain.

William stole silently across the hall and opened the door to the dark

dungeon.

Onomatopoeia

The formation of a word from the sound associated with an object or

occurrence.

e.g. The bacon sizzled in the pan.

The chain screeched and clanked noisily as the anchor was

withdrawn.

The campfire crackled (onomatopoeia) and sparks blossomed

(metaphor) into the sky, like a Roman candle on the fifth of

November (simile).

Personification

Attributing human feelings and emotions to animals or inanimate objects.

e.g. Jack Frost paints his patterns on the window panes.

England mourns her dead.

“The first rays at morning tiptoed through the meadow.”

Clichés

Over-used phrases - generally widely known - that most people use in

their everyday lives. An example might be ‘it was raining cats and dogs’.

Only use a cliché if nothing else is as effective in saying what you wish to

say.

Euphemism

Using polite language to refer to something unpleasant or embarrassing.

e.g. We had the dog put to sleep. Instead of: We had the dog killed.

He had an upset stomach. Instead of: He had diarrhoea.

SD012 05


FIGURES OF SPEECH & POETIC DEVICES

There are a number of often-used abbreviations where missing letters are

replaced by apostrophes.

aren’t

can’t

couldn’t

could’ve

didn’t

doesn’t

don’t

hasn’t

haven’t

mustn’t

shan’t

should’ve

they’re

wasn’t

we’re

weren’t

won’t

would’ve

you’re

are not

can not or cannot

could not

could have - NEVER could of

did not

does not

do not

has not

have not

must not

shall not

should have - NEVER should of

they are

was not

we are

were not

will not

would have - NEVER would of

you are

SD012 06


HOMOPHONES - Words that sound the same

allowed

have permission

break

to damage

aloud

can be heard

brake

to slow down

buy by ‘bye bye

buy/sell near to/beside see you later! cricket extra

course

GCSE course, golf course

due

owing

hear

hear with your ear

know

understand

new

new/old

practise

I practise yoga (verb)

sight

to be seen

coarse

rough texture

dew

condensed moisture

here

walk over here

no

yes/no

knew

understood

practice

a dental practice (noun)

site

to park your caravan on!

their there they’re

their coats (possession) over there (place) they are - shortened

through

walk through the crowd

wear

wear clothes

we’re

we are - shortened

your

belongs to

threw

she threw the ball

where

where are you?

weir

a low dam across a river

you’re

you are - shortened

SD012 07


CONFUSING WORDS

of

bowl of chips

our

our house

off

turn off the tap

are

there are three of them

to two too

I walked to the park he is two years old too much chocolate

SD012 08

borrow

I need to borrow some cash

where

Where are you?

teach

I will teach you a lesson

court

a court of law

roll

the car rolled silently along

turn

twist around

bow

bend at the waist

oral

relating to the mouth

can’t

can not

bought

purchased

law

a legal rule

tire

to become weary

lend

I will lend you my pen

were

If I were you

learn

you will learn the hard way

caught

Joe caught the ball

rôle or role

acting part

tern

a seabird

bough

a tree branch

aural

relating to the ear

cant

lean over - tilt

brought

I brought my books to school

lore

traditional learning

tyre

a car tyre


CONNECTIVE - Connecting words

To show the order of events

To explain why/justify

• net

• then

• secondly

• meanwhile

• finally

• eventually

• later on

• at first

• until

• at length

• up to that pointtime

• in the interim

• after

• because of

• conseuently

• thanks to

• owing to

• so

• therefore

• as a result

To show reservation

• however

• although

• unless

• ecept

• if

• as long as

• apart from

Explaining

• in other words

• to put it another way

To compare

• eually

• in the same way

• similarly

• likewise

• as with

• like

Simple joining words

• and • or

• but • nor

To emphasize things

• moreover

• most of all

• least of all

• most importantly

• notably

• in particular

• especially

• significantly

To contrast

• whereas

• instead of

• alternatively

• otherwise

• unlike

• on the other hand

To add to a point

• nevertheless

• additionally

• furthermore

• besides

• also

• still

• anyway

• even so

To illustrate

• for eample

• as revealed by

• in the case of

• such as

• for instance

• namely

SD012 09


SD012 10

NOTES


EXAM WORDS

The words below are used in GCSE exams. It is very important to know what these

words mean so that you can answer the questions properly.

account for

assess

calculate

clarify

comment on

compare

consider

contrast

criticise

define

demonstrate

describe

differentiate/

distinguish

discuss

evaluate

explain

explore

express

interpret

justify

outline

prove

review

state

suggest

summarise

give reason for/explain

find the strong and weak points of the subject in the question

find the numerical answer to a problem

make simple, make clear

give your opinions on a subject

look for similarities and differences

take into account, give your thoughts about

find and explain the differences between

say what you think, giving evidence to support your opinions

give the exact meaning or definition

show how, using examples

give a detailed account of

give the differences between

describe the subject in detail

say what you think on the subject, giving the good and the bad points

give the reasons for something

investigate, look into

say in a different way, e.g. express as a fraction (maths)

use your own words to make the meaning clear

give reason to explain your answer

give the main features of; do not go into detail

show the answer is true by giving the steps needed to reach it

summarise the important facts or points

write the main points in a brief, clear way

using all that you have learned, say what the answer might be

bring together the main points

SD012 11


PLANNING , DRAFTING & PRESENTING:

WRITTEN WORK

Have you got:

• an introduction?

• a main body?

• a conclusion?

PLAN

Gather your ideas

- write them down

Group your ideas together to

make an outline plan

Use your plan to

produce a draft

Have you written about

what you intend to do?

Does the work need to

be longer or shorter?

DRAFT

Check the draft for spelling,

punctuation and grammar

Mark any words you are unsure of

- use a dictionary to check them

Read what you have written out

loud

- to yourself or to a friend

Make sure your work is split into

sensible paragraphs

Are you happy with

the presentation?

FINAL

VERSION

Write your final version using the

draft. Look for ways to improve it

further

Proofread your work carefully

You could word-process your

work if this is acceptable - ask

your teacher

SD012 12


COURSEWORK

Many exam courses involve coursework in addition to or instead of

examinations. By developing good ‘time management’ skills you will be

successful with your coursework

The Task

• ake sure you understand the coursework task

• If you are unsure check with your teacher

• If you can, try to obtain a copy of the mark scheme

Coursework Deadlines

• Ask for final coursework dates when you start your course

• lan a timetable to work towards them, and stick to it

• ther students may need access to the same resources

(e.g. library books) - allow for this when planning your work

Managing your Time

• rioritise your work carefully. eep a checklist of tasks and

tick them off when they are complete

• ake time to review work returned by your teacher

• Divide lengthy or difficult assignments into short

manageable bits

• Dont leave anything till the last week

Producing your best work

• ry to produce a draft copy of your work

• Check for spelling, punctuation and grammar

• roofread your work thoroughly

SD012 13


REPORT WRITING

Before writing any report you should identify the objective and the referred

conventions of structure and presentation. All reports attempt to communicate

findings for one reason or another, whether to inform decision makers, change public

opinion or maintain a record of development. Whenever you write a report you must

bear in mind why you are writing and who you are writing for. All reports have an

intended reader. Put yourself in their position. What do they need to know?

Always do lots of research and take notes before you begin. Try to use research

cards. A research card is a plain piece of card with one heading at the top. Then you

write all the information you found out about it underneath. This will help you to

organise all your information so that you can find it when you come to write your

report.

Do a draft report before you make the final copy and check carefully for spelling

or grammatical errors.

Make sure your report includes the following:

• Introduction - this first statement should be exciting or thought provoking to catch

the reader’s attention.

• The main body - this part should include all the detail and fact you have discovered.

Remember to make some personal connections in the report if possible, mention

other readings/books or internet sources you have used and remember to quote these

sources. (See how to make a bibliography below;)

• Conclusion - this is the summary of the important facts that you have found out

and you should also mention what you have learned or became interested in as a

result of completing your report.

A bibliography

If you have used the information written by someone else, you need to give details of

the book or website that you used. This can be done in different ways. A very simple

way is to make a list which should be included at the back of your report. You can list

different types of sources together and then list them in alphabetical order based on

the author’s surname.

Books

Author (last name first)

Title (underlined)

City where the book was published and the publisher (this information should be

inside at the front of the book).

Magazines

Author, Title of the article (underlined), Title of the magazine (underlined, Date and

page number of the article.

Encyclopedias

“Article Titles” (in quotes), Title of Reference Book, Edition and Date published.

SD012 14

The Internet

Author of the website (if known). Name of the website (underlined), website address in

full.


FORMAL LETTER LAYOUT

Address of

sender

Date

Name

Address of

recipient

Dear Mr / Mrs or Sir / Madam

Body of letter

(split into paragraphs)

Correct ending

Yours sincerely (with Dear Mr / Mrs)

Yours faithfully (with Dear Sir / Madam)

Signature

Print name

SD012 15


SD012 16

NOTES


PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

11

19

2

37

55

87

H

Hydrogen

1.0

Li

Lithium

7.0

Na

Sodium

23.0

K

Potassium

39.1

Rb

Rubidium

85.5

Cs

Cesium

133

Fr

Francium

(223)

Be

Beryllium

9.0

4 5 6 7 8 9

12

20

38

56

88

Mg

Magnesium

24.3

Ca

Calcium

40.1

Sr

Strontium

87.6

Ba

Barium

137

Ra

Radium

(226)

57

89

21 22

Sc

Scandium

45.0

39 Y

40

Yttrium

88.9

La

Lanthanum

139

Ac

Actinium

(227)

Lanthanides

Actinides

72

Ti

Titanium

47.9

Zr

Zirconium

91.2

Hf

Hafnium

178

Rf

Rutherfordium

(267)

23

41

73

V

Vanadium

50.9

Nb

Niobium

92.9

Ta

Tantalum

181

Db

Dubnium

(270)

Cr

Chromium

52.0

Mo

Molybdenum

95.9

W

Tungsten

184

Mn

Manganese

54.9

Tc

Technetium

(98)

Re

Rhenium

186

Fe

Iron

55.8

Ru

Ruthenium

101

Os

Osmium

190

Co

Cobalt

58.9

Rh

Rhodium

103

Ir

Iridium

192

Ni

Nickel

58.7

Pd

Palladium

106

Pt

Platinum

195

Cu

Copper

63.5

Ag

Silver

108

Zn

Zinc

65.4

Cd

Cadmium

112

B

Boron

10.8

Al

Aluminium

27.0

Ga

Gallium

69.7

In

Indium

115

C

Carbon

12.0

Si

Silicon

28.1

Ge

Germanium

72.6

Sn

Tin

119

N

Nitrogen

14.0

P

Phosphorus

31.0

As

Arsenic

74.9

Sb

Antimony

122

O

Oxygen

16.0

S

Sulphur

13 14 15 16 17

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84

Sg

Seaborgium

(271)

32.1

Se

Selenium

79.0

Te

Tellurium

128

F

Fluorine

19.0

Cl

Chlorine

35.5

Br

Bromine

79.9

I

Iodine

127

1

3

Bh

Bohrium

(274)

Hs

Hassium

(277)

Mt

Meitnerium

(278)

Ds

Darmstadtium

(281)

Rg

Roentgenium

(281)

104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

58

90

Ce

Cerium

140

Th

Thorium

232

Pr

Praseodymium

141

59

91

Pa

Protactinium

231

Nd

Neodymium

144

U

Uranium

238

Cn

Copernicium

(285)

113

Uut

Ununtrium

(286)

The volume of one mole of any gas is 24dm 3 at room tempertaure and pressure (r.t.p.)

Pm

Promethium

(145)

Np

Neptunium

(237)

Sm

Samarium

150

Pu

Plutonium

(244)

Eu

Europium

152

Am

Americium

(243)

Gd

Gadolinium

157

Cm

Curium

(247)

Au

Gold

197

Tb

Terbium

159

Bk

Berkelium

(247)

Dy

Dysprosium

163

Cf

Californium

(251)

Ho

Holmium

165

Es

Einsteinium

(252)

114

Fl

Flerovium

(289)

Er

Erbium

167

Fm

Fermium

(257)

Uup

Ununpentium

(289)

Lv

Livermorium

115 116

117

118

Tm

Thulium

169

Md

Mendelevium

(258)

60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103

Hg

Mercury

201

Tl

Thallium

204

(291)

Uus

Ununseptium

1

Pb

Lead

207

Bi

Bismuth

209

Po

Polonium

(209)

Yb

Ytterbium

173

No

Nobelium

(259)

85

At

Astatine

(210)

(294)

Lu

Lutetium

175

Lr

Lawrencium

(262)

10

18

36

54

86

He

Helium

4.0

Ne

Neon

20.2

Ar

Argon

39.9

Kr

Krypton

83.8

Xe

Xenon

131

Rn

Radon

(222)

Uuo

Ununoctium

(294)

Alkaline metals

Non-metals

Transition elements

Alkaline earth metals

Halogens

Noble gases

KEY

atomic number

element name

H

Hydrogen

1.0

atomic symbol

relative atomic mass

STATE AT ROOM

TEMPERATURE

Bl Black=solid

Re Red=gas

Blu Blue=liquid

SD012 17


MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS

SD012 1

Multiplication Tables 1-12

.

A Conversion Table

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Percentage Fraction Decimal

Mathematical Symbols

Symbol Meaning

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

100% 1 1

2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

3 /4 0.75

75%

3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36

2 /3 0.66

66.6%

4 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48

1 /2 0.50

50%

5 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

1 /3 0.33

33.3%

1 /4 0.25

6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72

25%

1 /5 0.20

7 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84

20%

1 /8 0.125

12.5%

8 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96

1 /10 0.10

10%

9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90 99 108

1 /20 0.05

5%

10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

11 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 110 121 132

addition

subtraction

multiplication

division

greater than

less than

equal to

approximately equal to

right angle

per cent

square root

pi (3.14)

+

_

. .

+

_ .

>

>

=~

%

12 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132 144



1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 121 144 169 196 225 256 289 324 361 400 441 484 529 576 625

Square

1 8 27 64 125 216 343 512 729 1000 1331 1728 2197 2744 3375 4096 4913 5832 6859 8000 9261 10648 12167 13824 15625

Cube


CONVERSION

Length

1 centimetre (cm) 10 mm 0.3937 in

1 metre (m) 100 cm 1.0936 yd

1 kilometre (km) 1000 m 0.6214 mile

1 inch (in) 2.5400 cm

1 yard (yd) 3 ft 0.9144 m

1 mile 1760 yd 1.6093 km

Surface of Area

1 sq cm (cm 2 ) 100 mm 2 0.1550 in 2

1 sq m (m 2 ) 10,000 cm 2 1.1960 yd 2

1 hectare (ha) 10,000 m 2 2.4711 acres

1 sq km (km 2 ) 100 ha 0.3861 mile 2

1 sq inch (in 2 ) 6.4516 cm 2

1 sq yd (yd 2 ) 9 ft 2 0.8361 m 2

1 sq mile (mile 2 ) 640 acres 2.59 km 2

Volume/Capacity

1 cu cm (cm 3 ) 0.0610 in 3

1 cu metre (m 3 ) 1,000 dm 3 1.3080 yd 3

1 litre (l) 1 dm 3 1.76 pt

1 hectolitre (hl) 100 l 21.997 gal

1 cu inch (in 3 ) 16.387 cm 3

1 cu yard (yd 3 ) 27 ft 3 0.7646 m 3

1 pint (pt) 20 fl oz 0.5683 l

1 gallon (gal) 8 pt 4.5461 l

Weight

1 gram (g) 1,000 mg 0.0353 oz

1 kilogram (kg) 1,000 g 2.2046 lb

1 tonne (t) 1,000 kg 0.9842 ton

1 ounce (oz) 437.5 grain 28.35 g

1 pound (lb) 16 oz 0.4536 kg

1 ton (UK) 20 cwt 1.016 t

Velocity

mile per hr x 1.6093 = km per hr

feet per sec x 0.3048 = metres per sec

feet per min x 0.00508 = metres per sec

SD012 19


NUMBER & DATA HANDLING

Fractions

A fraction is used to express parts making up a whole amount.

to change 1 to 3 multiply top and bottom by 3

Changing to 1 =

3

2 6

equivalent fractions: 2 6 {

to change 3 to its simplest form of 1

6 2

divide top and bottom by 3

Fractions can be rewritten with a common denominator.

A common denominator is a whole number that is a shared

multiple of the denominators of at least two fractions.

Before adding or subtracting fractions with unlike denominators,

the fractions are normally converted into equivalent fractions with the same, or common,

denominator: 2 +

1 =

4 +

3

3 2 6 6

6 is the common denominator.

numerator 2

denominator 3

Ratios

A ratio is used to show how many times bigger one quantity is than another, by

considering the quotient of the two quantities.

Example: the ratio of £6 to £1.50 can be written as 600:150.

This amount can be simplified (as with fractions) to 4:1.

Ratios written as fractions: 2:3 = 2 7:3 = 7

3 3

Percentages

% change= actual change x 100

original value

(increase/decrease)

(profit/loss)

Frequency Distribution

Probability

0 1

Impossible certain

Probability can be measured

on a scale of between 0 and 1.

Probability (event) = No. of correct outcomes

Total no. of possible outcomes

Standard deviation for a set of numbers

X 1

, X 2

, ..., X n

, having a mean of X —

is given by:



∑(x– x) 2 or ∑ x 2 – x 2

n n

Mean of a frequency distribution

= ∑ fx

∑ f

Averages

mode = most common

mean = total of items

number of items

median = middle value when

put in size order

range = biggest value - smallest value

SD012 20


WORKING WITH NUMBERS

Types of number

Factor - Numbers that divide into a number exactly,

e.g. the factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12.

Whole number - Positive and negative counting numbers including 0,

e.g. -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5......

Integer - Positive and negative whole numbers including 0,

e.g. -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5......

Multiples - In a “times” table, e.g. multiples of 5 are 5, 10, 15, 20......

Square - Multiply a number by itself, e.g. 5 2 is the same as 5 x 5 = 25.

Square root - e.g. √4 = 2 because 2 x 2 = 4.

Prime number - A number with only 2 factors, 1 and the number itself e.g. 3 = 1 x 3.

Rational - A number that can be expressed in the form of a fraction,

number e.g. a and . b are integers (b ≠ c).

b

Rounding off

Rounding is where a number is made into an approximate amount. A number

can be rounded off to the nearest tenth, whole number, ten, hundred, thousand, etc.

e.g. 37 to the nearest number of tens = 40

832 to the nearest hundred = 800

A number that lies half way between tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. is always

rounded up, numbers below this are rounded down.

e.g. 6.5 to the nearest 1 = 7 (rounded up)

748 to the nearest hundred = 700 (rounded down)

Significant figures

A number with many figures may be too large and impractical. Rounding off to

a specific number of significant figures can solve this problem.

e.g. A reading of 77.058 can be rounded off as: 80 to 1 significant figures

77 to 2 significant figures

77.1 to 3 significant figures, etc.

Multiplying and dividing by powers of ten

Multiplying by powers of ten

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09

Dividing by powers of ten

SD012 21


POSITIVE & NEGATIVE NUMBERS

Positive and negative numbers can be shown on a number line.

-10 0 10

-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

To add, move to the right

To subtract, move the left

Examples

1) 7 - 9 = -2

Start at 7 and

move left 9

spaces

0

-2 7

2) -3 + 9 = 6

Start at -3 and

move 9 spaces

right

0

-3 6

5

Start

+

at

8

7 and

(Adding -3 is the same as subtracting 3)

move left 9

spaces

0

5 8

4) 3 – (-3) = 3 + 3 = 6

(Subtracting -3 is the

same as adding 3)

0

Start at -3 and

move 9 spaces

right

3 6

SD012 22


MATHEMATICS - ALGEBRA

3 + s means “3 plus s”

or “s more than 3”

a - 5 means “take 5 from a”

or “5 less than a”

4b means “4 multiplied by b”

or “4 lots of b”

k/2 means “k divided by 2”

v 2 means “v x v”

or “v squared”

Simplifying by collecting

like items

e.g. 3a + 4b - 2a + b - 3c

Circle the first type of like

terms. Collect them together.

= 3a + 4b - 2a + b - 3c

= 3a - 2a + 4b + b - 3c

Underline the next set of like

terms. Collect them together

= 3a - 2a + 4b + b - 3c

= a + 5b - 3c

Continue and tidy up!

= a + 5b - 3c

Indices (Powers)

p 2 means p x p

p 3 means p x p x p

p n means p x p x ... x p

(n times)

p 1 = p

p o = 1

p -n means 1/p n

e.g. 3 -2 = 1 /3 2 = 1 /9

p 1/n means n √p

e.g. 27 1/3 = 3 √27 = 3

Remember

- common mistake!

a 2 = a x a and 2a = 2 x a

so

a 2 + 2a cannot be simplified

further as a 2 is not LIKE a !!!

Rules of Indices

a x x a y = a x+y

a x ÷ a y = a x-y

(a x ) y = a xy

Simplifying Expressions

DEAL WITH DIGITS AND

THEN WITH THE INDICES!!!

e.g. 6a 2 b x 3ab 3

= 6x3 x a 2 xa x bxb 3

= 18 x a (2+1) x b (1+3)

= 18a 3 b 4

e.g. 6a 2 b x 3ab 3

= 6÷3 x a 2 ÷a x b÷b 3

= 2 x a (2-1) x b (1-3)

= 2ab -2

Multiplying brackets grid method

Multiplying brackets

Grid method

a(b+c)

Multiplying brackets

Grid method

a(b-c)

Multiplying Double

brackets

(a+b)(a+c)

An example of

multiplying to get a

quadratic equation

(a+2)(a-3)

x b c x b -c x a b x a -3

a ab ac a ab -ac a a 2 ab a

c ac cb 2

a 2

-3a

2a -6

= ab + ac = ab - ac = a 2 + ab + ac + bc = a 2 - 3a + 2a - 6

= a 2 - a - 6

SD012 23


SD012 24

NOTES


PRESENTING DATA

Bar Graph

• seful for comparing data in

different categories

• reuency is the number of

times an event occurs

• eave gaps between the bars

Example:

• Colours of cars in a car park

Frequency

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Colour of cars in the car park

red blue green yellow black

Frequency

Line Graph

• seful for showing upward and

downward trends in data

• Intermediate points are unreliable

but may be used as estimates

• oin the points

Examples:

• emperature at noon each day

• arts per billion of atmospheric

pollution against hours of day

Temp (degrees Celsius)

28

27

26

25

24

23

22

Temperature at noon each day

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Day

(xy) Scatter Diagram

• sed to eamine the relationship

between two variables

• If the points lie near to a line of

best fit there is good correlation

• he line of best fit can be used to

estimate one variable given the

other variable

• oints may be in a curve not a

straight line

Examples:

• eight and arm span

• Time taken for magnesium to react

with acid at different temperatures

200

180

160

140

120

100

SD012 25


PRESENTING DATA

Pie Chart

• Used to show how something is

divided up

• Useful when proportions are more

important than numbers

• Label the sectors with the categories.

Example:

• Methods of travelling to school

Methods of travelling to school

train

car walk

bus

Histogram

• Useful for showing data in

grouped frequencies when the

class intervals are equal

• The areas of the columns

represent the frequencies

• If the class intervals are equal

the histogram is called a

‘Grouped Frequency Diagram’

Examples:

• Distance moved by a coin when

blown across a table

• Distribution of heights in class

Frequency density

Distance moved by the coin

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Distance in cm

Function Graph

• Used to show the relationship between two variables

values for the graph

Examples:

y 35

30

25

20

15

10

5

x

x

x

A y = 4x + 3 B y = x 2 + 3

x

y

x

x

30

x

25

x

x 20

x

x

15

x

x

10

x

x

x

x 5 .

x

x

0

x

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5

SD012 26

0 x

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


NUMERACY SKILLS

Areas and Volumes

w

l

Rectangle

Perimeter = 2 (l + w)

Area = l x w

a

D

h

A

b

B

Parallelogram

Perimeter = 2 (a + b)

Area = b x h

b

a

C

c

B

h

A

b

C

Triangle

Perimeter = a + b + c

Area = b x h

2

a

l

h

w

Cuboid

Volume = l x w x h

h

w

l

Pyramid

Volume = l x w x h

3

l

h

r

Cone

Volume = l r 2 h 3

Surface area = r 2 + rl

r

Cylinder

Volume = r 2 h

Surface area = 2 r 2 + 2 rh

h

Circle

Circum. = 2 r = d

Area = r 2

r

Sphere

Volume = 4 r 3

3

Surface area = 4 r 3

r

Angles

A right angle

is 90°

90°

An acute angle is

less than 90°

A straight line

is 180°

An obtuse angle is more than 90°

and less than 180°

Complementary angles

add up to 90°

A circle is

360°

Supplementary angles add

up to 180°

60°

60°

60° 60°

An equilateral triangle has

3 equal sides and 3 equal

angles of 60°

Isosceles triangles have

2 equal sides and 2 equal

angles

90° 30°

A

c

hypotenuse

b

B

a

C

Pythagoras’ theorem

c 2 = a 2 + b 2

Scalene triangles have no

equal sides and no equal

angles

SD012 27


MATHS

Equal Angles

The opposite angles are equal when two lines cross

= =

When a line crosses two parallel lines the angles in a

‘z’ shape are equal.

= (called alternate angles)

The angles in a ‘f’ shape are equal when a line

crosses two parallel lines

= (called corresponding angles)

180 o Angles

When a line crosses two parallel lines the angles in a

‘c’ or ‘u’ shape total 180˚

a + b = 180˚ (called interior angles)

b

a

When angles form a straight line they total 180˚

c + d + e = 180˚

c

d

e

The inside angles of a triangle total 180˚

f + g + h = 180˚

f

g

h

When angles are round a point the angles

total 360˚

Use subtraction to find the missing angle!

360˚ - 110˚ - 130˚ = x

130°

x

110°

Pythagoras’ theorem is applied to the lengths of a right-angled triangle.

In a right-angled triangle, the side opposite to the right-angle is called the hypotenuse.

This is always the longest side in a triangle.

Pythagoras’ theorem states:

B

“In a right-angled triangle, the square on the hypotenuse

equals the sum of the squares on the other two sides”

SD012 28

a

C

b

c

c is the longest side called the hypotenuse.

A

c 2 = a 2 + b 2


CIRCLES, TRIANGLES & QUADRILATERALS

Circles

.d

r

radius = r

diameter = d

Circumference = x d

= 2 x x r

Area = x r 2

Triangle

h

height = h

base = b

Area =

1

2

x b x r

b

Quadrilaterals

Square

• all sides equal

• opposite sides parallel

• all angles 90 o

a

a

Area = a 2

Rectangle

• opposite sides equal and parallel

• all angles 90 o

a

b

Area = a x b

Parallelogram

• opposite sides equal and parallel

• opposite angles equal

b

h

Area = b x h

Rhombus

• all sides equal

• opposite sides parallel

h

a

Area = a x h

Trapezium

• one pair of sides parallel

a

h

Area =

1

2

(a + b) x h

b

Kite

• two pairs of sides equal

a

h

1

Area = (a x h)

2

SD012 29


PYTHAGORAS’ THEOREM

In a right-angled triangle:

a

b

c

a 2 = b 2 + c 2

Side a is the longest side, which is called

the hypotenuse

Examples

Find the missing side in these triangles:

1

a 2 = b 2 + c 2

a

c = 3cm

= 4 2 + 3 2

= 16 + 9

= 25

b = 4cm

a = √25 = 5 cm

This is the special 3 - 4 - 5 triangle

2

a 2 = b 2 + c 2

a = 6cm

b

6 2 = b 2 + 5 2

36 = b 2 + 25

b 2 = 36 - 25 = 11

b = √11 = 3.32 cm

c = 5cm

SD012 30


TRIGONOMETRY

hyp

opp

hyp = hypotenuse (longest side)

opp = opposite (side opposite the angle )

adj = adjacent (side adjacent to the angle )

adj

sin =

opp

hyp

cos =

adj

hyp

tan =

o a o

soh cah toa

s h c h t a

opp

adj

REMEMBER

Examples

1

(x)

Find the length

marked (x)

12cm

40 o

We know the angle and the hypotenuse.

We need to find the opposite side.

= 40 o

hyp = 12cm

x = opp = ?

Use: sin =

opp

hyp

opp

sin 40 o =

12

opp = 12 x sin 40 o

x = opp = 7.71cm

2

Find the angle

13cm

15cm

We know the hypotenuse and the adjacent side.

We need to find the angle .

= ?

hyp = 15cm

adj = 13cm

Use: cos =

adj

hyp

13

cos = = 0.86

15

= cos -1 0.86 = 29.93 o

.

.

SD012 31


SHAPE, SPACE & MANAGEMENT

Transformations

Translation

This involves moving a shape from one

place to another.

vector form.

Example: B is a translation of A

by vector

( 6 ) 1

ni nettirw yllausu era snoitalsnarT

2

1

A

B

Reflection

A reflection is like placing a mirror on

the page.

Any two points on the shape and its

image are the same distance away

from a fixed mirror line (or line of

symmetry), but on opposite sides of it.

1 7

Mirror Line

A B

Mirror image

of shape A

Rotation

Enlargement

In a rotation every point turns through

the same angle. When specifying a

rotation on a grid, co-ordinates for the

centre and angle of rotation are often

given.

Example: B is a rotation of A,

centre (0,0),

90 degrees clockwise.

This is where a larger image of a

shape is created using a centre of

enlargement and scale factor.

To produce an enlargement, a line

can be drawn from the centre of

enlargement to each vertex (corner)

of the shape are enlarging. The length

of these lines can now be measured.

Where a scale factor of two is given, a

line that is twice as long as the length

measured is drawn through each

vertex to create the new enlarged

image.

y

6

5

4

3

2

A

1

0

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1

-1

1 2 3 4 5 6

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

B

Centre of

enlargement

A

B

x

SD012 32


CO-ORDINATES

Co-ordinates are numbers that define the position of points on a grid. They are written

in pairs, for example (5, 2). The first number in the pair gives the x co-ordinate and shows

how many numbers to go across, whilst the second number in the pair gives the y coordinate

and informs us how many numbers to go up or down.

The grid for writing co-ordinates with positive and negative x and y values has four parts

to it. Each part is known as a quadrant.

y axis

2nd

quadrant

3rd

quadrant

1st

quadrant

4th

quadrant

x axis

Some examples of co-ordinates

A (5, 1) means go 5 across to the right and 1 up.

B (-2, 4) means go 2 across to the left and 4 up.

C (3, -3) means go 3 across to the right and 3 down.

y axis

6

5

x B 4

3

2

1

0

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6

-1

-2

-3

-4

-5

-6

x C

x A

x axis

SD012 33


NOTES

SD012 34

PHYSICS

The world is governed by hidden forces

and natural laws. Physics can open your

mind and inspire you to discover more.

FORCE & MOTION

Force = mass x acceleration

Momentum = mass x velocity

Change in = impulse = force x time

momentum

Velocity = distance

time

Acceleration = change in velocity

time

Pressure = force

area

Moment = force x perpendicular

distance of force from pivot

ENERGY

Kinetic = 0.5 x mass (M) x velocity (V)²

Energy (KE)

Work done = force x distance moved

= useful power output

total power input

x 100%

Joule (symbol J) = The joule is a unit of work

and energy. A joule of work is the result of one

newton moving one metre in the direction of

the force.

NEWTON’S LAW OF MOTION

1st Law:

An object will stay in a state of rest or in

uniform motion unless acted on by an

external force.

2nd Law:

The force acting on a body is directly

proportional to the mass of the body and

its acceleration and is in the direction of

the acceleration.

Force = mass x acceleration

3rd Law:

To every action force, there is an equal and

opposite reaction force.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

v = u + at

s = ut + ½ at²

v² = u² + 2as

u = initial velocity

v = final velocity

a = acceleration

t = time

s = distance

ELECTRICITY

Charge (Q) = current (l) x time (t)

Voltage (V) = energy (E)

charge (Q)

Potential = current (l) x resistance (R)

Potential = voltage (V) out =

dividers voltage (V) in x resistance 2

(resistance 1

+ resistance 2

)

Resistance = voltage (V)

Current (l)

Electrical = power (P) x time (t)

Energy (E)

Power (P) = current (l) x voltage (V)


HEALTHY LIVING & LIFESTYLE

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

To sustain a healthy lifestyle you should aim to do at least one

hour’s physical activity each day. Moderate activity is the equivalent

of brisk walking; you should aim to do anything which is fun or

moves you, such as:

• unning

• alking

• umping

• Dancing

• Swimming

• Cycling

• Standing - even this burns more calories than sitting!

Moving around each day is great for keeping your mind and body in shape. As you

build up your healthier lifestyle bit by bit you will look and feel better, reduce your

risk of developing many diseases, and reduce your stress levels - it’s win/win!

A Few Tips:

• Always choose to walk when you can, rather than using the car/bus/train - why

not get off a few stops earlier to increase your daily activity

• Watch less TV - Studies show that people who watch a lot of TV are less

active and more overweight

• Don’t overdo it - Physical activity should be fun not painful!

FOOD HYGIENE

A healthy balanced diet is important, but make sure the food you buy, prepare or

cook doesn’t make you ill. Below are a few tips to help you:

• ake chilled and froen food home uickly, then put it in your fridge or freeer at

once

• repare and store raw and cooked food separately, and keep raw meat and fish at

the bottom of your fridge

• eep the coldest part of your fridge at .5C get a fridge thermometer to help

you

• Check useby dates and throw away food that is out of date

• eep pets away from food, dishes and worktops

• ash hands thoroughly

• ash worktops and utensils between handling food that is to be

cooked and food that is not

• Do not eat food containing uncooked eggs, and keep eggs in the fridge

• Cook food well and follow the instructions on the pack carefully. If you reheat,

always make sure it is piping hot

• eep hot foods hot and cold foods cold.

SD012 35


HEALTHY LIVING & LIFESTYLE

HEALTHY EATING

• Eat lots of fruit and veg. Aim to eat at least five portions a day

• Base your meals on starchy foods. Starchy foods such as bread, cereals, rice,

pasta and potatoes are a really important part of a healthy diet. try to choose

wholegrain varieties whenever you can

• Cut down on fat, especially saturated (animal) fat, and sugar

• Aim to eat less salt. 75% of the salt we eat comes from processed foods, so

choose products which are low in salt (0.25g salt or less per 100g) whenever

possible, and definitely don’t add salt to your food

• Drink plenty of water. In climates such as ours we need to drink about 1.2 litres

(that’s 6-8 glasses) of water or other fluids a day to stop us getting dehydrated.

Water is best. Natural fruit juice, tea, and semi-skimmed or skimmed milk are also

good fluids to drink.

THE FOOD GROUPS

We all need different types of food to maintain healthy bodies.

CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates provide the body with the energy it needs,

potatoes, pasta, rice, bread are examples of food which give us

carbohydrates.

PROTEINS

FATS

FIBRE

MINERALS

VITAMINS

Proteins help the body to grow and repair damage. Proteins are

found in meats, poultry, eggs, beans, soya and dairy products.

Fats, like carbohydrates, give you energy and also help in building

up your body. Dairy products, red meats, some poultry and

some types of fish.

Fibre helps you maintain a healthy digestive system and helps

absorb nutrients.

Cereals, fruit, brown bread and vegetables.

There are minerals in foods such as iron, calcium and magnesium.

All have different roles to play in a healthy diet, for example,

calcium is essential for strong bones and teeth, and iron is good

for the blood. Fresh fruit, vegetables, red meat and poultry.

Vitamins are good for general wellbeing. Dairy products, fresh

fruit and vegetables.

SD012 36


HEALTHY LIVING & LIFESTYLE

TANNING

Beautifully bronzed skin is the ideal look for many of us. Being in the

sun can be good for you but it is important that we enjoy the sun safely.

It is essential that we take precautions to protect ourselves from overexposure to the

sun. Its harmful UV rays can damage our skin often resulting in sunburn, which can

lead to premature skin ageing and skin cancer.

The following steps can help you to stay safe while enjoying the benefits of being

outside:

• Stick to the shade when the sun is strongest between 10am and pm

• Apply a high factor sunscreen regularly at least S 15

• Wear loose clothing, a widebrimmed hat and sunglasses

• Drink plenty of water to avoid overheating

Please remember that sunbeds are not a safe alternative to tanning

outdoors. Like the sun, sunbeds also emit harmful UV rays.

SMOKING

People start smoking for a number of different reasons. Some start this expensive

habit because their friends or family members do it, others because they think it’s

cool. Whatever the reason for starting, once you have, it is difficult to stop!

Smoke contains many harmful substances but the three which are known to cause

most damage are nicotine, tar and carbon monoxide.

Many diseases are caused or worsened by smoking but long-term health problems

are not the only issues associated with it.

Other effects of smoking include:

• Bad skin

• Bad breath

• Smelly hair and clothes

• Reduced sense of taste and sense of smell

• Yellow stained fingers and teeth.

The best way to avoid the problems and issues associated

with smoking is to stay smoke free!

SD012 37


PHYSICAL EDUCATION - SKELETON

Cranium

Scapula

Humerus

Ribs

Ulna

Radius

Carpals

Phalanges

Fibula

Femur

Tibia

SD012 38


PHYSICAL EDUCATION - MUSCLES

1. Trapezius

2. Pectorals

4

1

2

3. Quadriceps

4. Deltoid

5

5. Bicep

6. Abdominals

6

3

6

5

7

4

8

1. Gastrocnemius

2. Hamstring

3. Gluteus Maximus

3

4.Tricep

2

5. Deltoid

6. Trapezius

1

7. Latissimus Dorsi

8. Abdominals

SD012 39


CYBER SMART

With the increase in the popularity and use of the Internet it has quickly become

an essential part of daily life. The Internet is used for emailing, playing games, file

sharing, social networking and much more. While these are all beneficial and exciting

ways of keeping in touch with friends and family, there are always risks involved.

IT IS IMPORTANT TO BEWARE THAT:

• eople might not always be what they seem

• Spam or unk emails may hold viruses that could harm your computer

• What you put online is widely available for others to see

SOME TIPS FOR STAYING SAFE ONLINE:

• Never give out any personal details to anyone you meet whilst on the internet

• Never agree to meet up with anyone you don’t already know

• Never reply to any spam or unk emails that you have received

• Do not accept friend reuests or reply to emails or messages from people you

don’t know

• Do not post or send offensive messages, emails or pictures

• When downloading files make sure they are from a trusted source and only do

so with permission

• Do not share your usernames and passwords

• Stay away from inappropriate websites

• f something makes you feel uncomfortable or worried then

report it immediately to an adult and the website.

SD012 40

Have fun when you are using the

internet but make sure you do it

safely. Sometimes things online will

be different from what you expect.

Researching what can happen and

what you can do about it are all part

of learning to be cyber smart


GO GREEN

Do your bit to help the world we live in for future

generations. Here are a few tips for eco-living:

1. Reduce Energy Consumption

• Turn lights off when you are not in the room they are not needed

• Don’t leave electrical appliances on standby switch them off at the

wall and unplug to avoid fire hazards

• Only boil the amount of water you actually need in the kettle

2. Save on Heating Bills

• ncrease layers of clothing

• Turn the heating down ust one degree can have a saving on

your bills

• nsulate your home draft ecluders, silver foil behind radiators,

close doors and cover up keyholes for a warmer and

‘greener’ winter

3. Reduce Water Consumption

• Only keep the water turned on when it is needed when you’re

brushing your teeth don’t keep it running all the way through

• Use the lowest water pressure necessary

• eep a ug of water in the fridge, rather than letting it run too cool

4. Composting

A third of the average household bins can be composted - so save

your teabags, veg peelings, food waste, cardboard and garden

waste for something useful.

5. Chemicals

Use ecofriendly and more traditional cleaning products which are

less harsh, such as baking soda and water as a kitchen cleaner

6. Eco-Travel

Use public transport when you can, bike or walk rather than drive,

or car share

SD012 41


RECYCLING

Did you know almost anything

can be recycled!

WOOD

PAPER GLASS

PAINT

PRINTER CARTRIDGES

FABRICS

SD012 42

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT

FOOD WASTE

GARDEN WASTE

BATTERIES

VEHICLES

MOBILE PHONES

FURNITURE PLASTICS


ROAD SAFETY

When travelling or walking near moving traffic it is essential that you are alert

and moving in a safe way, to reduce the chances of any accidents, or potential

fatalities. Here are a few facts to prove why road safety is key:

• Road traffic accidents cause over 70% of all accidental deaths of children of

school age

• Young people aged between 11 and 16 are more at risk of being killed or

seriously injured as a pedestrian or cyclist in a road accident than other age

groups

• Almost 1 in 5 teenagers report having been involved in a road accident or

“near miss” on their way home from school - but only 4 per cent said that

road safety was their main concern

• Car passengers who travel without wearing a seat belt are twice as likely to

die in a crash as those who do

Here are a few tips on how you can keep safe on the roads:

Walking

• Always walk on a pavement or footpath where possible

• When crossing the road always use the Green Cross Code:

Stop, Look and Listen

• On dark nights it is important as a pedestrian to be seen by

motorists; aim to wear reflective clothing or armbands to increase

visibility: Be Bright, Be Seen

Cycling Safety

• Always wear a helmet that fits you correctly

• Reflective clothing is essential to ensure that you can be seen by motorists

• Check the brakes, tyres, chain, lights and handlebars regularly

• Your feet must touch the ground when you’re sitting on a bike

• Use cycle lanes wherever possible

• Training is important: Aim to achieve your Cycle Proficiency

badge. Ask at your school or police station for details

Car Travel

• Get in and out of the car from the kerb side, not the side of the

car that is facing the road

• Shut the door properly

• Always wear a seat belt

• Never lean or wave out of the window

• Don’t distract the driver or block the rear view window

SD012 43


SD012 44


SD012 45


USEFUL RESOURCES

Websites

Education

www.bbc.co.uk/education

www.b c.co.uk/learning

www.chem4kids.com

www.counton.org

www.dictionary.com

www.english-zone.com

www.french.about.com

www.gcse.com

www.mathsnet.net

www.nationalgeographic.com

www.nhm.ac.uk

www.nrich.maths.org

www.projectgcse.co.uk

www.revisionworld.co.uk

www.rgs.org

www.samlearning.com

www.schoolscience.co.uk

www.schoolzone.co.uk

www.s-cool.co.uk

www.supportforlearning.co.uk

www.topmarks.co.uk

www.yourdictionary.com

Careers/Training/

Further Education

www.dofe.org

www.princes-trust.org.uk

www.ucas.

Search Engines

www.ask.co.uk

www.bing.com

www.google.co.uk

www.lycos.co.uk

www.yahoo.co.uk

Research

www.bl.uk

www.britannia.com

www.infoplease.com

www.wikipedia.org

PSHE

www.bbc.co.uk/radio1/surgery

www.bullying.co.uk

www.childline.org.uk

www.childsafetyweek.org.uk

www.netdoctor.co.uk

www.nhs24.com

www.nspcc.org.uk

www.surgerydoor.co.uk

www.thinkuknow.co.uk

www.bullyfreezone.co.uk

www.givingupsmoking.co.uk

SD012 46


WORLD INFORMATION

EARTH’S DIMENSIONS

Mass

Volume

Total area

Land area

Water area

Water volume

Equatorial diameter

Polar Diameter

Equatorial circumference

Meridional circumference

5.974 x 10 21 tonnes

1 083 207 x 10 6 cu km / 259 911 x 10 6 cu miles

509 450 000 sq km / 196 699 000 sq miles

149 450 000 sq km / 57 703 000 sq miles

360 000 00 sq km / 138 996 000 sq miles

1389 500 x 10 3 cu km / 333 405 x 10 3 cu miles

12 756 km / 7 927 miles

12 714 km / 7 901 miles

40 075 km / 24 903 miles

40 008 km / 24 861 miles

HIGHEST MOUNTAINS metres feet

Mt Everest, China/Nepal 8 848 29 028

, China/Pakistan 8 611 28 251

angchenunga, India/Nepal 8 586 28 169

Lhotse, China/Nepal 8 516 27 939

Makalu, China/Nepal 8 463 27 765

Cho Oyu, China/Nepal 8 201 26 906

Dhaulagiri, Nepal 8 167 26 794

Manaslu, Nepal 8 163 26 781

Nanga Parbat, Pakistan 8 126 26 660

Annapurna I, Nepal 8 091 26 545

LARGEST LAKES sq km sq miles

Caspian Sea, Asia/Europe 371 000 143 243

Lake Superior, North America 82 100 31 699

Lake Victoria, Africa 68 870 26 591

Lake Huron, North America 59 600 23 012

Lake Michigan, North America 57 800 22 317

Lake Tanganyika, Africa 32 600 12 587

Great Bear Lake, North America 31 328 12 096

Lake Baikal, Asia 30 500 11 776

Lake Nyasa, Africa 29 500 11 390

Great Slave Lake, North America 28 568 11 030

LONGEST RIVERS km miles

Nile, Africa 6 695 4 160

Amazon, South America 6 516 4 049

Yangtze, Asia 6 380 3 965

Mississippi-Missouri, North America 5 969 3 709

Ob’-Irtysh, Asia 5 568 3 460

Yenisey-Angara-Selenga, Asia 5 550 3 449

Yellow, Asia 5 464 3 395

Congo, Africa 4 667 2 900

Rio de la Plata-Parana, South America 4 500 2 796

Irtysh, Asia 4 440 2 795

LARGEST ISLANDS sq km sq miles

Greenland, North America 2 175 600 839 999

New Guinea, Oceania 808 510 312 166

Borneo, Asia 745 561 287 861

Madagascar, Africa 587 040 266 656

Baffin Island, North America 507 451 195 927

Sumatra, Asia 473 606 182 859

Honshu, Asia 227 414 87 805

Great Britain, Europe 218 476 84 354

Victoria Island, North America 217 291 83 896

Ellesmere Island, North America 196 236 75 767

SD012 47


UK

Country Population Capital

England 5,7, London

Wales ,,1 Cardiff

Scotland 5,7, Edinburgh

N.Ireland 1,51, Belfast

Average

Life Expectancy

Male 7.5 Yrs

Female .2 Yrs

• The United ingdom consists of ngland,

Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

• Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and

Wales. The term Britain is used informally to

refer to United ingdom of Great ritain and

Northern Ireland.

• The United ingdom was created by an act of

Parliament in 1801.

• n 11 Southern reland withdrew from Union

• ritain is a member of the uropean Union U,

but not the Euro.

• The population of the U is 65,110,000

*Source: Office for National Statistics

(Figures estimated for 201)

Flags

The British flag is the Union Flag. It is also known as the Union

Jack, because of the use of the Union Flag on the Jack-staff of

naval vessels.

The flag of England is the banner of St George - the red cross

of a martyr on a white background.

The national flag of Wales is a red dragon on a field of white

and green, the Principality’s traditional colours. It originates

from Merlin’s vision of a white dragon killing a red dragon

which rose again, symbolising the failure of Saxons to conquer

Wales.

The Scottish flag is the cross of St.Andrew, also known as the

Saltire. It is one of the oldest national flags of any country,

dating back to the 12th century.

SD012 48

PATRON SAINTS

ENGLAND - St.George’s Day - 23rd April WALES - St. David’s Day - 1st March

SCOTLAND - St. Andrew’s Day - 30th November IRELAND - St. Patricks Day - 17th March


MODERN LANGUAGES

French

English

Hello

ow are you

Very well, thanks

hat is your name

I am called…

here do you lie

I live in…

hat age are you

I am … years old

Please

Goodbye

French

Salut/Bonjour

Ça va?

Très bien, merci

Tu t’appelles comment?

Je m’appelle…

Tu habites où?

J’habite à…

Tu as quel âge?

J’ai … ans

S’il vous plaît

Au revoir

French

1 un

2 deux

3 trois

4 quatre

5 cinq

6 six

7 sept

8 huit

9 neuf

10 dix

11 onze

12 douze

13 treize

14 quatorze

15 quinze

16 seize

17 dix-sept

18 dix-huit

19 dix-neuf

20 vingt

30 trente

40 quarante

50 cinquante

60 soixante

70 soixante-dix

80 quatre-vingts

90 quatre-vingt-dix

100 cent

1000 mille

German

English

Hello

ow are you

Very well, thanks

hat is your name

I am called…

here do you lie

I live in…

hat age are you

I am … years old

Please

Goodbye

German

Hallo

Wie geht’s?

Gut, danke

Wie heißt du?

Ich heiße…

Wo wohnst du?

Ich wohne in…

Wie alt bist du?

Ich bin …. Jahre alt

Bitte

Tschüs

German

1 eins

2 zwei

3 drei

4 vier

5 fünf

6 sechs

7 sieben

8 acht

9 neun

10 zehn

11 elf

12 zwölf

13 dreizehn

14 vierzehn

15 fünfzehn

16 sechzehn

17 siebzehn

18 achtzehn

19 neunzehn

20 zwanzig

30 dreißig

40 vierzig

50 fünfzig

60 sechzig

70 siebzig

80 achtzig

90 neunzig

100 hundert

1000 tausend

Italian

English

Hello

ow are you

Very well, thanks

hat is your name

I am called…

here do you lie

I live in…

hat age are you

I am … years old

Please

Goodbye

Italian

Ciao

Come va/stai?

Bene, grazie

Come ti chiami?

Mi chiam/sono

Dove abiti?

Abito/Io vivo a...

Quanti anni hai?

Ho … anni

Per favore

Arrivederci

Italian

1 uno

2 due

3 tre

4 quattro

5 cinque

6 sei

7 sette

8 otto

9 nove

10 dieci

11 undici

12 dodici

13 tredici

14 quattordici

15 quindici

16 sedici

17 diciassette

18 diciotto

19 diciannove

20 venti

30 trenta

40 quaranta

50 cinquanta

60 sessanta

70 settanta

80 ottanta

90 novanta

100 cento

1000 mille

Spanish

English

Hello

ow are you

Very well, thanks

hat is your name

I am called…

here do you lie

I live in…

hat age are you

I am … years old

Please

Goodbye

Spanish

Hola

¿Qué Tal?

Muy bien, gracias

¿Cómo te llamas?

Me llamo…

¿Dónde vives?

Vivo en…

¿Cuántos años tienes?

Tengo … años

Por favor

Adiós

Spanish

1 uno

2 dos

3 tres

4 cuatro

5 cinco

6 seis

7 siete

8 ocho

9 nueve

10 diez

11 once

12 doce

13 trece

14 catorce

15 quince

16 dieciséis

17 diecisiete

18 dieciocho

19 diecinueve

20 veinte

30 treinta

40 cuarenta

50 cincuenta

60 sesenta

70 setenta

80 ochenta

90 noventa

100 cien

1000 mil

SD012 49


WORLD RELIGIONS

SD012 50

Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Christianity Islam Sikhism

Symbol

Date of

Origin

3000 BCE 1500 BCE 500 BCE 33 CE 600CE 1500 CE

Followers

Called

Hindus Jews Buddhists Christians Muslims Sikhs

Siddhartha

Prophet

Founder None Abraham

Jesus

Guru Nanak

Gautama Muhammed

Holy Guru

Vedas Torah Tripitaka Bible Qur’an

Book

Granth Sahib

Original Language

of Holy Book

Sanskrit Hebrew Pali Hebrew Arabic Gurmukhi

Place of

Worship

Mandir Synagogue Temple Church Mosque Gurdwara

CE = Common Era (Equivalent to AD) BCE = Before Common Era (Equivalent to BC)


THE SOLAR SYSTEM

The Solar System

Our solar system is a tiny part of one

of the billions of galaxies that make up

the universe. We are about 28,000 light

years from the centre of our galaxy, the

Milky Way.

The solar system is thought to be

approximately 4,500 million years old.

It is a central sun with nine planets in

orbit around it. Some of the planets

have satellites (for moons) orbiting

around them.

Mean distance

from Sun

(million km)

Profile of the Planets

Mass

(Earth = 1)

Period of

orbit (Earth

years)

Equatorial

diameter

(km)

Number

of known

satellites

Mercury 57.9 0.055 0.24 4,878 0

Venus 108.2 0.815 0.62 12,104 0

Earth 149.6 1.0 1.00 12,756 1

Mars 227.9 0.107 1.88 6,787 2

Jupiter 778.3 317.8 11.86 142,800 16

Saturn 1,427 95.2 29.46 120,000 20

Uranus 2,871 14.5 84.01 51,118 15

Neptune 4,497 17.1 164.80 49,528 8

SD012 51


SD012 52

NOTES


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