CPT International 02/2015


The leading technical journal for the
global foundry industry – Das führende Fachmagazin für die
weltweite Gießerei-Industrie


10. June








Get ready for the largest

GIFA fair ever!


Welcome to Düsseldorf!

GIFA is not just the world’s largest foundry trade fair. In terms of exhibitor

numbers and reserved exhibition space it will also be larger this year than ever


This issue, naturally the most extensive one for four years, contains some special

highlights that the editorial team of CASTING, PLANT & TECHNOLOGY

has put together for you. The featured technologies are exemplary in their

particular fields. For example, the one on completely linked inorganic core

production for manufacturing cylinder heads at the Volkswagen Foundry in

Hanover (from P. 24), which shows how numerous complex process steps can

be harmonized with one another – from the preparation of the core molding

material and core shooting, through automatic deburring and transport via

robot, to the placement of each two core packages in the double mold on the

casting turned table.

The new material SiWind for wind turbine hubs exemplifies the viability of

the 5,000-year-old production process of casting: foundries have opened up a

new customer group – not just in Germany – and have entered the field of renewable

energies with cast wind turbine hubs. New materials can defy the

harsh marine conditions and be used to optimize the need for greater wind

turbine energy yields (from P. 8).

With its new research and development center in the Dutch city of Enschede,

Foseco also provides an example of best practice: the company has taken a new

path by concentrating the research activities of the foundry supplier group in

one research center (from P. 50).

The use of PET oxygen technology as a reasonably priced alternative to conventional

coke could revolutionize some melting operations. A promising

trial is underway at the Gienandt iron foundry (from P. 32).

Other topics examined in this issue include numerical simulation of the

quenching process for castings (P. 46), an article on progress in inorganic binding

systems and, last but not least, two articles on a trailblazing collaboration

between the German and South African foundry industries involving energy-efficient

technologies (from P. 60).

This GIFA issue of CASTING, PLANT & TECHNOLOGY is rounded out by a

comprehensive GIFA Special that represents a cross-section of the companies

at the trade fair (from P. 73). Are you interested in the technical presentations?

Then check out what the four technical forums have to offer in our Special.

Presentations that are not held in English are simultaneously translated.

Have a good read!

Robert Piterek, e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 3



Kehrer, Friedrich-Georg

GIFA – the international event where top decision-makers meet 6


Mikoleizik, Peter; Geier, Georg

SiWind - Development of materials for offshore wind power plants

of the multi megawatt range 8


Müller, Jens; Deters, Heinz; Oberleiter, Martin; Zupan, Henning;

Lincke, Hannes; Resch, Ronja; Körschgen, Jörg; Kasperowski, Axel

Nothing is impossible – advancements in inorganic binder systems 16

Rösch, Raimund; Dichter, Thomas; Hansen, Ferdinand; Jäger, Günther;

Uhde, Sven

Fully linked inorganic core production at Volkswagen’s cylinder

head foundry 24


Kadelka, Heinz; Dusil, Matthias; Werner, Gerd; Weber, Mike;

Matschkewitz, Ulrich

Gienanth foundry tests PET oxygen technology 32


Impression from GIFA 2011

(Photo: Messe Düsseldorf)


Editorial 3

News in brief 68



The objective of the MEGAWind research project was the

development of a strong material with high ductility which is

suitable for offshore wind power plants (Photo: Siemens)

The new Foseco research and development center in Enschede is

intended to gain a holistic understanding of production and to undertake

forward-looking product redevelopment (Photo: A. Bednareck)


2 | 2015




Schruff, Ingolf

Pressure die cast structural components for lightweight

automotive construction 40


Schmalhorst, Carsten; Greif, David

Numerical simulation of the quenching process for castings using AVL FIRE 46


Piterek, Robert

Exploring tomorrow’s technologies 50

Holub, Pavel

“Critical mass for R&D” 57


Friedl, Christa

More efficient melting with German foundry technology 60

Bosse, Manuel

BMBF project reduces energy and resource requirements in South African

foundries 64


Brochures 114

Advertisers´ index 112

Fairs and congresses 116

Preview/Imprint 117


The EffSAFound project of Germany's Federal Ministry for Education and Research is intended to help geht South Africa's important

foundry industry off the ground with German efficiency-enhancing technology

(Photo: Palesa Riba)


GIFA – the international event

where top decision-makers meet

“Experience four innovative concepts at the same place and time” – this is the motto for GIFA, the

world’s leading international trade fair for foundry technology, and its offshoots METEC, THERM-

PROCESS and NEWCAST in Düsseldorf, Germany, this year. The four well-established trade fairs

that are devoted to foundries, thermo process technology and metallurgy are focussing in particular

this year on such current trends as 3-D printing, minimization of resource input and energy saving.

Messe Düsseldorf Director Friedrich-Georg Kehrer explains the objectives of the event

What are exhibitors’ main expectations

today when they participate in

GIFA/the Bright World of Metals?

Anyone who intends to be actively involved

in the casting markets of the

future will find that the world’s leading

international trade fair for foundry

technology is the ideal platform. Companies

are also aware, however, that

their business success in the coming

years depends on successful participation

in GIFA. It is a compact forum

lasting five days during which international

contacts can be established

and then need to be followed up afterwards.

The exhibitors in particular

strengthen their market presence by

taking part in GIFA. There is no other

trade fair location where they can meet

such a large number of highly qualified

and capable decision­makers. A

total of almost 80,000 international

experts came to the Bright World of


CESS and NEWCAST) four years ago.

This is of course a major attraction to

exhibitors and they see their participation

as an opportunity to work even

more intensively on establishing a

foothold on the international market.

What are the big advantages of Messe

Düsseldorf to the companies participating?

On the one hand, of course, the outstanding

synergy benefits of holding

four trade fairs at the same time and

place that concentrate on the foundry

technology and metallurgy sectors.

While the Düsseldorf location plays an

important role for GIFA too, on the other

hand. With its position in the heart

of the European market, but combined

at the same time with an excellent international

network of 71 foreign representatives

covering 132 countries,

our trade fair location is ideal for internationally

oriented industries. As

the organiser, we carry out numerous

advertising activities in the most im­

6 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

In 2015 the largest “Bright World of Metals” (GIFA, METEC, NEWCAST and THERMPROCESS) of all time will take place.

2,124 exhibitors will present latest technology and pioneering innovations. At GIFA nearly 900 companies from 46

countries will exhibit (Photos: Messe Düsseldorf)

portant target markets and often hold

local meetings with such opinion leaders

as associations and press representatives,

in order to present the Bright

World of Metals. Our exhibitors benefit

directly from these activities, because

they help to increase the international

spread of the trade visitors.

Has GIFA become more international?

In which regions are the markets developing

particularly well?

In agreement with our partner associations

and board members, we have

increased our efforts to attract exhibitors

and visitors from Asian countries

– particularly India and China – as well

as in Brazil, Mexico and Chile. We anticipate

great interest from the USA

again as well, which is already reflected

in numerous inquiries we have received.

It goes without saying that our

activities also focus to a large extent on

such neighbouring European countries

and producers as the Nether lands,

Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and

Turkey. As far as Russia is concerned,

which has always been a major industrial

trade partner in the past, we will

have to wait and see how the current

general and market situation there develops.

We hope that an upward trend

becomes apparent again in the coming


What news can you give us about the

markets served by the industry? Are

shifts taking place? You will certainly

be hearing what is happening from

the exhibitors.

Apart from Russia, the main regional

outlets for castings have remained

largely unchanged. The trend towards

India and China has, perhaps, continued

to strengthen, so that the potential

number of visitors from there is

even greater now. I see similar developments

in Brazil and South Africa, as

exhibitors have confirmed to us too.

What are the latest developments

and main areas of innovation that


NEWCAST will be presenting?

3­D printing is an issue that will be

playing a central role in the GIFA exhibition

programme. This is a response

to the trend towards computer­based

3­D printing processes, with which

sand molds and cores bonded with

synthetic resin can be manufactured

relatively quickly. I am looking forward

to seeing what current developments

the companies will be surprising

us with in this area. We are also

looking forward to the new developments

in the die­casting field, which is

eminently suitable for the use of fully

automatic die­casting cells. GIFA and

NEWCAST will have plenty to present

here, from handling robots to entire

modern “islands” that operate automatically.


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 7


Rotor hub for a wind power plant, prior to coating in the shot blasting cabin (Photos: Siempelkamp)

Authors: Dipl.-Ing. Peter Mikoleizik, Dr. mont. Georg Geier, Siempelkamp Giesserei GmbH, Krefeld (today Mahle

König KG, Rheinquell)

SiWind - Development of materials

for offshore wind power plants of

the multi megawatt range

From 2006 until 2012, a circle of companies and institutions collaborated on the MEGAWind

project, a research project launched by the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature

Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMU). The objective of this project was the successful

development of a higher-strength material with sufficiently high ductility to make it a suitable

material for structural members in offshore wind power plants

Status quo in offshore wind

power technology

In the past, the development in wind

power technology has been characterized

by a constant increase in turbine

capacity, a trend which is still continuing

especially in plants intended for offshore

use. Turbines with a nominal capacity

of 5-6 MW currently represent

the top league of turbines installed in

the North Sea. Due to the high costs of

the foundations and the efforts associated

with the connection of offshore

plants, even more powerful turbines are

under development or in the prototype

stage. Building turbines of increasingly

higher capacities holds out the prospect

of higher economic efficiency.

There is a general consensus among

all parties involved that offshore wind

power generation will only have a future

if its costs can compete with other

forms of power generation. This means

that an increase in turbine size for its

own sake is not reasonable. It only

makes sense if considered in the context

of efficiency.

8 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Development of the te ch nology

The progress in wind power technology

is aimed at condensing the performance

capacity of individual components

rather than scaling the plants up

in proportion to the intended capacity

increase. This would lead to an overproportional

rise in manufacturing

costs due to the increasingly greater

weights and dimensions to be handled

– especially in the case of large components.

For example, precise machining

of the components could become

a problem if the maximum working

load of the machine tools is exceeded.

Also, the growing transport and logistics

effort, for example, for cross-country

transports, would drive up the

costs. Finally, only coastal locations or

locations on inland waters would be

suitable as manufacturing sites. These

would have to be newly built or, if existing,

they would have to be upgraded

with the necessary equipment. Experience

made to date has shown that the

weight and size of the components also

have an effect on the number of available

jack-up vessels, limiting both technological

and financial possibilities. A

higher nacelle weight has also structural

consequences, as more massively designed

towers and stronger foundations

would have to be built. This would require

more material and use up more

resources. The tower height, and in case

of offshore installations also the water

depth, lead to a multiplication of costs.

Limits to component weight

and size

Limiting the weight and size of components

in the nacelle is therefore crucial

to the achievement of higher efficiencies

in wind power generation through

an increase in nominal capacity or

higher-capacity turbines. The resulting

condensation of performance capacity

usually leads to growing loads

acting on the components. These loads

have to be reliably sustained by the respective

material. First of all, higher-strength

materials are more expensive

due their higher contents of

alloying elements. Higher strength

values in metallic materials are generally

accompanied by reduced ductility.

Ductility provides a high degree of

safety against brittle failure of a structural

member. In order to increase the

strength of cast iron alloys, it has been

common practice to add pearlite-stabilizing

alloying elements to achieve

partial or complete pearlitization of

the metallic matrix. This is, however,

accompanied by a distinct decrease in

elongation at break (Table ­1). Brittle

materials are prone to spontaneous

failure without prior indication in

the form of a notable plastic deformation.

Therefore, for safety reasons brittle

materials are not allowed to be employed

in the structural members of

wind power plants [1]. In many fields

of technology, it is a widespread belief

that if a component is subjected to excessive

stress, plastic deformation will

lead to energy dissipation, indicating

gradually but visibly an imminent failure

of the component.

Figure­1: Weight savings are achieved via reductions in wall thickness. A specimen

geometry was derived from current and anticipated section thicknesses

Figure­2: Microsection from the core zone of a 130-mm-thick section: The matrix

is completely ferritic and free from carbides. The majority of the graphite

particles are of form VI, size 5/6

10 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Discover Bühler: Visit us at the GIFA 2015: Hall 11, Booth A42

Benefit from our forward-looking innovations, our latest technologies, and find

out what’s in it for you. Bühler offers everything you need to be one step ahead

in the market place: higher productivity, greater efficiency, increased flexibility,

and Bühler‘s high quality.


GIFA 2015, Düsseldorf / Germany

Hall 11, Booth A42

Innovations for a better world.


New materials: Offshore electricity generation calls for systematic

further development of ductile iron grades (Photo: Siemens)

The “MEGAWind” research


The objective of the MEGAWind research

project supported by the German

Federal Ministry for Environment,

Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear

Safety (BMU) (project no. 0327593)

was to develop a higher-strength material

featuring sufficient ductility to make

it a suitable material for structural members

in offshore wind power plants. At

the same time, the aspect of affordability

of renewable energy was to be taken

in due account to ensure resource- and

energy-efficient production and construction

processes. Noteworthy about

this project is the fact that, alongside

the material-related research activities,

a suitable calculation method for the

intended market segment was investigated

and established. The further development

of the material, fracture mechanics

testing and definitions as well as

the resulting fracture mechanics calculation,

all act together to complement

existing component calculation procedures.

All disciplines involved were represented

by renowned and specialist institutes

and companies. The partners to

the project were:

» Siempelkamp Giesserei GmbH,

Krefeld: project management, materials

development and certification,

» Aerodyn Energiesysteme GmbH,

Rendsburg: component calculations

and certification in consideration of

aspects of fracture mechanics,

» Fraunhofer Institute for Structural

Durability and System Reliability

LBF, Darmstadt: determination of fatigue

parameters in consideration of

the surface condition,

» Institute for Materials Technology,

Technical University of Freiberg:

commissioned to determine fracture

mechanics characteristic values,

» DNV GL Renewables Certification:

commissioned to certify materials

and audit the fracture mechanics

verification procedure.

The material SiWind and its


More than ever, structural materials are

subject to fierce competition. This not

only applies to absolute characteristic

values of the materials but also to aspects

like cost efficiency, availability and

reliability. During the last few decades,

ductile cast iron has increasingly gained

in importance. What makes ductile cast

iron so attractive as a structural material

are its steel-like, static and above all

cyclic strength properties accompanied

by good ductility performance. Another

important aspect, especially in Central

Europe, is the high process security,

which means high reliability and a good

cost-benefit-ratio of the material, all of

which have contributed to its success.

Due to these properties, ductile iron

has become firmly established in the

wind energy sector. It is the predominant

casting material for load-bearing

and large components in the drive train.

Large components such as rotor hubs or

12 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

machine supports weighing in excess of

60 t are series cast using ductile iron.


In order to facilitate the market acceptance

of the new material and give future

users security, the certification of

the new material was defined as one key

element of the project. DNVGL Renewables

Certification (GL) was selected as

independent certification body. GL not

only boasts a high international reputation

and presence but can also draw on

various rules and guidelines for the design

and calculation of onshore and offshore

wind energy turbines. These rules

and guidelines specify concrete verification

procedures, calculation methods

and requirements to be complied with.

This provided the basis for a plannable

and successful certification process. According

to the GL guideline for offshore

wind power plants, edition 2005 [1], the

employment of cast iron with lamellar

graphite for “load-bearing structural

members” is practically ruled out for

safety reasons, because in the event of

an excessive load acting on the structural

member the failure will be completely of

the brittle type. In contrast, according to

[2], ductile cast iron grades, which do not

belong to the group of higher-strength

grades, have been approved. A material is

commonly defined as ductile if the elongation

at break A is higher than 12.5%

and the impact energy Kv is greater than

10 J at a temperature of -20 °C. Similar

definitions are found in other mechanical

engineering guidelines, for example,

the FKM guideline [3]. Additionally, the

GL guideline stipulates that the ductile

cast iron grades with spheroidal graphite

may not feature more than 10 % pearlite

in the ferritic matrix. The calculated

design verification of a structural member

is based on an analysis of the static

load-carrying capacity at extreme load;

for the lifetime verification, modi fied

Miner’s rule is to be applied. Generally, a

service life of at least 20 years is assumed.

Beside the defined concept of synthetic

S/N curves involving a classification for

component dimensioning, it is also possible

to base the dimensioning on test results.

In the latter case, verification must

be provided by the specific manufacturer

that the measured values are transferrable

to other components and that

the number of specimens is statistically

well founded. Higher-strength cast iron

materials, i.e. according to DIN EN1563

[2] materials featuring a tensile strength

above 400 MPa, cannot be employed unless

specifically approved by the certification

body. In these cases, it is usually

required to provide a verification that

the specific component meets the fracture

mechanics safety requirements. As

an alternative to the additional fracture

mechanics calculations, specifically for

gear box housings the Note on Engineering

Details [4] provides for the consideration

of a Stress Reserve Factor (SRF) of

1.5 in the static and cyclic calculation.

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 13





EN-GJS-500-7 EN-GJS-700-2

R m

in MPa 360 420 650

R p0,2

in MPa 220 290 380

A in % 12 5 1

Matrix ferritic ferritic/pearlitic pearlitic

Table­1: Decreasing ductility and increasing strength of the ferritic/pearlitic

cast iron grades (characteristic values according to DIN EN 1563:2012 for section

thicknesses ranging from 60 mm to 200 mm); R m

– tensile strength, R p02

yield strength, elongation at break


In the concrete material development

it was intended to increase the

strength of ductile cast iron by solid-solution

strengthening. This retains

a ferritic matrix. Thanks to this

ferritic matrix, there is only a small

decrease in elongation at break while

tensile and yield strength values are

significantly raised.

Eugen Weil Industrie-Service

Ohmstrasse 1

35315 Homberg/Ohm

Tel.: +49 (0)6633 / 8 26

Fax: +49 (0)6633 / 57 73



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As the characteristic values of casting

materials vary depending on the section

thickness and the focus of the investigation

was specifically on large cast

components for offshore applications,

from the very beginning of the project

the tests were based on representative

section thicknesses. The feasibility

of manufacturing real components

from the higher-strength material and

with an adapted geometry was tested

in a simulation. It

turned out that as

a result of the increased


weight savings can

be achieved in existing

designs via

reductions in wall

thickness. A representative


geometry was

derived (Figure­1)

from current and

anticipated section


The result is

a plate weighing

1.2 t with section

thicknesses of 60,

130 and 200 mm.

These section

thicknesses could

be flawlessly cast.

Samples were taken

from the areas

of the various section


and used to determine

the respective

static, cyclic

and fracture mechanics


values. Based on the obtained

intermediate results, first the chemical

composition was determined and

optimized in preliminary tests. In subsequent

testing campaigns the casting

method was to be optimized with a view

to the melting process and the treatment

of the melt. Eventually, the final

material modification was reproduced

several times in order to have available

sufficient specimens for the certification

of the material by GL. From the outset,

the sampling and testing was coordinated

with the certification institute. This

involved not only the size and shape of

the samples but especially their location

and orientation as well as comprehensive

documentation and supervision of

all individual steps. With a view to the

critical section thicknesses, the tests to

determine the static characteristic values

were performed on tensile specimens

featuring a testing cross-section

of 14 mm. The cyclic tests were primarily

conducted on round specimens with

testing cross-sections of 15 and 24 mm.

For the fracture mechanics tests SEB20

and CT25 specimens were used.

Fracture mechanics calculations

Besides the development and the testing

of the material, another element of

the certification process consisted in a

model fracture mechanics safety verification.

The tests were performed on the

representative geometry of a rotor hub

assuming real loads and the determined

characteristic material values. Thus a future

user of the material will not only get

a new material with enhanced and certified

properties. He will also be provided

an evaluated and generally accepted

verification and calculation procedure

for any future component approval.

This provides the basis for the universal

use of the material in the wind power

sector, without any limitation to specific

categories of components.

Material characterization


The new material has been certified under

the designation SiWind. The standardized

nomenclature according to

[5] is GJSF- SiNi30-5. The characteristic

static values are listed in Table 2

14 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

versus EN-GJS-400-18-LT, the material

commonly used in the wind power

sector. The characteristic values refer

to cast specimens of type D according

to [2] for a representative section thickness

ranging between 60 and 200 mm.

SiWind is the first higher-strength

casting material certified and approved

for employment in offshore wind power

applications. The characteristic static

values could be increased by up to

50 %. Independent tests have shown

that the ductility under cyclic

stress is higher than expected

and similar to the ductility

of EN-GJS-400-18LT. In fracture

mechanics calculations

for the design of a component

it could be demonstrated that

visible flaws can be endured

over the usual maintenance

intervals. Hence, the currently

usual operational and service

efforts in offshore wind power

plants will not increase as a result

of the enhanced plant performance.

Thanks to the fact

that the new cast iron grade

is a ferritic material, machining,

coating and reworking

costs are comparable to those

of EN-GJS400-18-LT and even

lower than those of currently

known higher-strength ferritic/pearlitic

grades (Figure 2).

Especially a comparison with

the established synthetic S/N

curve calculation method

shows good correspondence

and should foster the confidence

in the new material.

The exemplary calculation

shows that the new material

has a weight-saving potential

of approx. 15 % in the case

of newly designed structures.

Also existing structures can

be optimized by replacing existing

ductile cast iron grades

with the new material. The investigations

performed within

the framework of the MEGAWind

project have partly been

more profound and extensive

than tests performed for the

materials used in the past, especially

the tests relative to the

Table­2: Comparison of the static characteristic

values of grades SiWind

and GJS-400-18-LT

behaviour under cyclic stress and to the

fracture mechanics properties.

The “MEGAWind” project , which is the

subject of this report, was conducted under

the sponsorship of the BMU (project no.

0327593). The responsibility for the contents

of this article lies with the authors.








SiWind GJS-400-18LT

R m in MPa* 410 (459) 360

R p0,2 in MPa* 330 (344) 220

A in %* 10 (17) 12

* Values for section thicknesses between 60 and

200 mm; measured values in brackets.



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Inorganic core making with industrial robots at ASK Chemicals in Hilden, Germany (Photos + graphics: ASK Chemicals)

Authors: Jens Müller, Heinz Deters, Martin Oberleiter, Henning Zupan, Hannes Lincke, Ronja Resch, Jörg Körschgen

and Axel Kasperowski, ASK Chemicals GmbH, Hilden

Nothing is impossible – advancements

in inorganic binder systems

Odorless core production, odor-reduced casting, significantly less cleaning of machines and

tools, the resulting higher output and productivity, and the advantages in terms of casting, such

as faster solidification due to reduced ingot mold temperatures – these benefits of the Inotec

technology are already well-established. Despite all this, inorganic binder systems will always be

benchmarked against existing technologies such as cold box. This is also the reason why, in the

past, people criticized surface properties for being less smooth than with organic binders and

decomposition after pouring for being worse

16 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Figure 1: Factors that can have a major influence on penetrations during the

pouring process

However, recent developments could

prove that inorganic binders have improved

considerably and in some applications

even reveal additional potential

for optimization. With the newly developed

Inotec generation, even areas that

are highly susceptible to penetration,

such as the gate region, can be realized in

a process-consistent manner and without

additional coating of the cores. This

system is 100 % inorganic and leaves absolutely

no condensate deposits in the

casting tools. In addition, there is no formation

of smoke during the casting process.

By contrast, cast pieces that were

produced using conventional methods,

such as the cold box method, exhibited

a significantly inferior surface, which

means that Inotec is much more than

just an alternative here.

In the past, decoring of cast pieces

that were produced using inorganic

binders was often quite a challenge

in the area of water jackets, especially

if the decoring machine had only

a few degrees of freedom. The Inotec

Promoter WJ 4000 has helped to significantly

improve shake-out properties

in particular, with the result that

even complex and filigree water jacket

cores can now be safely removed from

the component after casting.

Further enhancements, such as the

improvement of moisture stability or

the use of inorganic binders beyond

the confines of light metal casting, are

closing the gap on conventional organic

systems. State-of-the-art technical

equipment for the investigation of

system properties and a growing understanding

of the running processes

have led to a more efficient conception

of new binder formulations and

the overcoming of limitations much

faster than before.

Despite all these future challenges

for both inorganic and organic binders,

one thing is beyond doubt: inorganic

binders are more environmentally

friendly than organic systems. This

was confirmed in no uncertain terms

by the German Technical Inspection

Association TÜV Rheinland after carrying

out a comparative life cycle assessment

of cold box and Inotec

You have surely heard it said

before: Nothing is impossible!

This saying effectively typifies the development

of inorganic binder systems

in recent years. However, there are still

some lingering prejudices and doubts

about this technology, and some of

them are hard to break down. Statements

like the following are constantly

being made: Inorganic cores show

a lower dimensional accuracy when

casting, tend to have higher core fracture

and are unstable to moisture and

therefore cannot be coated with water.

The waste sand cannot be regenerated,

the casting surfaces show more sand

accumulations, the cores have worse

shake-out performance and inorganics

are not suitable for iron casting.

Some of these statements are incorrect,

some of them are certainly essentially

correct and others are being

disproved by new developments in inorganic


In addition, the following statement

is also frequently encountered: “We really

only want an inorganic cold box

system and nothing more!”

However, chemically speaking, they

are worlds apart. By its very nature,

chemistry sets specific limitations here

that are hard to overcome.

Even so – as recent developments in

particular have shown – the new products

are mainly aimed at closing the

gap on traditional methods. Examples

of how this has been achieved in several

sectors, sometimes even exceeding

expectations, are provided below.

Casting surfaces

It is well known that the requirements

for casting surface quality are high.

Foundries spend a great deal of time and

money to meet the growing demands.

In some cases, this also involves investment

in secondary measures in blanks

processing, for instance in blasting sys-

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 17


tems. Of course, the desire to eliminate

many such measures is a factor here, but

there is always something of a discrepancy

between what is technically feasible,

what is asked for and what is viable

in terms of cost. Positive effects on

casting surface quality are attributed to

organic binders for two reasons: firstly

the resulting anthracite layer that forms

a protective barrier between the casting

Figure 2: Sample casting AL 226, 720 °C

Figure 3: Mechanism of action of the new generation of promoters

Figure 4: Optimization of the casting result with the new Inotec TC 4000 promoter

and the core, and secondly the resulting

gas cushion that counters the metallostatic

pressure, thus making it harder

for the metal to penetrate the sand

structure and for penetrations to occur.

Neither can be expected with inorganic

binders, firstly because there are no

combustion products and secondly because

the resulting gas volume (water

+ air) is much lower than with organic

binder systems. It is therefore clear

that another approach must be found

for inorganics in order to counter penetrations

and sand accumulation. But

what factors in the casting process actually

have a positive or negative impact

on penetrations (Figure 1)?

One obvious factor is the casting

temperature or the thermal energy that

acts on the cores in the casting process,

which is clearly indicated by the fact

that more penetrations occur in the

“hot spots” and in the gate region in

particular. The casting pressure also

shows a significant effect. For instance,

in low-pressure permanent mold casting,

a considerable impact on surface

quality is observed if the casting pressure

changes even slightly. There is often

a very fine line between cold laps

and penetration here. To enable new

solutions to be developed for the series

production process in the foundry,

one thing is absolutely crucial: The

problems and questions encountered

in the foundry must be broken down

to laboratory and technology-center

scale in such a way that the casting errors

to be rectified can be reconstructed

or even caused. In the case of optimization

of penetrations, this was carried

out with a gradual increase in the casting

pressure until the casting result in

the technology center matched that

of the foundry. At this point, modification

of the system was started, and the

surface quality was gradually improved

through evaluation of the casting results

and corresponding optimization loops

until the result shown in Figure 2 was

attained. Figure 3 shows how the mechanism

of action that leads to this positive

casting situation can be visualized.

Components that reduce the wetting of

the sand core surface by the metal are

incorporated in the binder system. In

addition, compaction of the core is increased

by adding the new ingredients,

thus making it harder for the metal to

penetrate the gaps of the sand core surface.

Together, the two effects lead to a

considerable reduction in visible penetration

on the casting. By taking this

mechanism of action into account, areas

where reworking was previously essential

can now be completed without

processing (Figure 4).

18 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Core disintegration – shakeout

In the past, removing the cores of cast

pieces that were produced using inorganic

binders was often quite a challenge

in the area of water jackets, especially

if the core removal system had

only a few degrees of freedom. At the

same time, the requirements for the residual

dirt content of components are

becoming increasingly strict. One development

objective should therefore

be to optimize existing systems with

regard to their disintegration behavior

after casting. Insertion of predetermined

breakage points in the binder

bridges, which are not produced until

the casting process, i.e. when thermal

energy penetrates, significantly improves

the disintegration properties as

Figure 5 clearly shows. With the Inotec

WJ 4000 promoter, complex and

filigree water jacket cores can now be

removed safely from the component

again after casting (Figure 5).

Dimensional accuracy when


To achieve both increased engine output

and low fuel consumption, one essential

requirement is an effective cooling

concept for new cylinder heads and

blocks. The resultant complexity and

low wall thicknesses of the water jackets

necessitate a high degree of thermal

resistance during casting. Otherwise

there is a risk of deformations, which

lead to the scrapping of the component.

For this reason, warm-box and

Croning systems have been used with

organic systems, especially with particularly

critical deformation-prone water

jacket cores as these systems have very

high heat resistance. Inorganic systems

can show plastic behavior without a corresponding

modification in the casting

temperature range of the aluminum and

therefore have a tendency to deform.

A rough description of this behavior

is that the silicate softens like molten

glass, thus becoming deformable under

stress. The difference between a system

that is optimized in terms of thermal resistance

and a system that has not been

modified is shown in the hot-distortion

measurement in Figure 6. Whereas

the non-optimized system has very

fast bending, the heat-stable system

Figure 5: Optimization of shake-out performance after casting with the Inotec

WJ 4000 promoter

Figure 6: Hot-distortion measurement of two inorganic systems (orange: not

optimized, blue: thermal stability increased)

has a much more “stable” characteristic


If a casting test is performed with

both systems, the picture is also clear.

When the thermally unstable system is

used, clear differences in wall thickness

are apparent, which suggests a massive

amount of deformation during casting.

By contrast, the thermally stable

mixture produces a dimensionally accurate

casting (Figure 7).

Heating microscopy is an extremely

suitable method of examining the resistance

of the binder systems. Here, a rectangular

test specimen of the material is

put into a furnace and the softening and

melting behavior is recorded in real time

with a camera. The differences between

the systems are also clearly apparent

with this measuring method. In the case

of the non-thermally optimized sample,

softening is discernible at 778 °C,

whereas the more thermally stable mixture

only loses its geometric rectangular

shape at 1,310°C (Figure 8). In this way,

systems can be assessed in terms of their

thermal behavior and their effectiveness

at preventing deformations.

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 19


Figure 7: Optimization of dimensional

accuracy as a result of increased

thermal stability

Figure 8: Heating microscope measurements (non-optimized and more thermally

stable system)

New casting-related potential

Many positive influences of inorganic

series core manufacture on the foundry

process have already been described:

Odorless core production, odor-reduced

casting, significantly less cleaning

of machines and tools and the resulting

higher output quantity and

productivity as well as the advantages

in terms of casting, such as faster solidification

enabled by a lowering of ingot

mold temperatures, are well-known advantages

of the inorganic technology.

In particular, the absence of combustion

residue gives component developers

new freedoms that they did not

previously have with organic-based

binding agents. One impressive example

is the new central feed principle,

which is used at BMW’s plant for

crankcases of future engine generations

[1,2] in Landshut, Germany. Inorganic

cores are used as central feeders

here, thus minimizing the risk of sooting

ventilation ducts in the low-pressure

permanent mold. This concept

is not feasible with organic cores. The

DAS distribution of the three concepts

is shown in Figure 9. It is apparent that

the new central feeder concept leads to

DAS advantages in all component areas.

The warmest point (thermal center,

binding of the feeder) and therefore

the point with the highest local DAS is

in the area of the lower dead center of

the piston, a point that is not subject to

excessive thermal or mechanical stress.

The tension rod area also solidifies very

quickly and can be influenced externally

via the permanent mold. The tendency

towards leaking after mechanical

processing falls dramatically, and

the sealing rates are miniscule.

Figure 9: Central feeding concept utilizing inorganic cores in low pressure die casting

20 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Figure 10: Test casting of step core, GJL, 1,458 °C (left: Cold Box with additive, right: Inotec)

Iron casting

Use of modern inorganic binders in

iron casting (core hardening with a

hot tool and hot air, not CO 2

) is not yet

widespread. This is probably because –

in contrast with light-alloy permanent

mold casting – the process sequence

and the sand system are regarded as

more complex, the casting temperatures

are around twice as high, and therefore

the requirements for thermal resistance

much higher. In addition, in the case of

inorganic binders, the cold box method

is superior to the largely physical (drying)

process in terms of productivity in

many areas, particularly if the core geometries

become bigger and bulkier.

Even so, inorganics have considerable

potential, particularly in iron casting. In

particular, problematic parts that need

to be worked on with special sands or

additives in combination with a coating

against veining, are predestined for use

of inorganic binders since they show a

much lower tendency towards veining

– or indeed none at all – compared

with organic systems. Figure 10 shows

test castings from step cores in GJL,

1,458 °C. The casting of a cold box system

with an additive and the one with

an inorganic system are shown. One

half of each of the cores was coated. It

is clearly apparent that the coated and

uncoated sides of the inorganic core are

completed better and have fewer penetrations

right through to the final stage,

i.e. the stage with the highest thermal

stress. This figure also reflects initial

experience from foundry operations,

where inorganic cores can be used successfully

in a targeted manner to reduce

veining, penetrations and gas. There is

no doubt that even more positive news

can be expected from this area of application

in future.

Optimization of moisture resistance

and coating resistance of

inorganic cores

Moisture stability has always been the

Achilles’ heel of inorganic cores. This

is because of the nature of the chemistry.

Binding agents are based on

silicates that are dissolved in water,

known as water glass. Water is thus

the solvent in the system. In addition,

the hardening reaction is largely

reversible (balanced reaction). This

means that when large amounts of

energy and water are present (e.g. in

the case of high air humidity and high

temperatures), the back reaction takes

place and the cross-linking of the silicates

is reversed, resulting in the cores

losing their strength and breaking

down. This can be prevented by removing

water from this balance, i.e.

through storage in a dry place. Since

the latter is not always easily possi-

Figure 11: Moisture (green) and strength pattern (numerical values) of watercoated

inorganic cores during furnace drying

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 21


ble in practice, additives (known as

promoters) are used to significantly

delay the back reaction, thereby allowing

the cores to be handled in a

process-consistent manner, even after

“normal” storage. However, inorganic

cores remain hydrophilic. An even

greater challenge is coating the cores

with a water-based coating because

the water acts on the core directly and

in concentrated form. Application of

the water coating on the cold core is

not critical at first but becomes critical

by the time the coating is to be dried

in the oven. Then, the process shown

in Figure 11 takes place. Before coating,

the cold core has a strength level

of 460 N/cm². The core is coated and

starts its “furnace journey.” Because

of the high temperatures (150 °C)

and the water present, the relative air

humidity rises rapidly, which makes

the core increasingly weak and causes

the strength level to fall from 295

to 120 N/cm². When the turnaround

point is reached, i.e. the maximum air

humidity falls again, the drying process

of the coating continues and the

core reaches its minimum strength,

probably the most critical point in the

furnace drying process. It is now determined

whether the core withstands

the stress, deforms or even breaks. If

it gets through this critical phase, at

the end of its furnace journey, the

core will have a highly respectable final

strength of as much as 260 N / cm²

when hot and as much as 360 N/cm²

when cold. The final strength of a

coated core may therefore be quite

high. The main critical factors are the

drying process and the temporarily air

humidity levels in conjunction with

the high temperatures in the furnace.

Consequently, the major chemical

challenge is transferring a water-soluble

system – as this is what inorganic

binders are – to a moisture-resistant

Figure 12: Strength pattern of water-coated cores during furnace drying

(green: standard system, blue: optimized system)

state as much as possible after hardening.

In this respect, Figure 12 shows

the result of the latest research, namely

the moisture level of coated cores in

two binder systems in relation to the

dwell time in the drying furnace. The

standard system shows the strength

pattern portrayed here, with a minimum

strength of approx. 90 N/cm².

Although the second system essentially

has a somewhat lower initial

strength level, it only drops to a figure

of approx. 250 N/cm² during furnace

drying. This means that in relative

terms, the cores produced with

this optimized binder system lose

a maximum of 30 % of their initial

strength, while the standard system

loses approx. 80 % of its strength. It

can also be seen again here that the

final strength rises back to a very acceptable

level in both cases, i.e. after

complete drying and cooling, provided

that the cores come through furnace

drying intact. The optimized

binder system is currently undergoing

testing by the customer and, if the results

are confirmed, this could possibly

broaden the process scope of inorganic

binder systems even further,

either in the use of these binder systems

under non-optimum climatic

conditions or in use with water coatings,

which could particularly benefit

the introduction of inorganic binders

in iron casting.


Inorganic binders are subject to more

rumors than almost any other area of

foundry work. What can they actually

do, and what can’t they do? The growing

interest and increasing number of

users clearly show that this technology

is now an established part of aluminum

permanent mold casting at least.

The cost savings in terms of maintenance

and cleaning of the systems as

well as the resultant higher productivity

in the casting process are key factors

in this success. At the same time,

new development stages of the binders

are closing the gap on organic systems:

Better casting surfaces, higher

thermal stability and optimization of

disintegration after casting have been

significant optimization steps of the

last generation of inorganic binders.

And there are also signs of progress in

improving the storage stability of the

naturally moisture-sensitive inorganic

cores. At the same time, it is clear

that the use of inorganic cores does

not have to be limited to light-alloy

permanent mold casting as inorganics

offer huge potential in prevention

of classic casting defects (such as veining).

“Nothing is impossible” is therefore

a very fitting phrase for the core

of development in the inorganic sector:

Much of what has been achieved

with inorganic binders to date would

have seemed impossible to many people

in the past. As a result of intensive

research in this field, it can be assumed

that so many hurdles that seem restrictive

at the moment will be cleared in





22 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015







Organized by



Authors: Dr. Raimund Rösch, Thomas Dichter, Dr. Ferdinand Hansen, Günter Jäger and Sven Uhde, Volkswagen AG,

Hanover Foundry

Fully linked inorganic core production

at Volkswagen’s cylinder head


Fully linked inorganic core production at Volkswagen (Photos and Graphics: Volkswagen Foundry Hannover)

Inorganic core production is now used in many foundries in Germany, particularly for the automotive

sector. Exploiting the knowledge and experience gained from over ten years of serial production

of intake manifolds and cylinder heads with inorganic cores a fully linked inorganic core

shooting unit was put into operation at Volkswagen foundry in Hanover in 2012. The plant design

is presented here. It reflects the results of a previous planning workshop with all those involved,

including plant operators, the Planning Department and Quality Assurance. The process

consists of core material preparation, core shooting, automatic deburring and transport by robot,

deposition on trays before placement of each two core packages in the double mold on the

casting turned table. The technical and scientific interrelationship of inorganic core technology is

presented. The core properties are illustrated by way of hot and cold bending strengths in the

production process. Finally, the advantages of inorganic core technology are summarized

24 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Figure 1: Process of inorganic core production: mixing of sand, binder and additives – shooting of the molding material

into the core box – hardening of the core by the heated tool and heated air – removal of the core

Inorganic core making is now found in

many foundries in Germany, particularly

for the production of castings in

the automotive sector. Industrial-scale

inorganic core making is still a challenge,

particularly with respect to integrated

process chains, robotic and

tray handling, and under extreme climatic


Exploiting the knowledge and experience

gained from over ten years of serial

production of intake manifolds and

cylinder heads with inorganic cores a

fully linked inorganic core shooting

unit was put into operation at Volkswagen

foundry in Hanover in 2012.

Inorganic core shooting process

including core hardening

The process of inorganic core production

consists of four steps. It begins

with the mixing of weighed quantities

of silica sand, additives and binders

for the molding material. In a second

step, the molding material is

transported to the core shooter and

shot into the core box. In a third step,

Figure 2: Binder bridges in the core (scanning electron microscope photo)

the core is hardened by means of the

heated core tool and heated purging

or gassing air. Finally, the core box

is opened, the finished core is ejected

and ready for further processing

(Figure 1).

A purely inorganic molding material

system consists of silica sand (SiO 2


binder (a modified silicate solution)

and additives (synthetic and natural

minerals). The hardening process is a

condensation process, creating a sol-

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 25


Figure 4: Schematic diagram of the

chemical structure of a binder bridge.

the binder bridge, while the carbon derives

from sample preparation for scanning

electron microscopy (Figure 4).

Figure 3: EDX analysis of a binder bridge.

id silicic acid (silicate). The inorganic

core has sufficient handling strength.

The microscopic structure of the inorganic

core compound has been examined

with the help of scanning electron

microscopy (Figure 2). 30 to 60 % of the

surfaces of the silica sand grains are

coated with the binding agent (binder

with additives). The gaps between sand

grains are filled with the binding agent,

forming binder bridges. A stable binder

bridge can be recognized from its crackfree

structure. The structure of a binder

bridge has been examined using energy

dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

The presence of the chemical elements

Al, Si, Na, C and O could be determined

(Figure 3). Si, O and Na are elements of

The core assembly plate and

the casting

The core production process described

here is part of the manufacturing line

1.4 liter TSI for engine power output 90

kW to 110 kW, e.g. in the Golf 7, Passat,

Audi A3 and Seat Leon. The core package

consists of seven cores (Figure 5):

» water jacket core,

» inlet port core,

» outlet port core,

» core for the water-cooled integrated

exhaust manifold,

p core


Top core

Insert core

Outlet Insert sidecore

Outlet side

t core

Core for water-cooled

integrated exhaust manifold

Core for water-cooled

integrated exhaust manifold

Water jacket core

Outlet port core

Outlet port core

Integrated exhaust


Integrated exhaust



Inlet side

Inlet side

ort core

Blow-by core

Inlet port core

Blow-by core

Figure 5: The 1.4 liter TSI cylinder head (EA211): a) outlet side with cores, b) inlet side with cores

26 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


from melting plant


KSM 1 Water

core / watercooled


exhaust manifold



Top core/insert

core x2





Top core/insert

core x2

Casting carousel

6 double



Cooling store

Figure 6: Production concept for the 1.4 liter TSI cylinder head (EA211)

» blow-by core,

» insert core,

» top core.

The cores have a total weight of 17 kg.

The casting alloy is AlSi10Mg(Cu). The

as-cast weight is 22 kg; after first-cut

machining the cylinder head weighs

13 kg.

Production concept

The production process of the cylinder

heads is based on a decentralized

concept. Inorganic core shooting and

the preparation of the aluminum alloy

takes place next to the casting

equipment, which consists of a casting

turned table with six double casting

machines. Four core shooting machines

supply cores to the casting

turned table (with a diameter of 12

m). After pouring and solidification,

the cylinder heads are removed from

the molds and placed in the cooling

store (Figure 6).

Figure 7: Transport vehicle (left) after

being filled from the mixing

drum (right)

Production sequence

The basic molding materials – silica

sand, additives and binders – are stored

in silos and containers in the sand

preparation plant. All three basic materials

are automatically weighed according

to a defined recipe, and placed

in a vertical mixer. The mixing process

takes about 2 min. The mixer empties

into a transport vehicle (Figure 7),

which takes the molding material to

the core shooting machine, the vehicle

releases the molding material into the

supply hopper of the core shooting machine

through the opened base flap. After

shooting and hardening of the core

it is removed from the opened core tool

by a robot-operated gripper and placed

upon a conveyor belt (Figure 8). The

two types of water jacket cores are automatically

deburred by robots at a special

workstation on the way to the conveyor

belt (Figure 9).



Figure 8: Water jacket core (a) and

inlet & outlet port cores (b) made

using inorganic core production

Figure 9: Robots deburr the water jacket cores

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 27






Figure 11: Core inspection

Figure 10: Positioning of plant components

for core production: a) 3P

model in the planning workshop, b)

identical real plant design

At the end of the conveyor belts, employees

remove the water jacket and

port cores by hand, inspect them for

any incomplete contours, and place

them by hand directly opposite on

trays at the end of the conveyor belt.

The arrangement and positions of the

four core shooting machines had been

worked out two years before commissioning

in a production/planning/process

workshop (3P) . All workplaces had

been modelled in cardboard and all processes

had been simulated. Even the cycle

time had been determined. The real

plant components were designed based

on these full-scale models, followed by

successful installation and commissioning

(Figure 10a). These 3P workshops

have proved highly successful

and are used for all production facilities

of the Volkswagen group.

A roller conveyor system transports

the trays with the water jacket and port

cores from the two core placement stations

to the casting turned table. On

the way, the trays pass an inspection

camera that checks the completeness

of cores (five pieces) (Figure 11).

Top cores and insert cores are made

on two core shooting machines located

opposite to first mentioned machines,

removed from the opened

core tools by a frame gripper, held still

in the beam path of another illumination

and camera system for inspection

(Figure 12) and, if the core contour is

in order (Figure 13) added to the tray.

Figure 12: Corevision camera and

illumination system: a) removal gripper

with cores, b) system during

illumination (green)

The core package with seven cores

is now complete and has a weight of

17 kg (Figure 14). The cycle time per

core package is 30 seconds.

The manufacturing sequence is

based on a linked production concept

without a core depot. The distance between

core deposition on trays and

placement of the complete core package

in the mold on the casting turned

table is just 12 meters.

A robotic gripping arm picks up two

core packages from the trays on the conveyor

belt (Figure 15), rotates through

Figure 13: Monitor display showing inspection results

for completeness of core contours with ‘in order’ findings

Figure 14: Complete core package. It consists of seven

cores and has a weight of 17 kg. Per core package the

cycle time is 30 seconds

28 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Figure 15: Detailed view of gripper

Figure 16: Placement of the core packages in the double

casting machine

180°, and places them into the waiting

double casting machine (Figure 16).

The double casting machine moves to

the next station and the two molds are

simultaneously filled with molten aluminum

alloy from two ladles. The aluminum

solidifies, while the turned table

continues to turn. Then the cylinder

heads are removed.

Smoothly linked core production requires

rapid core hardening. This is provided

by the Cordis binder system from

Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke

GMBH in Düsseldorf, Germany. The

hot and cold bending strengths of all

water jacket and port cores produced

from May to July 2014 are represented

in the graphs shown in Figure 17 and

have a low amount of scatter.

Hot bending strength Water

cores in N/cm²

Cold bending strength Water

cores in N/cm²







Production days from May to July 2014


The advantages of inorganic core technology

compared to organic systems

can be summarized as follows:

» no emissions, no mold and room extraction

systems required,

» no deposits (condensate) in casting

tool (Figure 18),

» ideal conditions for cooling base


» low tool wear,

Hot bending strength Port

cores in N/cm²




Production days from May to July 2014

Production days from May to July 2014

Figure 17: Scattering of mechanical

properties of inorganic cores produced

from May to July 2014: hot bending

strength of water jacket cores;

cold bending strength of water jacket

cores; hot bending strength of

port cores; cold bending strength of

port cores (from top to bottom)

Cold bending strength Port

cores in N/cm²




Production days from May to July 2014

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 29


Figure 18: Base plate of a serial mold after 6 hours of operation

The absence of pyrolysis products

in the inorganic process leads to improved

tool and casting product properties,

prevents investments in extraction

systems, and simplifies the

obtaining of operation approval from

factory inspectorate.

Inorganic core technology for cylinder

head production is series-proven.

The cores thus produced are suitable for

handling by robotic grippers as well as

for transport on tray systems.

A specifically selected inorganic

binder system combined with optimally

adjusted core hardening in a heated

core tool with heated purging air is ideal

for cylinder head production in a directly

linked flow.

» longer mold service life (>8 weeks),

» improved dimensional accuracy of


» ideal for linked production,

» improved prerequisites for approval

of operation by factory inspectorate.


Setting The Standards For Highest

Efficiency In Thermal Processing



PulsReg® Zentral Regenerator, 12 MW

Gesellschaft für Energiewirtschaft und Kybernetik mbH / Bönninghauser Str. 10 / D-59590 Geseke

Telefon: +49 2942 9747 0 / Fax: +49 2942 9747 47 / www.jasper-gmbh.de / info@jasper-gmbh.de

30 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


16 th - 20 th June 2015



Hall 17

Stand 17 B 20

• SEIATSU- / ACE-Moulding Machines and Plants

• FBO- / FDNX-Flaskless Moulding Machines and Plants

• VACUUM Moulding Machines and Plants

• POURING UNITS – semi and fully automatic




Bahnhofstrasse 101 · 57334 Bad Laasphe, Germany

Phone +49 (0)2752 907-0 · Fax +49 (0)2752 907-280



Meltshop at Gienanth in Eisenberg (Photos + graphics: Linde AG)

Authors: Heinz Kadelka and Matthias Dusil, Linde Gas Düsseldorf, Gerd Werner, Linde Gas Mainz, Mike Weber, Gienanth

GmbH, Eisenberg, and Ulrich Matschkewitz, Dako coal GmbH, Essen

Gienanth foundry tests PET oxygen


Pulverized petroleum coke (petcoke) is an efficient and cost-saving alternative to conventional

coke as fuel for foundry shaft furnaces. However, in order for the material to be used in the best

possible way, new processes and plants are needed. Linde has developed such a solution: the

TDI-PET technology based on the TDI blowing nozzle injection method. The process has been

tested at Gienanth GmbH, based in Eisenberg, Germany

Over the last few decades, there have

been repeated efforts to use alternative

fuels in shaft furnaces, especially cupola

furnaces. However, ultimately no

field tests were able to prove this to be

viable alternative. The problems posed

by the transport of the material were

too big to overcome. It was impossible

to achieve stable and wear-free feeding.

One key cause of the problem was the

abrasiveness of the various fuels, i. e.

their abrasive effect on surfaces. However,

today we can make use of a material

which features all properties needed

to ensure smooth and wear-free feeding

and an optimal energy exchange,

namely petroleum coke or petcoke.

Pulverized petcoke – origin

and properties

Between 600,000 and 700,000 t of

fuel-grade petcoke are produced every

year at refineries in Germany. Petcoke

is obtained in the last stage of mineral

oil processing. Due to the various

upstream distillation steps aimed

at maximizing the yield of mineral

oil based products, the coke produced

in the delayed coking process

features only very little variations in

combustion properties. Its most outstanding

feature is the extremely low

ash content of less than 1 %, leading

32 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Figure 1: Flow diagram of the petcoke feeding plant supplied by Dako GmbH

Figure 2: Manifold at the furnace

to a constantly high carbon content

above 90 %.

In a downstream combined drying

and grinding process, the crude petcoke

is processed into pulverized petcoke.

In order to ensure reliable conveying

of the pulverized material it is

necessary to achieve a residual moisture

content below 1%. Combined

with a low ash content, the pulverized

petcoke supplied by Dako Coal

GmbH, based in Essen, Germany, features

a guaranteed calorific value above

34,000 kJ/kg, making it the commercially

available solid fuel with the

highest calorific value.

Compared to other pulverized fuels,

especially pulverized lignite, pulverized

petcoke is a low-reactivity fuel

(ignition temperature at around

700 °C) due to its low content of volatile

matter (< 10 %). In order to be able

to fulfill the igniting and combustion

requirements for use in industrial furnaces,

the petcoke must be ground in

a sophisticated process down to a fineness

of R 0.09 mm < 6 %.

The soft structure of the crude petcoke

produced in Germany (HGI > 70)

gives the powder properties similar to

graphite. Thanks to these properties, it

is ideally suited for quasi abrasion-free

Runner iron temp. in °C







pneumatic conveying. In spite of its

large surface area, pulverized petcoke

can be considered as non-explosive, in

contrast to other solid fuels in powder

form. When a plant is designed, the

risk assessment generally reveals that

there is no need to implement any constructional

(tertiary) explosion protection

measures. The safety-related plant

engineering requirements are limited

to measures that avoid the occurrence

of ignition sources (primary and secondary



PET kg/h


08:38 08:45 08:52 09:00 09:07 09:14 09:21


Figure 3: Effect of petcoke rate on runner iron temperature








Petcoke feeding rate in kg/h

Petcoke in a cupola – a longterm


Only a long-term test was considered

to be suitable to provide reliable and

conservative information about the

use of petcoke in cupola furnaces.

Linde conducted such a test together

with Dako Coal GmbH. As early as in

2012, at the International Cupola Day

in Dresden, Germany, Linde and Dako

presented their first petcoke project: At

the Weilbach plant of Linde Material

Handling GmbH, they tested the fuel

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 33


Figure 4: Installed TDI-PET system



Figure 5: Functional principle of the PET lance in the TDI tube

Figure 6: TDI-PET feeding system inside a water-cooled Cu nozzle

in a long-campaign cold blast cupola

plant. During a period of one year, aspects

of wear, sulfurization and feeding

accuracy could be studied.

Several examinations by the German

Institute of Foundry Technology

(Institut für Gießereitechnik IfG)

and other institutions confirmed that

the use of petcoke as fuel did not have

any negative influence on the off-gas,

slag or metallurgy. Convinced by these

results, the iron foundry Gienanth

GmbH, based in Eisenberg, Germany,

agreed to use Linde’s pet-coke-based

TDI-PET system in production. Dako

adapted the conveying equipment to

the specific conditions of the existing

cupola plant.

The Gienanth foundry

Gienanth GmbH is a foundry with

most state-of-the-art manufacturing

equipment and vast know-how accumulated

during more than 275 years

of company history. Competence and

technological expertise are key elements

of the company’s philosophy.

The 30 t hot blast cupola forms the

centrepiece of the melt shop. In threeshift

operation, the cupola is used to

make both grey cast and ductile iron.

Tasks and objectives of the

pilot plant

Of all contractually specified tasks, safeguarding

maximum security of iron

supply by the cupola had top priority.

To this end, a failure modes and effects

analysis (FMEA) was developed jointly

by all parties involved. The most important

aspects covered by the FMEA were:

» maximum redundancy of the conveying

and feeding systems

» maximum precision of conveying

and distributing between the nozzle


» maximum safety around the conveying


» economical and ecological benefits

» avoidance of metallurgical problems

» avoidance of problems associated

with sulfurization.

Powder conveying and dosing


When designing and implementing

the powder conveying and dosing sys-

34 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

tem, the following specifications concerning

the cupola operation had to be

complied with:

» absolute availability

» constant conveying of powder at

a requested rate between 100 and

500 kg/h within the shortest possible


» dosing precision

» continuous gravimetric measurement

and verification of the quantities


» optimal distribution of the pulverized

fuel to six furnace lines

Due to the positive experience with

the dispensing units used in the Linde

foundry in Weilbach, the basic concept

of this solution was adapted to the

requirements of the Gienanth project.

The dispensing unit was accordingly

adapted and optimized.

Despite the already good flow behaviour

of pulverized petcoke, further

measures were adopted to optimize the

material flow. In addition to modifications

affecting the volume and the geometry,

also mechanical and pneumatic

measures were implemented.

The dispensing unit installed at

Gienanth feeds via three outlets

( Figure 1) which can be coupled with

one another as desired. The current

feeding rate is continuously measured

by gravimetric weighing devices

and checked versus the quantities

required. The conveying accuracy is

higher than 95 %. The target value is

attained in less than three minutes.

The smoothness of the conveying

process allows the use of a manifold

to distribute the pulverized material

into the six furnace lines. Speed flow

meters monitor the even distribution

of the pulverized coke in the feeding

lines (Figure 2).

The entire plant is operated and

controlled via the control room of

the cupola plant. The feeding rate of

pulverized petcoke is set according

to the melting rate, which in turn is

determined by the quantities of added

hot blast and oxygen. Further important

criteria are the CO/CO 2


in the top gas, the combustion

chamber temperature and other parameters.

Petcoke rate

ETA in %

C in %















Petcoke rate

Natural gas

Comb. chamber temp.


( Comb. chamber

temp. )

Figure 7: The petcoke rate indirectly controls the C content of the iron and

the consumption of natural gas

Specifications of the conveying


When the new process was implemented,

the specifications concerning the



C %

08:38 08:45 08:52 09:00 09:07 09:14 09:21

Figure 8: Effect of ETA V on carburization

Comb. chamber








08:24 09:36 10:48 12:00 13:12 14:24 15:36 16:48 18:00


Figure 9: Carbon analyses with and without TDI-PET



Natural gas


Carbon content in %

accuracy of the conveying equipment

were redefined. This was necessary because

even very small variations would

affect the metallurgy of the melt and

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 35


the furnace operation. The conveying

system, developed by Dako, today operates

with an accuracy of < 5 % petcoke.

There is a direct relationship between

the Boudouard reaction and the

amount of petcoke added (Figure 3).

The basis: TDI-PET technology

Figure 4 shows the TDI-PET installation

at the penstock above the water

seal trough and below the hot blast

duct and the expansion joint. Directly

above the inspection flap, a steel

pipe feeds the petcoke to the oxygen

system. The TDI blowing nozzle injection

system has been arranged to the

right of the penstock.

Runner iron temp. in °C






Runner iron-temp. with HIGHJET TDI PET

As shown in Figure 5, this design allows

the fuel – in this case, pulverized petcoke

– to be guided to the respective TDI-PET

burner lances and carried along by the

HighJet stream. This stream is characterized

by a high impulse and a high

oxygen content. Consequently, a mixture

of pulverized petcoke, pneumatic

air and oxygen can be injected into the

cupola by a high impulse, facilitating

a very deep penetration into the shaft

furnace, whilst optimally exploiting the

energy contained in the fuel.

Thus, the energy required to melt

the charge is not only provided by the

foundry coke but also by the solids injected

by the TDI-PET burner lances.

This allows the furnace operation to

be optimized and the coke rate further

reduced. It is deemed realistic that up

to 22 % of foundry coke can be saved,

depending on the amount of initially

charged coke. Of course, each furnace

must be considered separately.

Figure 6 shows the arrangement

of the TDI-PET lance inside the water-cooled

cooper nozzle. An advantage

is that the injection speed of the

PET 1.25 %


Runner iron-temp. without HIGHJET TDI PET


08:24 09:36 10:48 12:00 13:12 14:24 15:36 16:48 18:00


Figure 10: Effect on the runner iron temperature (idealized time line)

CO in %






Burner on

Burner on


Burner on Burner on Burner on


08:24 09:36 10:48 12:00 13:12 14:24 15:36 16:48 18:00


Figure 11: Effect on CO content in the top gas (idealized time line)

pulverized petcoke is much higher

than the hot blast speed in the copper

nozzle. At the relining intervals, no

significant wear was observed at the

injection system.

Figure 7 illustrates and describes the

principle of using pulverized petcoke

as fuel.

Results of the TDI-PET technology

– sulfur analysis

Due to the fact that pulverized petcoke

contains up to 2.5 % of sulfur, special

attention was placed on the sulfur

analysis. It turned out that the sulfur

has no effect whatsoever.

During the long-time operation of

the furnace, it could be proved without

doubt that the higher sulfur contents

posed no problem. During five months

of grey cast iron production, an increase

by not more than 0.0063 % was

determined. In case of ductile iron, the

value was 0.005 over the same period.

Any variations are the result of variations

in the coke quality. Obviously, a

slightly higher part of the metallurgical

sulfur is discharged via the slag and the

top gas. However, the quantities are below

the respective limits of detection.

Petcoke – effect on efficiency

and carburization

A key factor for the proper application of

the petcoke technology is to understand

the furnace-specific processes going on

when petcoke is charged, especially in

cases where the furnaces are operated

with reduced rates of foundry coke.

Continuous measurements of the

CO and CO 2

concentrations in the top

gas between the below-charge take-off

and the combustion chamber helped

to optimize the furnace operation and

made any negative influences immediately

obvious. While Figure 7 illustrates

how petcoke can influence the

iron chemistry, Figure 8 shows that the

operation with petcoke does actually

have a decisive effect.

Analyses of the runner iron typically

reveal fluctuating carbon contents,

which cannot be avoided due to

the specifics of the furnace operation.

However, by the objective use of petcoke,

these analysis fluctuations can be

kept within closer tolerances ( Figure 9).

36 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

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steel quality and environmental compatibility, and simultaneously stand for

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Complete product range

and tailored solutions for

Heavy Duty Magnets.

Effect of petcoke on the runner

iron temperature

In the case of reducing the coke charge

by approximately 18 % and adding

< 12.5 % of petcoke, it had to be made

sure that it would be possible to raise

temperature-related problems during

restarting could be significantly eased.

The long-term analysis showed that the

mean temperature of the runner iron in

the case of grey iron was 7 °C higher as

a result of the petcoke. The described

Design, Manufacturing,

Commissioning, Overhaul,

Maintenance, Spare Parts.

Combustion chamber temp. in °C







Comb. chamber temp. with HIGHJET TDI PET

Comb. chamber temp. without


08:24 09:36 10:48 12:00 13:12 14:24 15:36 16:48 18:00


Figure 12: Effect on the combustion chamber temperature

Economic basis

• Coke reduction: 18.5 % of charge coke

• Petcoke feeding*: 12.5 % of charge coke

• Substitution rate: < 70 %

• Beneficial effects on CO 2

emissions and improved combustion to be proved under

production conditions

Metallurgical basis

• No changes to furnace campaigns (as of April 2014)

• Stable runner iron temperature of > 1,505° C

Metallurgical basis

• CO in crude gas: up to approx. 1 % increase (despite coke substitution)

• Reduced external energy input in the combustion chamber

• Improved Si combustion

• Improved temperature control

• Fast attainment of suitable “metallurgical” condition during restarts after furnace stops

(grey iron)

* Petcoke is available on the market at much lower costs than foundry coke.

Table 1: Oberview of the plants parameters

WOKO Magnet- und

Anlagenbau GmbH

Theodor-Heuss-Strasse 57

47167 Duisburg


Phone +49 203 48275.0

Fax +49 203 48275.25



the runner iron temperature to a higher

level, because in the specific case the

cupola operation was interrupted several

times during the day. Operation

had to be restarted with a lower coke

charge potential, hence a lower energy

potential. The petcoke proved to be

a reliable tool here. Compared to the

original situation, it was possible to

reach a higher energy level after the offtimes

much quicker (Figure 10). The

reactions may vary depending on the

quality of the foundry coke.

Influence of the petcoke on the

combustion chamber temperature

and the CO content

Generally, a reduced coke charge raises

the requirement of an external energy

input. For environmental reasons, it is

necessary in most cases to have combustion

chamber temperatures of more

Woko.indd 1 15.08.13 10:03

38 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

X:\00-Küttner-Image\00_CDR-Dateien\2012-Giesserei-85 x260.cdr

Freitag, 15. Mai 2015 15:53:21

Farbprofil: Deaktiviert

Composite Standardbildschirm

than 890 °C to reliably keep the residual CO content in 95 the

clean gas at the stack at >150 mg/m 3 .


A falling combustion chamber temperature leads to a

significant increase in external energy input. Also after a

furnace stop, it takes some time to bring the combustion

chamber back to the required temperature and achieve 25

high hot blast temperatures. Figure 11 shows that especially

after furnace stops and the consequently low energy


content of the top gas it was necessary to add the required


energy by activating the main burner.

By injecting petcoke during the furnace start, the energy

content of the top gas can be raised faster, minimizing the

power-on time of the main burner. The result is an overall

higher temperature level. ( Figure 12)

Approaches to automation

When petcoke injection was introduced in long-time operation,

it could be proved that it was never possible to guarantee

that the foundry coke was properly metered and charged

depending on the weight of the metal charge. This may result

in energy fluctuations of up to 10%, as was revealed by

tracking the energy contents of the charges or batches all

the way down to the melting zone. These variations in energy

efficiency result in different energy contents in the top

gas (CO, CO 2

) and different combustion behaviour of the

charged materials, especially silicon. As a rule, during these

phases there is no reacting with the furnace blast or oxygen.

The companies Gienanth and Linde have been working successfully

on the development of solutions.


The TDI-PET technology developed by Linde facilitates

the use of petcoke as a cost-efficient fuel for foundry shaft

furnaces through the employment of innovative burner

lances and the specific conveying technology provided

by the company Dako. The above presented intermediate

results (as of March 2014) obtained during a one-year

industrial-scale field test under production conditions in

three-shift operation at the iron foundry Gienanth prove

the potentials of this process. One result is the positive

influence on the runner iron temperature. The tests also

proved that any negative effects of the sulfur content in

the petcoke could be reliably precluded.

Operation of the furnace with a reduced coke rate here


still means that the coke rate includes a “safety buffer”,

which in the event of a plant failure guarantees that until 95

conventional furnace operation with a high coke rate has


been resumed the “situation” in the furnace is such that

there will be no harmful effects on the furnace and the

quality of the iron. Such situation was produced on purpose.

The resulting repercussions on the iron chemistry 25

were manageable. However, this problem could be completely

eliminated by providing a backup petcoke supply


system for emergency situations.




Good reasons for good castings!

Meet our experts on

METEC / GIFA Dusseldorf

June 16th to 20th, 2015

stand 4C28

Küttner GmbH & Co. KG, Essen info@kuettner.com

Phone +49 (0)201 7293 0 www.kuettner.com

stand 16G26



Batching of scrap and alloys

Fully-automatic charging


Large charging cars for

induction furnaces

Bucket transportation



Cold-blast cupolas

Hot-blast cupolas for

long-campaign operation

Atmospheric or pressurized

syphon design

Oxygen injection systems

Carbon injection systems



Shake-out conveyor

Castings cooling equipment

Green sand preparation with

Fluid-bed coolers

Continuous mixers for

No bake systems

Shake-out stations

Sand reclamation


Pouring units

Casting machines of hot

mould / de Lavaud-type for:

drain / pressure water pipe

cylinder liners

liners & pipes in

special alloys

Electric control with HMI

Auxiliary systems


Plant modernization today –

a challenge for Furnace

Engineering Companies like

IST-Technology by KUETTNER.













Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 39

Detail view of a pressure die cast

structural component (Photos +

Graphics: Kind & Co Edelstahlwerk)

Author: Ingolf Schruff, Kind & Co., Edelstahlwerk, GmbH & Co. KG, Wiehl

Pressure die cast structural components

for lightweight automotive


The European Union’s commitment to carbon reduction requires the automotive industry to

bring down CO 2

emissions from new passenger cars down to 95 g/km by the year 2020. The

consistent implementation of lightweight design in automotive engineering has a direct positive

impact on CO 2

emissions. This was motivation during the last few years to strongly promote the

use of pressure die cast structural components made of light metal

Pressure die casting competes with

alternative techniques, such as tailored

blanks – i.e. parts made by joining

steel sheets of special properties

to meet specific requirements of use –

or press-hardened high-strength steel

sheets. Pressure die cast structural components

can only succeed in this competitive

environment if high-capacity,

reliable dies are available. The key advantage

of pressure die cast structural

components over alternative solutions

is that they are made to high precision

and are virtually ready for installation.

Compared to tailored blanks, many

manufacturing steps can be dispensed


Pressure die cast structural


Today, a wide range of automotive

structural components are pressure

die cast, for example, pillars, various

beams, strut mounts and even complete

frames for side and rear doors.

While this type of pressure die cast

components initially used to be installed

primarily in premium-class vehicles,

today they are also employed in

many middle-class cars.

The high complexity of these parts is

an extremely challenging task for die

casters, die makers and steel producers.

Ribbings in the castings are prone

to cause localized stress peaks. Side and

rear doors are frame-type constructions.

During casting only relatively

small volumes of the die are in contact

with the casting alloy, making it very

40 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Steel grade

Alloying contents in % by mass

Mat. no. Brand Short name C Si Mn P S Cr Mo V Nb

1.2343 USN X37CrMoV5-1 0.38 1.00 0.40 < 0.020


Mat. no Brand

Thermal conductivity in W/m x K

20 °C 200 °C 400 °C

1.2343 USN 26.8 27.8 27.3

1.2367 USD 29.9 32.1 32.4

--- TQ 1 29.5 30.5 30.5

--- HP 1 29.8 31.0 31.4

Table 2: Thermal conductivity of hot working steels for pressure die casting

dies. All steels hardened and tempered to 45 HRC


Figure 2: Thermal shock resistance of

steels 1.2343 (top), TQ 1/ HP 1 (middle)

and HTR (bottom). Crack formation

due to thermal shock and mean

crack length in mm. Testing conditions:

all steels hardened and tempered

to 45 HRC; testing temperature:

600 °C/water, 4,000 cycles


Figure 3: CCT diagrams for steels TQ 1 (top) and HP 1 (bottom)

(Figure 1c) because the die inserts are

subjected to high sudden mechanical

loads at each shot. Steel 1.2343 features

the highest impact strength of the

three standard alloys. Based on specimens

of identical hardness, the impact

strength of the three alloys decreases

in the sequence: 1.2343 => 1.2344 =>

1.2367. The impact strength values of

two special hot working steels TQ 1 and

HP 1 are both at the same level, about

25 % higher than the corresponding

value for alloy 1.2343. This comparison

of the key mechanical properties

illustrates the exceptional blend

of properties found in the steels TQ 1

and HP 1.

Especially for the casting of exposed

parts, thermal shock resistance is a

crucial property of the hot working

steels used to make the casting dies.

The images in Figure 2 show thermal

shock-induced cracks in specimens of

the described steel grades. The mean

length of each crack is indicated in

the blue bar. Hot working steel 1.2343

is used as a reference. The significantly

better thermal shock resistance of TQ 1

and HP 1 is obvious. Steel HTR, which

is also shown in this comparison, has

been developed for applications with

extremely exacting requirements on

hot working strength and thermal conductivity.

However, for inserts in dies

for casting structural components this

steel is of less importance.

In pressure die casting dies, thermal

conductivity plays a key role for various

reasons. Firstly, it is responsible for

the heat transfer from the alloy into

the cooling channels and, secondly,

it contributes to the alleviation of local

temperature peaks and a decrease

in temperature-induced stresses in the

dies. The thermal conductivity values

of the here discussed steels are compiled

in Table 2.

42 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015




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The comparison reveals that TQ 1

and HP 1 feature property blends far

superior to those of the three standard

hot working steels 1.2343, 1.2344 and

1.2367. Between TQ 1 and HP 1, the differences

in the described properties are

only minor. This raises the question of

selection criteria between the two steels.

Due to their special blend of properties,

both steels are extremely well

suited for making pressure die casting

dies for structural components. A distinction

between the two steels can be

made based on the thickness of the

die inserts. To clarify this distinction,

in Figure 3 we have plotted the continuous

cooling diagrams (CCT curves) of

the two steel grades.

In both cases, the CCT curves are typical

curves of martenisitic hot working

steels. However, the difference between

the two is that the bainitic transformation

starts at different points in time.

While in the case of TQ 1, the bainitic

phase is likely to form after about 2,500

s, in the case of HP 1, this is likely to occur

as early as after 800 s. This time difference

of 28 min is crucial especially

to the solidification of thick-walled inserts

because, in order to achieve high

toughness of the material, everything

possible should be done to ensure that

during solidification the steel microstructure

transforms completely to the

martensitic phase. Bainite transformation

starting at a later stage, facilitates

the desired transformation to the martensitic

phase especially in the core

area of thick-walled die parts. From

this, the following recommendations

Figure 4: Modern vacuum hardening furnace at Kind & Co. for pressure die

casting dies weighing up to 6,000 kg (Photo: Georg Fischer AG)

Mat. no Short name Brand Hardening temperature

in °C

Holding time

in min

1.2343 X37CrMoV5-1 USN 1000 45

1.2344 X40CrMoV5-1 USD 1020 45

1.2367 X38CrMoV5-3 RPU 1030 45

--- --- TQ 1 1010 60

--- --- HP 1 1020 60

--- --- HTR 1060 60

Table 3: Recommended parameters for vacuum hardening pressure die casting


can be derived: Use HP 1 preferably for

die inserts up to approx. 200 mm thick;

beyond that thickness use TQ 1.

TQ 1 should also be used for smaller

die inserts with extremely filigree engraved

structures that require a maximum

of toughness.

To summarize the recommendations:

HP 1 is suitable for die inserts of

up to 200 mm thickness for structur-

44 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

al components which have to comply

with exacting requirements in terms

of toughness and surface quality. TQ1

is recommended to be used for dies

which have to comply with extremely

exacting requirements in terms of

toughness and surface quality, and

particularly for die inserts of greater

thickness. TQ 1 has also proved to be

more appropriate for die inserts with

pronounced height offsets or a jagged

surface structure.

These steels feature a useful

hardness typically ranging between

44 and 46 HRC. In order

to cater to specific properties,

the values can be lower or

higher. The choice should always

be based on a joint decision

by the steel producer, die

maker, hardening shop and


The die inserts can exhibit

the desired properties only

after an appropriate heat

treatment. For the vacuum

hardening treatment of pressure

die casting dies, special

steelmaker Kind & Co.

recommends the temperatures

and holding times compiled

in Table 3. The company’s

modern, high-capacity

vacuum hardening shop can

heat treat pressure die casting

dies weighing up to 6,000 kg

(Figure 4).


Extremely exacting demands

are placed on dies used for

the production of pressure

die cast structural components

due to their size and

their often highly sophisticated

design. Common standard

hot working steels cannot

guarantee compliance

with these demands. In contrast,

the special hot working

steels TQ 1 and HP 1 offer a

significantly improved combination

of properties, such

as increased toughness, higher

hot working strength, better

thermal shock resistance

and improved thermal conductivity.

The choice between these

two steel grades basically depends on

the thickness of the die inserts to be


Provided that they have been properly

heat treated, die inserts made of

these steels make a major contribution

to the cost-efficient production

Our value

adding solutions

for your process

of pressure die cast structural components

made of light metals.




Meet us at GIFA in Dusseldorf

Germany: June 16 – 20, 2015

Hall 12 / Booth A22

Our services provide you with real added value.

ASK Chemicals experts look forward to hearing from you:

Phone: +49 211 71103-0

E-Mail: addedvalue@ask-chemicals.com


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 45


Authors: Dr. Carsten Schmalhorst, AVL Deutschland GmbH, Munich, Dr. David Greif, AVLAST d.o.o., Maribor, Slovenia

Numerical simulation of the

quench ing process for castings

using AVL FIRE

Motor downsizing and weight-reduction measures have increasingly led to material failures. Automotive

producers have therefore sought ways to optimize their heat treatment processes. AVL

List GmbH, based in Graz in Austria, has developed an innovative solution to meet this need and

integrated it in their AVL FIRE 3-D CFD software

With this software solution a precise

advance calculation of the transient

cooling process of the quenched component

can be made through accurate

modelling of the various boiling

phases that occur during quenching.

Methods of computational fluid dynamics

(CFD) have been used during

the development of a wide range of

vehicle components for decades. This

new type of process, developed at AVL

to simulate the quenching of metal

parts, contributes towards reducing

residual stress in complex components

such as cylinder heads.

Downsizing and weight-reduction

measures have hitherto repeatedly led

to material failures in the critical areas

of highly stressed components – failures

that cannot be traced back to the

operational loads alone. Thus, for example,

valve bridges require special attention

because residual stresses could

potentially superimpose the operational

loads as a result of the heat treatment

of the casting. The software precisely

calculates the cooling history of the

Well-known OEMs and suppliers such as Volkswagen, Ford, HMC and Nemak already successfully use AVL FIRE for optimizing

quenching processes (Photos: AVL LIST)

46 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

quenched component in advance, providing

the necessary prerequisites for

analyzing thermal loads and deformations

that occur during heat treatment.

The quenching of castings is a highly

dynamic process: immediately after

immersion into the liquid the solid

body is covered by a film of steam that

acts as an insulator, preventing rapid

heat dissipation. The vapor blanket

breaks down after a while and there is

a transition to so-called nucleate boiling.

This results in improved contact

with the cooling medium – typically

water or oil – and the amount of heat

dissipation increases greatly. Now rising

bubbles of vapor can hinder the

flow of coolant to the higher-lying regions

of the component, further slowing

down the cooling process. All these

effects lead to local temperature differences

in the component and thus to

uneven local expansion of the material.

These variations in expansion lead

to plastic deformations which, in turn,

cause the residual stresses (Figure 1).

AVL FIRE ensures the precise calculation

of the various regimes of the complex

boiling process, the spread of vapor

bubbles and the simultaneous

cooling processes taking place in the

component. The temperature distribution

in the component provided by

this flow simulation now serves as an

input value for simulating stress-strain

states. Whereby a non-linear material

law determines the plastic deformations.

For this purpose, AVL has developed

strain-rate-dependent material

laws that can represent the material

properties based on the rate of change

of strain. This simulation step is carried

out separately from the flow simulation

with suitable commercial finite-element

method codes (Figure 2).

The stress calculation can only reflect

the pure quenching process or addi-

Figure 1: View of the simulated steam on the hot component surface

Figure 2: One cylinder head, two submerging

directions, two stress states:

immersed in a water bath via the oil

gallery (left), or via the inlet port side


GIFA · Hall 10 · Booth A 49

THERMPROCESS · Hall 9 · Booth A 32

Non-contact and wear-free

temperature measurement

of liquid metals

• Portable and stationary pyrometers

• Rectangular panoramic measuring field

• Sighting options: through-the-lens or

video camera with HDR technology



info@keller-msr.de · www.keller-msr.com


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 47






Die Zeitschrift für Technik, Innovation und Management

Auch als



12. March



With product flexibility

towards smaller

batch sizes export




6. Januar



SINCE 1914


International foundry competence –

printed or digital


always on the cutting edge of technology! Supported by

the successful GIESSEREI family, the English- language

journal discovers the latest technology trends and offers

specialist knowledge and interviews with top decision

makers in the industry - read the CP + T in the

proven print format or as a free e-paper!



1 2015







die neuen



Print &


17. Februar



Das Fachmagazin

für Praktiker


Volume 66

Quarter 1

ISSN 0046-5993


online and mobile!

Access the website www.cpt-international.com

and click on the e-paper

button! You can enjoy the magazine on

your PC or download it as a PDF file.



tional downstream heat treatment and

processing steps, depending on the application

case. Completion of the simulation

chain provides an overview of

residual deformation as illustrated in

Figure 2 (here inflated 50-fold), and

the local stresses as shown in Figure 3.

These residual stresses can be superimposed

on the component loads so that

the total load of the workpiece becomes

visible. Ideally, pressure-related residual

stresses are, for example, superimposed

on tensile loads here, providing

overall relief for operation of the component.

This effect is known as autofrettage

from pipeline construction, for example.

The long-term aim is to be able

to arrange processes on the basis of additional

analysis methods so that the

residual stress generated works against

operational loads. In this way less material

could be used and the reliability of

the component is increased (Figure 3).

Figure 3: von Mises comparative stresses after completion of the quenching

process: immersed via the oil gallery (left), or via the intake port side (right)

Simulation of the quenching process

permits the analysis of residual stresses

and enables the evaluation of counter-measures,

such as definition of the

optimum submerging direction, cooling

agent temperature and a modulated

flow of coolant. It is also possible to

examine questions of whether component

geometry changes – perhaps

through additional ribs – can prevent

flows during quenching and thus influence

the residual stresses. This could

both reduce the extent of the residual

stresses and positively influence their


Simulation of immersion quenching

can be obtained from AVL as a service,

or AVL FIRE can be licensed for use.


Innovative solutions for the foundry and forge

industry from the world´s leader!

We are going to

present in Hall 16

Stand G40:





CastingPlant_Ausgabe02.indd 1 12.05.2015 15:00:33

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 49

The aluminum melt at 700 °C is decanted from the furnace (from Støtek in Vojens, Denmark) into a small ladle. The

melt was previously degassed using an impeller (Photos: Andreas Bednareck)

Authors: Robert Piterek, German Foundry Association, Düsseldorf

Exploring tomorrow’s technologies

The foundry supplier Foseco has a new research and development center in the Dutch town of

Enschede. The facility is intended to gain a holistic understanding of customers’ production processes

and undertake a forward-looking redevelopment of products

Almost no other foundry supplier has

as large a portfolio of products as

Foseco, the Foundry Division of Britain’s

Vesuvius Group. It ranges from

binding agents and coatings; through

feeding and filtration systems, and melt

treatment technology; to melting crucibles,

ladle linings and measuring equipment

of all sorts. Foseco is the market

leader in many of these product areas,

and a serious competitor in the others.

With its 3,500 employees worldwide

and the support of its ‘big brother’ Vesuvius

(with a worldwide workforce of

11,000), Foseco is an important player

on the market – and intends to remain

so during coming decades.

Appropriate location with optimum


Continuous further development of the

company and its products will no longer

be enough if Foseco and Vesuvius want

to maintain and expand their technological

lead. The company’s Global R&D

Director, Pavel Holub, is convinced of

this. “The aim must be to change the

viewpoint and direct our attention to

tomorrow’s technologies and the socalled

game-changers, i.e. technologies

and developments with wide-ranging

potentials for change.” The company

has meanwhile reacted by opening a

new five-million-euro research and development

center in the Dutch town

of Enschede, a few kilometers from the

German border. It is a modern building

constructed on grounds totaling

about 4,500 m², with offices, laboratories

and a test foundry. The building

was originally used by another company

as its headquarters, for its chemical

industry pilot plants and for constructing

machinery. Now only the façade

reflects the building’s former history –

the interior has been completely redeveloped.

The campus of the University

of Twente is nearby, a prestigious university

that is also active in the fields of

inorganic chemistry and nanotechnology

– areas of fundamental interest for

Foseco. The R&D center has been built

50 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

ight next to the football stadium of

FC Twente, a club in the Dutch Honorary

Division, which first became Netherlands’

champion in the 2009/2010

season. The new research center is just

10 kilometers from Hengelo, Foseco’s

Dutch production site for coatings and

binders, and 45 minutes from the company’s

German headquarters in Borken

in Münsterland. An excellent location

therefore, with optimum conditions for

researching tomorrow’s technologies.

Concentrated research and expertise

In order to create the prerequisites for

a modern R&D institute with a holistic

research approach, the fundamental research

on binders and coatings moved

from Hengelo to Enschede and experts

in the important area of research on filters

and feeders in Borken were recruited

for the center. “Research and expertise

have now been consolidated in one

location,” polymer chemist Holub emphasizes

proudly. “In order to better understand

our customers’ processes we

also use comparable equipment.” The

Czech Holub is not the only researcher

in Enschede with a foreign background:

the 26 top-flight scientists so

far recruited for the research team come

from eight different countries, including

France, Poland, the Netherlands, the

UK, Nigeria and Germany. They speak

English with one another. Enschede offers

another locational advantage for international

teams like this one: an international

school. Four more technicians

are currently being sought.

Exterior view of the building: the grounds total 4,500 m², the casting hall and

laboratories take up 700 m² and the offices 800 m²

The creative impulse for the technologies of tomorrow should originate in this

room: CP+T Editor Robert Piterek, Project Manager Dr. Fabian Sander, Managing

Director Heinz Nelissen and Head of Research Pavel Holub (from left to right)

visit the brainstorming room in Foseco’s new research and development center

Giving free rein to creativity

Dr. Fabian Sander, Development Scientist

and Project Manager in the areas of

feeders and processes, guides through

the new building. The first stop is the

so-called brainstorming room, in which

the researchers come up with creative

solutions for future challenges in foundries

and steelworks. “Between 10 and

20 % of their working time is available

for brainstorming,” explains Dr. Sander,

who commutes from the German border

town of Gronau to Enschede for his

new task. Green floor, orange walls, blue

sky and a big whiteboard – the winner of

an interior design competition (specially

organized by Foseco) came up with

the color scheme and spatial designs of

the brainstorming room, as well as all

the other interior areas of the research

center. Dr. Sander describes how the creative

process is approached here: “The

brain is basically relatively lazy. When

someone starts to tackle a new problem

they first exploit their wealth of experience.

There are, however, techniques

that help empty the brain first. This

takes about one hour – then we are ready

for new paths to problem-solving!” In

practice, this frequently means that

the researchers write loads of Post-it

notes during the idea-finding stage and

then sift out the unrealistic approaches,

gradually separating the wheat from

the chaff. “Rooms like this one are still

rather unusual in this sector, but VW

and BMW – upon whom we orient ourselves

– also have them,” emphasizes

Martin Scheidtmann, Foseco’s Head of


Foseco not only exploits the latest

knowledge on creativity, but also the

most modern techniques regarding

communication: regular link-ups with

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 51


In the lobby of the R&D Center there are cozy sitting areas as well as exhibits

from Foseco’s product range

There are four melting furnaces in the casting hall. The Initek converter is in

the foreground

other research institutes, Foseco sites

and customers take place in the neighboring

video conference room. This permits

the center to access a wide-ranging

network of contacts. Foseco alone employs

about 130 to 150 personnel in research

– mostly in the Netherlands,

France, England, and in the US town

of Pittsburgh, where research focuses

on crucibles and refractory products.

There are another 34 Foseco sites worldwide.

Diagrams can be hand-drawn on

the enormous, almost futuristic, touchscreen

monitor in the conference room

so conference participants can work

with one another from anywhere and

access the drawings or PowerPoint presentations


Research with test castings

At the heart of research activities in Enschede,

however, is the test foundry

with its four furnaces for iron, steel and

aluminum. The hall is about twelve meters

from top to bottom. From the gallery

on the first floor, Foundry Foreman

Niek Bruinewoud looks somewhat

lost amongst the four furnaces lined

up next to one another and the caster

clad in silver protective equipment.

A hall crane with a load capacity of 2

x 10 t is mounted on the ceiling. “We

run a 500 kg induction furnace here, a

250 kg furnace for iron and steel, as well

as one 500 kg and one 50 kg aluminum

furnace,” Dr. Sander counts them off.

“These furnace sizes are the right compromise

because otherwise we would

have too much material,” adds Holub.

Tests under serial conditions must still,

however, be carried out at customers’

sites. Foundry Foreman Bruinewoud

and his colleagues Marvin and Bertus,

who were still working in Hengelo until

late November last year, are preparing

an aluminum casting with which

the effectiveness of Foseco melt degassing

is to be tested. In the case of this degassing,

an impeller, hydrogen among

others, is used during removal of the

aluminum melt, significantly improv-

Foseco Germany Managing Director

Heinz Nelissen (left) and the Foundry

Foreman Niek Bruinewoud just

before a test casting

52 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

ing the quality of the melt. One area

of sales could be the automotive industry,

where weight-optimized aluminum

castings are produced using this treated

melt. Another innovation is in the

middle of the hall: an Initek converter

for treating iron melts. “This converter

produces spheroidal graphite cast iron.

The design allows magnesium treatment

with a high yield. The searingly

bright reaction of the magnesium with

the iron takes place within the converter,”

Heinz Nelissen, Foseco’s Managing

Director Germany, describes the exhibit

– which will be shown at GIFA this summer.

The Initek converter is not entirely

new – it was already one of the company’s

highlights at the world’s most

important foundry sector trade fair

in 2011. “But we have been able to reduce

process temperatures and further

optimize the safety aspects,” Nelissen

explains the advantages of the roughly

two-meter tall steel monster. Apropos

GIFA – the international foundry

fair is of particular importance for the

universal foundry supplier Foseco: the

foundry and steel experts from Vesuvius

will have four stands for the trade fair

quartet in Düsseldorf in June – at GIFA,


Schools Program. According to Holub,

“exciting new developments” are to be

expected in the area of inorganic binders.

State-of-the-art apparatus

In terms of dimensions and volume, the

core shooting machine in the neighboring

room is the same size as a plant in

an aluminum or iron foundry. It masters

all common processes, such as cold- and

hot-box processes, and can handle tools

of up to 12 liters. Small batches of cores

are made here with new binder recipes.

All the necessary examinations of the

cores can then be undertaken straight

away. Dr. Sander: “After coating, we can

do the casting and carry out tests in our

center’s own laboratories. The dip test,

for example, with which we find out

how the metal sticks to the core and

whether metal penetrates the core.”

State-of-the-art apparatus can also

be found in the numerous laboratories

in which cores are examined, for

example, for their storability in oth-

The casters in Enschede carefully fill the molds with aluminum melt

Satisfied faces after the casting: Heinz Nelissen (left), Process Control

Manager Torben Hanson (center), and Pavel Holub

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 53


Manuel Le Borgne from France

(right) and Ugo Nwaogu from

Nigeria examine a sample

er climatic zones. Comprehensive examinations

of coatings are also carried

out here, e.g. the sedimentation test

to measure the stability of coating dispersions

over time, which chemist Michael

Smola from Poland is currently

doing on a bright white laboratory

bench. Smola was in China for Foseco

for one year and then worked at the

Hengelo site. At another workbench

Marloes Goorhuis is determining the

optimum contact angle between liquid

and solid with a wettability test – an experiment

that will provide information

on the best possible spraying angle for

coatings. Goorhuis was glad to swap her

workplace in Hengelo for a job at Foseco’s

new site in Enschede – she studied

here and likes the town.

Holistic understanding of production


Ugo Nwaogu from Nigeria is preparing

samples for examination in the metallurgy

laboratory. “Until recently Ugo

was working in Denmark,” Scheidtmann

reveals. The mechanical properties

of binders and coatings are determined

here and the dilatometer, for

example, provides values on heat resistance:

the device heats the samples

and then tests their deformability.

A special highlight awaits visitors

completing their tour – the analytical

laboratory with some of the world’s

most modern electron microscopes, e.g.

the scanning electron microscope from

Zeiss with its energy dispersive X-ray

spectroscopy sensor (EDX). The device

has the largest sensor area currently

commercially available, and efficiently

and rapidly determines the elemental

composition of metallic samples. Or

an electron microscope for statistically

analyzing melt quality, at which the

Dutchman Dr. Emiel Speets is carrying

out a statistical analysis of aluminum

samples that have just been cast: “We

can use statistical analyses to prove the

long-term quality of our degassed aluminum

melt,” says Dr. Speets.

Foseco’s new research and development

center in Enschede permits the

company to make progress towards a

holistic understanding of customers’

production processes. This also helps

fulfil Holub’s professional goal: “I want

to surprise our customers with the developments

from Enschede. When

they look at our solutions they should

think, “Oh, I never thought of that!”


Pavel Holub, Robert Piterek, René Tamboer and Dr. Fabian Sander (from left to right) at the Zeiss electron microscope

54 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Visit us on GIFA in Düsseldorf / Germany

June 16 - 20, 2015

Hall 16 · Stand 16C04

“Critical mass for R&D”

Interview with Pavel Holub, Global Head of Research of Foseco

The Managing Director of Vesuvius

in Borken, Mr. Nelissen, has said that

the research institute is a milestone

for maintaining the company’s technological

leadership. How do you,

Mr. Holub, see this as Global Head

of Research?

A challenging question. Within Vesuvius,

we reviewed the leading position

on the market. Given our fragmented

R&D we concluded that we are much

more focused on incremental development.

There was thus a need to change

the scope and change the view and

look more towards the technologies of

tomorrow and for the game changers

in industry. As a result, we developed

the whole R&D strategy of Vesuvius

including Foundry, and therefore Foseco.

One of the conclusions was the

need to create a global R&D and examine

the global problems of our customers,

creating a critical mass in one

location and putting all the technologies

in one place. Once we decided to

create a team and build an R&D center

the next step was to determine where

that would be. The first decision was

to do it in Europe, close to our major

customers. Our most innovative major

customers are in Germany. But we

were also considering an international

team. Then the choice was the Netherlands.

It’s much easier to bring the

people here and let them settle, with

international schools, universities,

etc. We’re very happy to be here.

I am curious about the new services

announced for the foundry industry,

of which you spoke at the opening

of the institute. What is that about?

That’s really looking at our business

from a different point-of-view – that

we do not supply just products. We

want to have in-depth understanding.

That’s why we have a lot of people

in the field with the customers, to

understand their processes and then

transform them into new product

designs, delivering the whole package

to our customers or even helping

them to improve or develop their processes.

That’s what we call service. But

we maintain our teams in the different

countries. They will continue to

look at raw material substitution.

What exactly is improving in terms

of research at Foseco?

The first part is really the changing of

focus. We try to combine all the technologies

that we have in one center.

We also concentrated on open offices

in order to create a different working

situation and stimulate people to

talk about the products and improvements.

What really improved is the

creation of a critical mass and putting

people together to understand

the whole process.

How has Foseco conducted research

projects in the past?

In the past there was a decision to

decentralize R&D. Our labs and our

R&D were close to our customers but

we didn’t have the critical mass. Our

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 57


change of view is not looking at simply

coatings, binders, filters or feeding

systems. What we do is to look at

our customers and find out what kind

of castings they manufacture. “How

can we solve their problem?” is the

question we want to answer!

Employees are currently being hired

for the Institute. How many employees

will work in Enschede and how

many are already there?

The first part of strategy was based on

mapping our capabilities and we targeted

30 people to start with. However,

the building was designed for 50

people. So the space is there if there

is a need in the future.

Do you have more plans in mind?

There are always opportunities! They

come with the service model, with

which we want to understand more

and more what the trends are. 3-D

printing might be another trend. We

cannot avoid looking at that. Maybe

an adjacent market, either new technologies

inside or outside the foundry


What experts are you looking for?

In general we have a need for chemists,

material engineers, metallurgists.

It’s a bit difficult to find the right people

these days. You have many people

doing economics and law and there

are fewer and fewer people available.

Here in Holland you have quite a

lot of metallurgists but they are employed

in powder metallurgy – which

is a big industry here in the Netherlands.

More important for us is how

the people fit in the team!

How important is the university environment?

It is an important part for us. The University

of Enschede has a very good

background. But we also cooperate

with universities in Germany, in

France, in the US, in Japan. The direct

university environment will also

be a source of new employees in the

future. Enschede has a department

of inorganic chemistry and a strong

faculty of nanotechnology. This is interesting

for us in the future when it

comes to questions about how to manipulate

microstructures or improve

the castings and the processes.

Another research and development

center for crucible and refractory

products is located in Pittsburgh in

the United States. Will the two research

institutes cooperate?

The Pittsburgh R&D center focusses

on advanced refractories. It is a Division

of Vesuvius. We have 10 people

over there and work together closely.

On top of that we have quite some cooperation

across those teams.

The competition in many business

areas of Foseco (e.g. feeders, binder

systems and coatings) is large. Nowadays

one always has to keep one

step ahead of the competitors. What

research projects have this kind of


It is always good to have competition

because it reflects where you are. You

need to be ahead and that is the reason

why we built this center. There

are many interesting projects about

which I cannot disclose too much information.

There are many more players

in the field of inorganic binders

and Vesuvius/Foseco is not the market

leader there. Nonetheless, it is a

very important business for us and we

have exciting new outputs in this field

which we will present at the GIFA.

At the opening ceremony it was said

that the “technologies of tomorrow”

will come from Enschede. What exciting

new technologies are meant


One of the ideal cases will be binder

systems and there is the huge market

of cold box polyurethanes. However,

we are now talking about emissions

and the environmental aspects and

you have some nasty chemicals and

we burn them with the molten metal.

The question is whether we replace

that. The regulations will change and

we must be ready for that. This is one

of the holy grails, can we replace that

system? Ideally with inorganic binders,

but cost-effectively.

How important is 3-D printing for


It is a nice idea, but how can you translate

that into the final product? You

can do direct printing of the metal,

but then how do you center it, how

do you melt it and keep it in shape.

You have the machines for manufacturing

the cores, but then there are

questions regarding the type of resin,

etc. So there are a lot of issues we

have to look at. And maybe there is

even something different from 3-D

printing. For the next 10 to 20 years

this will not be competitive. But we

want to be ready. On the whole, I see

a greater need to address the environmental


And which of the planned projects

here in Enschede fascinate you the


I am a polymer chemist. I come from

a different business, so I am very interested

in the development of inorganic


You are Global Head of Research at

Foseco and will pursue your activities

from Enschede. Why from here

and not from Pittsburgh or London?

This is the center of excellence for

foundry-related research and this is

where I want to be.

What do you want the research institute

to accomplish for your company?

I want to surprise customers with the

developments from Enschede. I want

them to look at the new solutions and

think: “Oh, I never thought of that.”

That’s my goal!

What significance has the institute

on an international scale?

Within the foundry industry it is

quite significant to put people together

in one place. Within the current

situation there are not many companies

building new R&D centers. What

attracted me was the commitment of

Foseco and Vesuvius to R&D. And

there is a continuing engagement.

There are plans to build R&D centers

in the USA and in India.

58 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


16-20 JUNE 2015

Visit us hall 04, booth no. B35


Author: Christa Friedl, Johannesburg

More efficient melting with

German foundry technology

EffSAFound, Part 1: Emerging economies have a key role in climate protection and resource conservation.

The EffSAFound project of Germany’s Federal Ministry for Education and Research

(BMBF) is intended to help get South Africa’s important foundry industry off the ground with

German efficiency-enhancing technology

Leaden clouds hang low on this November

morning. The harsh wind blows

through the streets of Johannesburg

and forces the cold rain onto the car’s

windscreen. German autumn weather

in South Africa? In summer? “It’s not

so bad!” Palesa Riba laughs. Like all her

compatriots, the black African woman

from Johannesburg University is philosophical

about the weather: it is as it

is. The young chemical engineer and

foundry expert stops her BMW in front

of a large barrier at the Banoni industrial

estate, 20 km from the city centre.

A brief exchange with the security officer,

incomprehensible for Europeans,

and the bar rises. A German visitor is

nothing new for the man at the gate.

The Guestro foundry, located behind

the barrier, is one of nine companies

that have been taking part in a research

project since 2013, bringing South African

and German casters and experts

together for the first time.

According to business studies graduate

Manuel Bosse, who initiated the

project as an employee of the Düsseldorf-based

IfG-Service GmbH, the central

question for the EffSAFound project

is “How, and via which routes, can

efficient foundry technology be transferred

to South Africa in order to promote

climate protection and the conservation

of resources?”. EffSAFound

is financed with about 700,000 Euro

from the German Federal Ministry of

Education and Research, with a further

400,000 Euro from the German

companies involved and 100,000 Euro

The workers at Guestro insert freshly produced cores into the 35-year-old molding plant (Photos: Palesa Riba)

60 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

from South Africa’s Ministry of Industry.

In South Africa, 178 foundries with

about 15,000 employees currently produce

approximately 400,000 t of good

castings, of which 60 % are made from

ferrous materials and 40 % non-ferrous.

The nine foundries in the project

principally produce castings made

of high-chrome white cast iron for the

automotive, mining and power station

industries, and together represent over

half the iron castings market. Almost

all the foundries in South Africa were

politically and economically isolated

for decades, and little has improved

since the end of apartheid 20 years ago.

This becomes apparent at a glance

in the production halls of Guestro,

one of the country’s leading foundries

which mainly produces vehicle parts.

The dust hanging in the large foundry

hall is thick and impenetrable. There

are no filters or extraction systems.

The few, exclusively black, workers do

Many work steps are carried out by semi-skilled employees in South African

foundries – jobs are more important than productivity

Euromac - PP_CPT GIFA - 210x145mm - fiera_Layout 1 29/04/15 08:53 Pagina 1


• Core making machines

(shell process, croning, cold and hot box;

inorganic processes)

• Automatic green sand moulding lines

• Core sand preparation, mixing and

distribution plant

• Pouring, Treatment and automatic metal

Transfer plant

Hall 16

Stand H22-5

Euromac srl _ 36035 Marano Vic. (VI) Italy _ Via dell’Industria, 62 _ Tel +39 0445 637629 _ Fax +39 0445 639057 _ info@euromac-srl.it _ www.euromac-srl.it


» Optimization of the work processes:

HegerPro GmbH from Enkenbach

offers PC-supported tools with

which even those with low qualifications

can understand processes

and correctly operate plants. The

software also serves to train employees

with the help of pictures, animations,

videos and short texts.

» Material-efficient foundry sand management:

the Freudenberg-based

company GUT, together with IfG

Service GmbH and the Metal Casting

Technology Station (MCTS) of

Johannesburg University will construct

a sand regeneration plant to

prepare and recycle used sand.

Open-heart surgery: melting furnaces are also used without lids (here at

Guestro). No-one has yet worked out how much energy is lost in this way

not wear any protective clothing. Protective

glasses or gloves are only rarely

seen. Three of the six high-frequency

furnaces are operating today. One

of them is missing its lid and the mechanical

transport arm has been broken

for some time. Repairs have been

ordered, says the responsible ‘Melting

Manager’, Marius Djankou. He cannot

say, however, when this assistance will

arrive. Outside, the rain is splashing on

large heaps of unsorted scrap, covered

in a thick layer of rust and dirt.

High energy and resource consumption

due to old plants

The main problems that are typical of

South African foundries rapidly become

clear: the melting furnaces, converters

and molding plants are at least 35 years

old – energy consumption and wasted

energy are correspondingly high. Many

companies produce 100 or even 200 different

products, making any automation

difficult and forcing up production

costs. Only low-quality castings are produced

and the reject rates are over 15 %

because there is no modern process or

material flow management, and unwashed

scrap is mainly used.

But it is not just energy that is wasted,

but also expensive material: metal consumption

is high and few companies

recycle their molding sand – it usually

ends up in landfill after one cycle. In addition,

20 to 30 % of the employees are

illiterate, only a few understand English,

and about three-quarters of them are

considered unqualified or low-skilled.

EffSAFound is intended to help solve

three of these problems by October 2015:

» Improvement of casting quality:

the Aachen-based company Magma

GmbH has installed simulation software

in three of the foundries. It simulates

the casting, hardening and

cooling processes, and can considerably

improve the quality of a casting

by predicting structures and mechanical

properties. Thinner walls, smaller

feeders and a compact casting system

also decrease metal consumption.

New jobs are as important as

new technology

“EffSAFound is a great opportunity for

our industry and our country,” says

Palesa Riba, who is coordinating the

project at the MCTS on the South African

side. She hopes that when the

foundry industry in the country at

the Cape gets back on its feet it will be

able to create new jobs whilst retaining

the old ones – an important argument

in a nation with 25 % unemployment.

“If the foundries are doing well,

all the downstream sectors (such as the

metal-processing industry) will profit

from it and then they will also create

new jobs,” agrees John Davies, Head of

the South Africa Institute of Foundrymen.

German expertise for South African

foundries is a good concept, but

also an enormous challenge. This has

been demonstrated in recent months.

South Africans do not make rapid decisions,

responsibilities change often,

and the long journeys need to be well

planned. Important questions thus still

remain unresolved after the one-anda-half

years during which the project

has been running. “There is often no

contact person on site,” Kai Molitor, IT

Manager at HegerPro, has found out. So

it remains unclear who will collect the

necessary process data in the works, or

who is responsible for installing and

operating the new technology. In addition,

the mostly highly indebted companies

have difficulty finding the funds

to pay for a sand regeneration plant or

62 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

finance the license fees for German software. Communication

is, and will remain, a major obstacle – black South

Africans use eleven different languages.

“While we place great hope in German technology, it

must be proven, simple and economical,” Geoffrey Harding,

who has long been active as the General Manager of

Guestro, sums up South African expectations. It is therefore

of decisive important for the success of EffSAFound

to clarify the advantages of more efficient technology in

concrete terms.

This is why a trial plant is to be constructed at MTCS,

to reclaim samples of the various sands used by several

foundries and provide it again for use by the companies.

The company GUT has delivered the planning and engineering

for this plant. MCTS has also recently acquired

a license for Magma simulation software. This can then

be used to demonstrate to interested foundries the major

process- and quality-related progress that can be achieved

with modern simulation. Similarly, the demo software

from Heger has also been installed, with whose help processes

can be controlled efficiently and economically, and

workforce qualification improved.

Time is pressing. Electricity prices in South Africa have

more than doubled during the last six years, and are now

almost at European levels. Consumption in the country

exceeds what the state-owned energy group Eskom can

produce in its old coal-driven power stations: 2014 was

far and away the year with the most frequent power cuts.

Many foundries are also suffering from costs of up to 100

Euro per tonne for landfilling molding sand – particularly

in the highly industrialized region of Gauteng near

Johannesburg, where many foundries are located. And

last but not least, Chinese companies are forcing their

way onto the South African market with cheap castings.

“Many companies face bankruptcy unless they can very

soon change how they operate,” says Bosse.

It has, meanwhile, stopped raining in the Benoni industrial

estate. The first rays of sunshine are timidly peeping

through the opaque grey and making the blossoming

jacaranda trees flicker in violet. There is light on the

horizon again. As if to match this, those responsible at

Guestro have insisted on optimism. Despite poor sales figures

and a mountain of debt, General Manager Harding

is convinced that “We will be able to get back on our feet

within two years.”

The company wants to install a new medium-frequency

tandem melting furnace, modernize its molding plant

and construct a sand regeneration system. For these investments

it has applied for funding from the state. If everything

works out, Bosse believes, Guestro will become a

success story that can also convince other companies to

take similar steps. And if not? “Then at least we will have

increased awareness about efficiency and resource conservation

in this important sector,” says GUT Managing Director

Jens Müller-Späth. Because one thing is certain: the

Germans cannot supply personal initiative and the readiness

to try something new.

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 63


Author: Manuel Bosse, IfG Service GmbH, Düsseldorf

BMBF project reduces energy and

resource requirements in South African


EffSAFound, Part 2: The German and South African foundry industries have been collaborating

since 2013 to jointly stabilize iron and steel foundries in South Africa and drive forward European

standards. The interim conclusion of the EffSAFound research project shows that efficiency

considerations still receive little attention, though the potentials are enormous

Holding the reins of the research project: Manuel Bosse from IfG Service GmbH and the South African Project Manager

Palesa Riba (Photo: Palesa Riba)

IfG-Service GmbH in Düsseldorf,

the Metal Casting Technology Station

(MCTS) at Johannesburg University

and three German partner companies

have initiated a joint research

project called EffSAFound in order to

lead South Africa’s foundries onto the

world market and jointly work out improvement

measures for iron and steel

foundries in both countries. There have

already been close exchanges between

the research institutes on a specialist

level for years. In addition, the fact

that foundry technology ‘Made in Germany’

has a high status in South Africa

simplified setting up the joint project.

The other South African partners

in the project are:

» The South African Institute of Foundrymen

(SAIF): an association of South

African foundries and the training

partner in the research project.

» The National Foundry Technology

Network (NFTN): as part of the Department

of Trade and Industry (dti)

the NFTN is committed to making

targeted improvements in the glo-

64 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

al competitiveness of South Africa’s

foundry industry.

» Eskom: South Africa’s state energy

supply company has been brought

in as a transfer partner for intermediate

project results.

Figure 1: Natural gas is not available in many South African foundries. Paraffin

or diesel is used in preheating processes instead (Photos: Manuel Bosse)

Energy efficiency has hitherto

received little attention

Nine South African foundries are participating

in EffSAFound. The country’s

largest foundry, Atlantis Foundries in

Cape Town, is a subsidiary of Mercedes

Benz Trucks following the example of

the iron foundry in Mannheim, and is

responsible for about 15 % of good castings

in South Africa. Two iron and steel

foundries in the research project are located

in Durban and five are in the greater

Johannesburg area, mainly producing

highly wear-resistant castings for the domestic

mining and mechanical engineering

industries. One brass foundry

for fittings is rather exotic in this field.

It quickly became clear that the

data situation in South Africa is rather

meagre because there are no aggregated

data for the entire foundry industry

due to the many small foundries involved.

Personnel costs make up about

34 % of the total costs of iron and steel

foundries, according to a recent survey

carried out by SAIF. The proportion of

total costs spent on raw materials, additives

and operating supplies is 28 %,

while energy costs have risen to 16 % in

recent years. The automation pressure

is considerably lower than in Germany

as a result of the generally low personnel

costs and high level of unemployment

in South Africa. For this reason

South African foundries should actually

achieve a lower energy requirement

Figure 2: Rusted and unsorted cast iron scrap reduces the casting quality and increases the energy consumption per

ton of molten metal significantly

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 65


power requirements by 10 %. Moreover,

electricity prices rose by an average

of 25 % a year between 2008 and

2011. The state energy supplier Eskom

can only increase prices by 8 % a year

between 2013 and 2017. EffSAFound

has ensured that the foundries and Eskom

finally sit at a table together and

jointly try to find solutions. One alternative

would be to invest in fuel-fired

melting plants. There are only a few cupola

furnaces in South Africa, however,

and almost no foundries have access

to natural gas, or only at great cost, so

production largely operates with electricity

while others use paraffin or diesel

instead of natural gas.

Figure 3: Magnesium treatment: Cast iron is also produced with spheroidal

graphite in South African foundries – magnesium is added to the converters

for this purpose (Photo: Palesa Riba)

per tonne of good castings compared to

German foundries – but the opposite

is the case: existing melting facilities

and foundry plants are outdated and

the topic of energy efficiency received

little attention when investment decisions

were being made in the past.

Fluctuating power supply

The South African foundry industry

faces major challenges. These include

the energy supply. The relationship between

the electricity supplier Eskom

and the foundries is strained. Nominally,

South Africa has a power plant output

of about 46,000 megawatts (MW),

of which about 85 % is generated using

coal. The old power plants, combined

with poor maintenance in some cases,

lead to the actual output being considerably

below 40,000 MW. The Medupi

and Kusile power stations (each

with six 800-MW turbines) which are

supposed to be gradually synchronized

with the grid are still not available after

a seven-year building phase. On peak

days, however, more than 44,000 MW

is called up, leading to power outages.

In addition, rainfall in the north of the

country has soaked the coal reserves

and, in early November 2014, a large

coal silo at a power station collapsed

– leading to further nationwide power

cuts. Eskom is thus relying on so-called

‘load shedding’: electricity is cut off for

up to 5 h a day in previously announced

parts of the towns. While German consumers

suffer average periods of interrupted

power supply of about 16 minutes

a year, this figure is 42 h per year

in South Africa.

This is a nightmare for production

planners in the foundries. For South African

companies, energy efficiency currently

means that at times of high electricity

demand they have to cut their

Limited training – great competition

Another problem is that large quantities

of ‘simple’ castings from China

have displaced domestic foundry capacities.

Furthermore, high-quality

core-intensive castings are imported

from Europe and North America.

The number of foundries in South Africa

fell by 40 % – and production from

650,000 to 400,000 t of good castings –

between 2003 and 2013 alone. In addition

to harsh competition there are also

country-specific problems. Almost twothirds

of foundry employees have no

training or have only learnt briefly ‘onthe-job’,

although the training efforts

of the MCTS have resulted in the first

positive results: in many larger foundries

university graduates now hold key

positions, e.g. in the melting plants, the

molding shops or the core shops. And,

last but not least, South Africa increasingly

suffers from escalating strikes.

Many were injured during strikes at

a chromate mine in 2013. More than

100,000 platinum miners went on

strike for almost six months in 2014. No

work was carried out in South Africa’s

foundries in June and July 2014 when

more than 220,000 metalworkers went

on strike. The strike only ended after a

three-year agreement was reached providing

an annual 10 % increase in pay.

Project content

Three main topic areas for the

EffSAFound project were extrapolated

from these challenges:

66 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

» In collaboration with its South African

partner Ametex, Magma GmbH

(based in Aachen), is developing a

module within its Magmasoft simulation

software especially for highchrome

white cast iron in order to

prevent rejections even before the

first casting. The thermo-physical

properties of the casting materials

were determined for three of the

nine participating foundries and test

rods have been cast for a comprehensive

series of measurements to ascertain

the thermo-mechanical data

(hot tensile and creep experiments).

The data obtained has been validated

on the basis of selected components

produced by the participating

foundries, so that it is possible for

the foundries to achieve energy-efficient

production with the help of

the software.

» With the help of detailed energy efficiency

analyses in the foundries,

and in collaboration with the company

HegerPro (based in Enkenbach-

Alsenborn), English-language

software is being prepared for the

qualification and awareness-raising

of employees regarding energy efficiency.

The German software has already

been translated into English,

and the next step will involve its

modification for the topic of energy


» GUT Gießerei Umwelt Technik GmbH

(based in Freudenberg) will collaborate

in investigating the sand circuit

regarding material and energy efficiency,

working out optimization potentials

and carrying out some regeneration

trials. Although the foundries

have been able to deposit their waste

sand without regeneration in the

past, the legal requirements here

have been tightened up in recent

years. Thus re-use of the waste sand,

e.g. for roadbuilding, is currently illegal

because this is considered dangerous.

In addition, the costs for disposing

of waste foundry sand have risen

from about 7 to 31 Euro within seven

years, and some foundries are already

paying 100 Euro per tonne.

The MCTS has carried out intensive

work on this and examined the new

sand, as well as the waste foundry

sand, in all foundries. Moreover, one

tonne of waste sand from each of two

South African foundries has been regenerated

and analyzed to prove that

this can be re-used in the works. The

construction of regeneration plants

is being considered with the help of

GUT. In addition, European data is being

used to help achieve an assessment

of waste foundry sand as ‘safe’ and thus

enable recycling.

Precise coordination required

There is enormous potential for increasing

the efficiency of South African

foundries, and the most important

improvement potentials have been

identified within the framework of

EffSAFound. The South African Project

Manager Palesa Riba, the Managing

Director of the MCTS Farouk Varachia,

and Project Manager Bosse are in

daily contact to drive the pro ject forward.

But it is not just technical and structural

questions. Precise coordination

is required, particularly before project

trips and concrete work in situ in

the companies, because otherwise important

contacts are simply not available.

Intercultural competence is also

called for when the German virtues

of to-the-minute punctuality and

dependability come up against socalled

‘African time’. The first thing

that one learns as a German in Johannesburg

is that stress, hectic and

feverish time definitions make little

sense. One of the South African partners

smilingly put it in a nutshell at

one of the first meetings: “Europeans

have the clock, we have the time!” Despite

all the challenges, the research

project achieved the three intermediate

objectives in August 2014 after 16

months and will thus be continued,

as planned, until the end of October


The research project is financed

on the German side by the Federal

Ministry for Education and Research

(BMBF) and on the South African

side by the Department of Trade

and Industry (dti) and the National

Foundry Technology Network



The premises of the Kurtz Ersa foundry in Hasloch, Germany


Molding a sustainable future

With a ceremony held directly in the

production hall, the Kurtz Ersa Corporation

opened its new Smart Foundry on 6

March in Hasloch, Germany. A year and

a month had passed since the turning

of the first sod – the starting shot for an

ambitious project which has now been

brought to a successful conclusion and

officially handed over for its intended

purpose. 150 invited guests, customers,

project partners, representatives of important

associations and staff were in attendance

as the ribbon was cut.

With the decision for the Smart

Foundry, Kurtz Ersa pursued a strategic

reorientation intended to secure the

long-term continuity of the iron foundry

and the over 100 jobs at the Hasloch

site. This resulted in investments

amounting to 12 million Euro for what

is probably the world’s most modern

hand mold foundry – a further significant

milestone in the over 235-year history

of the company which has included

iron casting in its core competences

since 1852. Today the broadly-based

product range encompasses, among

other things, planetary carriers, machine

beds and pump housings for wellknown

customers from such branches

as mechanical engineering, drive engineering,

power engineering, vehicle

construction, vacuum engineering and

wind energy. A study commissioned in

advance attests to the necessary potential

for the Kurtz product range to utilise

the full capacity of the iron foundry

with the production of high-quality cast

iron parts for German industry in the

future as well.

From this, the parties involved in the

project have developed a creative solution

which illustrates the trend to “Industrie

4.0” and leads to a doubling of

productivity with increased efficiency.

The concept: Exploiting as many existing

buildings as possible, Smart Foundry

focuses on a completely new material

flow and continuous clocked hand

molding production in keeping with

the Toyota production system. An

SAP-controlled production concept,

parcelled production areas and an unmanned,

universally mobile transport

system result in a flexible process chain

in which manual production phases

and an automated logistics system can

be ideally combined. 1,700 m 2 of

ground-up renovations and 2,580 m 2

of newly-constructed buildings are two

of the major figures in the project, but

say little about the very short construction

period. Just one example: The

construction of the hall alone required

extensive foundation work with over

2,000 m of bored pile rammed in far

below the water table. Numerous partners

contributed to the successful outcome

of the Smart Foundry project –

from the architects, Menig & Partner

to the developer Riedel Bau und Bauer,

the plant supplier F.A.T. Förder- and

Anlagentechnik, Nederman Filtration,

Demag Krane and WFT Fertigungstechnik.

Max Schumacher, Managing Director

of the German Foundry Association

(BDG), accepted the invitation to

speak and used the opportunity to

prove that the German iron foundry

industry continues to be an engine of

innovation and a technological leader.

It was worth investing in iron

foundries in Germany, he claimed,

68 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

The Smart Foundry is particularly high-capacity with unit weights from 1 to 10 tonnes, which can be manufactured

from all currently common iron casting materials

even if the volume growth is now taking

place in Asia. “I walked around

here today and I can assure you that

Kurtz Ersa has set the bar very high

indeed with its Smart Foundry – even

in global terms: customer-oriented,

productive, innovative, efficient, active

– these are what allow progress to

be moulded”, said the BDG man

Schumacher. Only those who permanently

adapt to changing circumstances

have the chance to enjoy permanent


Shortly before the traditional ribbon-cutting

ceremony, Rainer Kurtz

told the assembled guests: “With the

Smart Foundry, I am pleased and proud

to be able to present you with an Industrie

4.0 foundry with a length of 320 m

and with 23,000 m 2 of production

area. We have spared no effort to set

standards in terms of the SAP-controlled

production concept, including

continuous clocking in accordance

with the Toyota principle, workplace

quality, environmental protection and

energy recovery. For we are firmly rooted

in this location; this is where it all

began - and this is where we want to

Everything in view: All the work processes are centrally monitored at the

Kurtz Ersa Smart Foundry control centre

stay. With our new iron foundry, we

are completely hardwired to growth!”


PDF-File: Brochure Smart Foundry

– the Industry 4.0 Foundry


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 69


Award ceremony with managers of

ABB and Georg Fischer in Zurich,

Switzerland (Photo: GF)


Global ABB Supplier Sustainability


Georg Fischer (GF), Schaffhausen,

Switzerland, is honoured with the

first Global ABB Supplier Sustainability

Award. The award, which recognizes

sustainability leaders in its supply

chains, was handed over on 25 March

at ABB in Zurich.

The GF foundry in Leipzig, Germany,

with its 260 employees produces

housings for ABB Turbocharging. “I am

pleased that we reward the Global ABB

Supplier Sustainability Award to GF in

Leipzig,” says Daniel Helmig, ABB’s

Head of Supply Chain Management.

“The company is an example of an ABB

supplier that is in line with our high

standards on sustainability and top

quality – a real benchmark in our supply


GF Leipzig has adopted robust and effective

sustainability practices. The location

uses new fuels that help limit carbon-dioxide

emissions, recycles its raw

materials and provides training to reduce

accidents and to improve health

and safety for its employees. “This award

is a symbol for the excellent and trustworthy

collaboration of both companies

and honored our sustainability efforts

over the last years” states Matthias Heinrich,

Managing Director of GF Leipzig.

The GF foundry sets a high benchmark

in the ABB supply chain with its

state-of-the-art operations. This is particularly

important for suppliers with

inherently hazardous and energy-intensive

manufacturing processes such

as smelting and casting. “I am happy

to see the continuous investments in

technologies to reduce energy consumption,

emissions and waste volumes”,

says Adam Roscoe, ABBs Head

of Sustainability Affairs.

“We are greatly honored to receive this

Award from ABB. It is a stimulus to resolutely

pursue our sustainability efforts,“

stated Manfred Leyrer, GF Corporate

Sustainability Officer.


Klumpf_Technische_Chemie_en 21.11.2007 17:59 Uhr Seite 1


Face protection for every application

Rudolf Uhlen GmbH is a manufacturer of personal protective

equipment (PPE) for face protection. Especially for the

steel and foundry industry we provide special solutions in

the field of IR-protection. We produce:

Visor carriers

Gold-coated visors

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RUDOLF UHLEN GmbH Telefon: (02129) 1444

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70 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Visit us at

GIFA 2015

in Düsseldorf!

Hall 10 - D14

D - 45699 HERTEN • Industriestr. 15


please visit us: GIFA 2015 hall 11 stand 11H16

Klumpf_Messehinweis.indd 1 26.11.14 08:02


New sector portal for the

metal-working industries

With immediate effect, the new sector

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and complete product and

company database in English and German

across the various metal-working

sectors at www.metsearch.net.

Sector and company news along

with background information on the

industrial sectors of the national and

international trade fairs covering the

areas of foundry technology, metallurgy,

cast products, thermal process

technology, industrial fittings, pipes/

tubes along with wire and cable

round off the range of services. Always

up-to-date, Metsearch is an international

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By using the navigation bar the user

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containing products, companies, sector

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Quite irrespective of whether the

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Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 71

30.09.2008 8:08:15 Uhr






















Manfred Sachse



3rd Edition





3rd edition 2008. 25.6 x 31.9 cm.

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GIFA 2015



Approximately 50 % of cast products produced in Germany are used in the automotive industry (Photo: BDG/


Author: Tanja Vellen, Messe Düsseldorf

Foundry machines: high-tech solutions

from a traditional industry

Global production of castings exceeds 100 million tonnes

Casting processes are the only way to

manufacture many functional metal

parts economically – or at all. The

foundry industry is a major supplier to

other sectors of industry, is responsible

for much of the technical progress that

is made and is therefore important to

many national economies. To remain

competitive, it requires production resources

with which operating costs can

be reduced and individual strengths can

be improved. The International Foundry

Trade Fair GIFA 2015, which is taking

place in Düsseldorf from 16. to 20.

June 2015, will be providing an insight

into the latest state of the art in foundry

machine technology and all areas of

manu facturing technology.

More than 100 million tonnes of castings,

parts made from cast standard/

malleable iron and steel (EST castings)

or non-ferrous metals are manufactured

in total all over the world every year.

According to the most recent global statistics,

the total volume in 2013 was

103.2 million tonnes, with the following

breakdown: EST castings 84.8 million

tonnes, aluminium 15.4 million

tonnes and other non-ferrous metals

3 million tonnes.

Apart from political developments

and their consequences, the foundry

industry depends heavily on the development

of the automotive industry,

machine manufacturing, the construction

industry and the energy market.

According to figures calculated by the

German Foundry Association (BDG),

Düsseldorf, a good 50 % of the castings

manufactured in Germany are, for example,

supplied to the automotive industry,

while just under 25 % are used

in machine manufacturing.

Market development

At the International Foundry Forum

(IFF) that was held in Venice in September

2014, the President of the European

Foundry Association (CAEF),

Luis Filipe Villas-Boas, drew attention

to uncertain geopolitical circumstances,

which were reducing willingness to

invest in many areas of the industry, although

the non-ferrous sector was de-

74 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

veloping better than the ferrous sector.

Dr Ioannis Ioannidis, Vice-President

of the European Foundry Equipment

Suppliers Association and Chairman of

the Board of the VDMA Foundry Machine

Association, shares this view,

emphasising in December 2014: “Business

is slower at steel and iron foundries,

whereas it is developing more

positively at die and permanent mold

casting foundries.”


The automotive industry has always had

a major influence on the geographic and

technical development of the foundry

sector. Dr Heinz Büchner from IKB Industriebank

expects demand for castings

from the automotive industry to increase

in general over the next decade.

Rising prosperity in the emerging markets

is likely to drive growth on the car

market, while stricter legal regulations

about energy efficiency and emissions

should lead to higher sales on the European

market. From 2018 onwards, there

is also likely to be substitution of EST

castings by lightweight metal castings

for certain parts when a switch is made

to new car models. According to Dr Ioannidis,

smaller and smaller engines are

being developed, which need to be able

to cope with increasingly high-performance

operation. Foundries and their

suppliers are expected to develop important

components here. More materials

will be combined with each other

in future too. The objective is to manufacture

parts with better properties

but lower production costs. The foundry

industry can expect high growth in

the machine manufacturing, chemical,

food and energy generation industries

as well. Resource and energy efficiency

will in general become a considerably

more important issue.

The IKB market survey reveals that the

markets for the European foundry industry

will be shifting to a larger extent

towards Eastern Europe and East Asia.

China has become a more significant

sales market for foundry machines

again, which is associated with the anticipated

expansion of casting capacities.

In view of the political and economic

sanctions and their impact on

project funding, the situation in Russia

Structural parts made of cast aluminum are becoming ever more important in

the automotive industry

In the design and manufacture of motor vehicles parts are increasingly replaced

by castings

is likely to become substantially more

difficult. At the IFF, Andrew Dibrov,

Vice-President of the Russian Association

of Foundrymen, pointed out that

Russian foundries needed modern

equipment for such areas as casting and

medium-frequency furnaces, but he

also drew attention to the fact that the

current political sanctions would have

the effect that the business community

in the country will be turning to the east

to an increased extent. When Russian

banks provide support to companies,

Asian suppliers would then be preferred,

although European manufacturers

would also be commissioned when they

had manufacturing facilities in Russia or


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 75

The situation in the NAFTA area, which

is being reindustrialised thanks to favourable

energy costs, can, in general,

be considered good. A large proportion

of the growth is taking place in Mexico.

This development is leading to higher

demand for casting production capacities

and the relevant manufacturing



CAEF President Villas-Boas thinks that

the foundry industry has strengths in

the design potential it has, with which

the demands made by the automotive

industry for lightweight structures can

be met. At the IFF, he also encouraged

companies to form electronic networks

that have the potential to make corporate

operations even more successful

and profitable. Dr Büchner recommends

that manufacturers of foundry

machines continue to invest in research,

development and qualified staff,

make ongoing reviews of the technical

lead they hold, develop appropriate

strategies and, in this context, e xpand

such arrangements as sales co-operation

agreements. He also thinks that it is very

important to participate in trade fairs.

Not only in the foundry machine industry

are leading manufacturers working

on supplying machines with technology

that is customised as precisely as possible

to satisfy the requirements of the

users and their markets.

The GIFA 2015 trade fair

Foundries need innovative machines,

equipment and software systems in order

to be able to operate efficiently. The

International Foundry Trade Fair GIFA,

which is taking place at the same time

as the trade fairs METEC, THERMPRO-

CESS and NEWCAST that focus on associated

fields and all share the same motto

(“The Bright World of Metals“), will

be providing information about this

and the innovative developments that

are being made. The exhibition programme

consists of foundry plants and

equipment, melting plants and equipment,

refractories technology, moulding

and core making plants and equipment,

moulding sands and moulding

auxiliaries, sand preparation and reclamation,

gating and feeding, casting machines

and pouring equipment, knockout,

fettling and finishing, pattern and

die making, process control technology

and automation, environmental protection

and waste removal as well as information


Technical forums at the trade fair


Tuesday, 16.06.2015


10:45 Opening: Dr.-Ing. C. Wilhelm, German Foundry Association,


11:00 Energy Efficient Use of Medium Frequency Induction

Furnaces with Constant Power Range by Use of Power

Optimized Charging; Dr.-Ing. M. Rische*, Dr. E. Dötsch, Y.

Yildir, R. Ibach, ABP Induction Systems, Dortmund/Germany

11:30 A New Generation of Ceramic Foam Filters Providing

Real Opportunities for Cleaner Steel Castings; N. Child,

Foseco International Limited, Tamworth/UK

12:00 New Trends in Feeder Technology; G. Brieger, Chemex

GmbH, Delligsen/Germany

12:30 High Value Added Cast Parts - Advanced Feeding

Systems and Metallurgical Improvements; J. Prat*, ASK

Chemicals España, Castro Urdiales/Spain; I. Julián, A.

Garikoitz, IK4-Azterlan, Durango/Spain

13:00 Break

13:15 Inorganic Core Sand: Decoring of Castings and Sand

Reclamation; Dr. U. Dinglreiter, R. Scheuchl GmbH, Ortenburg/Germany

13:45 New possibilities of surface finishing for the die-casting

industry; I. Löken, Spaleck Oberflächentechnik GmbH &

Co. KG, Bocholt/Germany

14:15 Methods for Describing the Flow Behavior of Inorganic

Core Sand Material for the Production of Complex

Cast Components; Dr.-Ing. A. Schrey*, Foseco Europe

Marketing & Technology, Borken/Germany; Dr. V.

Haanappel, Foseco Nederland, Enschede/Netherlands

14:45 Minimizing Air Entrainment in High Pressure Die

Casting Shot Sleeves; M. Stefano*, XC Engineering,

Cantù/Italy; Dr. M. Barkhudarov, Flow Science, Santa Fe/


15:15 Innovative coating to prevent white film defects

C. Joachim*, C. Fourberg, Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische

Werke GmbH, Düsseldorf/Germany; M. Vorrath, Dr. K.

Seeger, Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke GmbH,


15:45 Equipment Availability and Energy Efficiency – a Contradiction?

Dr. P. Reichen*, U. Jordi, Bühler AG, Uzwil/Switzerland;

F. Hoffmann, Bühler GmbH, Mannheim/Germany

16:15 Performance of Long Thin Printed Sand Cores in

Aluminium Castings; T. Mueller, Voxeljet of America,


16:45 Advancements in Die Lubricant Technology for the

Evolving Die Cast Process; D. Tomazic*, Chem-Trend

Deutschland GmbH, Gernlinden/Germany; J. Belyk, Chem-

Trend, Howell/USA

17:15 Development of Intelligent Green Sand Preparation

System; T. Sakai*, S. Katsuhito, O. Yuichi, SINTOKOGIO,


17:45 End

76 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

All presentations at the technical forums at GIFA are either held in English or are simultaneously translated


Messe Düsseldorf GmbH, Hall 13, Stand C 38


Not required


Open to all

Participation fee

Free of charge


The proceedings with the abstracts of the

lectures will be available at the counter


German – English (Simultaneous interpretation)


Wednesday, 17.06.2015

10:30 Competiveness by Leadership – Ensure the Competitiveness

of Foundries in High Wage Countries by Using a

Clear Leadership Model; H. Doppler, Managementberatung

Doppler, Freiberg am Neckar/Germany

11:00 TENSAL ® - Development of a High Strength Aluminum

Casting Alloy for the Production of Highly Loaded

Chassis Components; Dr. rer. nat. K. Greven*, M. Loganathan,

O. Grimm, KSM Castings, Hildesheim/Germany

11:30 Productivity and Ecology Considerations of High

Production CB Processes; J. Archibald*, M. Hartman, J.

Benavente, ASK-Chemicals, Dublin Ohio /USA

12:00 Cast product design driven by front-loading through

virtual experimentation and optimization – baseline

technology for efficient CAE-Development Processes;

Dr.-Ing. H. Bramann*, Dr.-Ing. J. C. Sturm, H. Rockmann,

H. J. Gaspers, MAGMA Gießereitechnologie, Aachen/Germany

12:30 International Foundry Challenge - Suitable Production

of Thin Walled Aluminum Prototype and Small

Series Castings for Body in White Applications;

Dr. J. Gundlach*, Dr. J. Detering, Grunewald, Bocholt/Germany

13:00 Methodical, Automatic Optimization of the Casting

Process in Terms of Economy, Resource Efficiency

and Quality; P. Kohlmeyer, G. A. Röders, Soltau/ Germany

13:30 Development of a Novel AlCu-Cast Alloy for Thermally

High Loaded Cylinder Heads; Dr.-Ing. F. J. Feikus*, Dr.

L. Kniewallner, Nemak Europe, Frankfurt/Germany; M.

Rafetzeder, Dr. M. Djurdjevic, B. Stauder, Nemak Linz

GmbH, Linz/Austria

14:00 Lightweighting the Right Material at the Right Place

- A Comparison of Iron, Aluminum, Magnesium and

Carbon Fiber; K. Decking*, M. Holtkötter, Georg Fischer

Automotive, Schaffhausen/Switzerland

14:30 Energy Balance and CO 2

Emissions Study for the

Total Life Cycle of Engine Blocks from Aluminum

and Cast Iron; Dr.-Ing. A. Sobota*, W. Görtz, Eisenwerk

Brühl GmbH, Brühl/Germany

15:00 End

16:30 NEWCAST-Award

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 77


Thursday, 18.06.2015

12:55 Up-date on use of blended Bentonite & Coonerdite; B.

Officer, P. Verdot, Amcol Metalcasting

13:20 Environmental Inorganic binder systems; A. Tagg, John

Winter, Geopola

13:45 Innovative approach to training - A challenge for our

industry; Dr. Pam Murrell FICME, Cast Metals Federation


10:45 Opening Address by Vinod Kapur, WFO-President

11:00 Keynote: The foundry of the future-advanced managing

and manufacturing concepts for a global competitive

cast iron plant; Jorge Fesch, Sakthi Portugal Group

11:45 Comparing the USA and Europe Casting Industries

D. Trinowski, Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke

12:15 RFI in No Bake Foundries; C. Wilding, Omega Foundry

Machinery, Peterborough/UK

14:10 Novel No bake binders with reduced fume; S. Trikha,

Hüttenes Albertus

14:35 Rapid development of new castings using simulation

techniques; Tappan Roy, Texmaco Rail. Kolkata/ India

15:00 Improving casting quality through lustrous carbon

N. Richardson S & B/UK

15:25 End

16:00-17:30 World Foundry Organization General Assembly

12:40 Break


Friday, 19.06.2015

10:30 Proven Odor and VOC Abatement in Foundries; C. Mülleder*,

M. Klimisch, Dr. M. Krenn, CTP, Graz/Austria

11:00 Determination and Assessment of Volume Defects in

Aluminum Castings by Means of Computed Tomography

Dr. B. Oberdorfer*, D. Habe, Dr. E. Kaschnitz, G. Schindelbacher,

Österreichisches Gießerei-Institut (ÖGI), Leoben/Austria

11:30 Simulation-Aided Optimization of Gating and Feeding

Systems for Aluminum Sand Castings; Dr.-Ing. G. W. Dieckhues*,

H. Rockmann, Ohm & Häner, Olpe/Germany

12:00 Simulation in the Support of the Development of

Innovative Processes in the Casting Industry; Dr.-Ing. M.

Todte*, Flow Science Deutschland, Rottenburg/Germany;

Dr. A Fent, H. Lang, BMW, Landshut/Germany

12:30 Economic and Energy-Related Aspects of Batch Planning

and the Optimization of Melt Operations; Dr. H. Ortloff*, K.

Bembenek, K. Herzog, S. Recktor, RGU, Dortmund/Germany

13:00 Break

13:15 High Effective Linked Production of Cylinder Heads

and Cylinder Blocks in Double Casting Machines at

Volkswagen; Dr.-Ing. F. Hansen*, Dr.-Ing. R. Rösch, S. Uhde,

K. Wagner, Volkswagen, Leichtmetallgießerei Hannover,


13:45 Graded Sands: Impact of Grain Size Distribution on

Molding Materials; Dr. H. Görke*, Dr. J. U. Zilles, M. Demary,

Quarzwerke, Frechen/Germany

14:15 Increase Your Casting Output, with 30 % Higher Productivity

on DISA Vertical Machines; B. W. Haugbølle, DISA

Industries, Taastrup/Denmark

14:45 A Novel Emission Control System for the Reduction

Air Pollutants in Flue Gases from Foundries

Prof. Dr. P. Wiesen*, Bergische Universität Wuppertal,

Wuppertal/Germany, Prof. M. S. Johnson, University of

Copenhagen/Denmark; F. Hartung, M. Gallus, Infuser

Deutschland, Mannheim/Germany

15:15 Influence of Silicon Content, Strain Rate and Temperature

on Toughness of High Si Ferritic Ductile Cast Iron; T. Ikeda*,

Dr. Eng. U. Takuo, Dr. Eng. O. Keisaku, K. Nobuhiro, HI-

NODE, Tokio/Japan

15:45 Automated Quality Control for Tools, Patterns and Cast

Metal Parts with Optical 3D Metrology Systems; S. Adolf,

GOM Gesellschaft für Optische Messtechnik mbH, Braunschweig/Germany

16:15 Defective Castings Detection in Large Ductile Iron Production

Using a Machine Learning Approach; Dr.-Ing. G.

Bertuzzi, SACMI Imola, Imola/Italy

16:45 Thread New Paths in Automated Defect Recognition

(ADR) for Castings; H. Schulenburg, VisiConsult, Stockelsdorf/Germany

17:15 End

78 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Elemental Analyzers

for C, H, N, O, S




The ideal analyzer

for the simultaneous

determination of

oxygen, nitrogen

and hydrogen in

solid samples such

as cast iron.

n Freely selectable

configuration of

O, N, H

n Closed gas


n PC-controlled,

segmented leakage


n Optimized catalyst

for CO oxidation

Reliable partner for more than 40 years

Velco, Velbert, Germany, is known to foundries all over

the world, as manufacturer of gunning machines and injections

installations especially for this line of industry.

Based on the continuous demand for environmental

protection and reduction of costs Velco developed in

close cooperation with the foundry industry installations

for the re-use of foundry materials (filter dust,

grinding dust, cold resin dust) and the introduction of

alloys and carbon fines to reduce the batch coke by injection

through separate nozzle which is placed near to the

cupola tuyere.

The injection is mainly done in the melting area as

there are the highest temperatures so that the injected

products can be quickly converted. Velco’s system with

separate nozzles enables the user of cupola furnaces to

inject bigger amounts without any problems in the furnace


Velco offers for this purpose competent consulting service

at site, test facilities, visit of reference plants, planning,

manufacturing and installation of tailor-made


Hall 5, Stand D 26


Injection installation for a cupola furnace (Photo:




Particle Analyzers


Experience pays

For more than 35 years the name Electronics, Neuhausen,

Germany, has been a guarantee for performance,

precision, reliability and quality in the development of

measuring systems for the casting industry with specialization

in die-casting, low pressure casting and gravity

die-casting. The customers include automotive suppliers

and well-known European car manufacturers.

As a leading manufacturer of process data measuring

systems for casting machines the company provides customers

with day-to-day support in optimizing their production

processes. A reliable process flow and dependable

documentation are just as important for success as

the reduction of rejects and optimal reproducibility of

cast parts – goals that are easy to regulate, control and


Decades of experience, sound expertise and an understanding

of the parameters that are decisive for the casting

process make the company a sought-after system

partner - worldwide.

Tough international competition, increased customer

demands and legal requirements – for example concerning

product liability – constantly increase the demands

made on modern casting and the respective quality management

system. A company can only be successful on

the market if a high quality of cast parts is guaranteed.

Electroniccs offer its customers the right solutions to

meet these high demands: Electronics process data measuring


Hall 11, Stand C 12


The CAMSIZER P4 is the

new generation of the

well-proven CAMSIZER

system with patented

Dual Camera Technology.

The new analyzer offers

improved performance

and extended functionalities.

n Extended measuring

range from 20 μm

to 30 mm

n Faster hard- and software

record more

particles per second

n Particle library and 3D

cloud software

Overview of products and services (Photo: Electronics)



Decoring test: The Inotec promoter TC 5000 achieves a considerable

improvement in shakeout

Casting advantages of the

new Inotec generation

ASK Chemicals, Hilden, Germany, has

succeeded in further enhancing its inorganic

Inotec technology through

its new Inotec TC 5000 and Inotec HS

3000 products. The new developments

lead in particular to improved shakeout

and higher moisture stability of

the cores.

The mounting advantages of using

Inotec technology for the foundry industry

are not only odorless core production

and odor-reduced casting, but

also the significantly lower cleaning

required for machines and tools, leading

to productivity increases for foundries.

Inorganic binder systems also offer

casting advantages that result in

stronger components.

The newly developed promoter Inotec

TC 5000 complements the positive

qualities of the previous generation in

regard to penetration-free and sand-adhesion-free

casting surfaces, and in

terms of improved collapsibility properties

in light metal casting, improved

immediate strength levels, as well as

increased storage life of the cores. Previously,

the decoring of cast parts manufactured

with inorganic binders presented

a challenge in relation to water

jackets, especially if the gutting machine

had limited degrees of freedom.

Inotec TC 5000 now enables even complex

and delicate water jacket cores to

be safely shaken out after casting. The

system is 100 % inorganic and leaves

no residual condensate deposits in the

tooling, nor causes any smoke to form

during the casting process.

Likewise, the storage life of cores

manufactured using inorganic binders

previously posed a challenge, especially

on hot summer days with high humidity

and a high ambient temperature.

Now, the new binder Inotec

HS 3000 significantly improves the

moisture stability of the inorganically

bound cores. This in turn makes it possible

to manufacture stable cores coated

with a water-based coating, which

also makes the Inotec binder system

interesting for iron casting.

Hall 12, Stand A22.



Plant and machinery for industrial

metalworking applications

The SMS group, Hilchenbach, Germany,

ranks among the global leaders in

plant construction and mechanical

engineering for the entire metallurgical

process chain.

The company works in partnership

with the steel and aluminum industry

in building and upgrading plants or

erecting complete turnkey plant complexes.

The planning, engineering and

financing are all closely interlinked

here. The SMS group supplies plants for

reduction metallurgy, steelmaking, secondary

metallurgy and continuous casting

technology for flat and long products.

Alongside CSP technology, hot

and cold rolling mills, strip processing

plants and furnace technology, our

range also includes tube plants, long

product plants, forging plants, NF metal

plants and heat treatment technology.

A huge task SMS faces is reconciling

ecology and economy. The company

has solutions that focus equally on

both areas. It has a name for product

innovations that offer customers special

economic and ecological advantages:


The customers also benefit from a

needs-based service - ranging from selected

services right up to a full service

package. This means high plant availability

with low maintenance costs.

SMS has built up a global service network

that provides the best possible

support to plant owners using short

routes as well as the local language.

The company looks after the plant and

machinery from commissioning right

through its entire life cycle.

Hall 5, Stand F 16,

Hall 10, Stand H 41


82 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Flexibility and safety in core

making facilities

Working in core making facilities for

casting molds is often extremely hazardous

to health and environment,

since harmful and toxic chemicals

like “ethyldimethylamine“ are commonly

added to the core sand. This

fluids speed up the curing process of

the cores and will be added to the core

sand out of larger containers.

While replacing empty containers,

screwed connections have to be unlocked

in many cases. Remaining

quantities of the hazardous fluid may

escape freely forcing the user to wear

cumbersome protective clothing.

Walther-Präzision, Haan, Germany,

provides a safe, environmentally

friendly and clean solution: clean

break couplings of the BF series. The

couplings of these series meet highest

demands on operating safety, residual

leakage and reliability. The proven

adaptor design and the ball face front

surfaces on the coupling halves ensure

an easy connection and seal the coupling

before the valves open. Additionally,

the special valve design creates a

perfect clean break effect: “dead space

volumes” or enclosed air volumes

while coupling can be disregarded.

Ball face clean break coupling BF series (Photo: Walther Präzision)

In many field tests at well-known

manufacturers Walther-Präzision

demonstrated the advantages of these

couplings. In the meantime, all of their

core making facilities have been reequipped

with couplings of the BF series.

The replacement of chemical containers

has thus become a clean job.

Benefits of the BF series for core making

at a glance:

» quick replacement of tanks

» leakage-free connection/no escape

of fluids

» no health hazard

» no environmental pollution

» easy cleaning thanks to smooth surfaces

» one-hand operation

» reliable and long-lasting due to modified

sealing materials

» no protective clothing required

Thanks to this development, damages

to health or environment are finally

things of the past!

Hall 11, Stand D 46



Silica Mix – often copied but

never matched

Within the fundry industry, silica based

refractories have been well known as

the first choice lining for coreless induction

furnaces for melting and holding

of ferrous and copper based metals.

Calderys, Issy-Les-Moulineaux,

France, has been a leader for over

50 years in this segment by providing

the market with the world famous

Swedish microcrystalline quartzite.

Branded as Silica Mix this range is the

benchmark reference in a competitive


The technical advantages of Silica

Mix linings brings the following and

in some-ways considered unique advantages:

» Naturally mineralized unique micro-crystalline

Swedish quartzite

-Slow crystal transformations

-High thermal stability & refractoriness

-Minimal growth and crack formation

-Metal & slag compatibility

» Reliable and predictable performance

» High corrosion & erosion resistance

together with mechanical strengths

» Ease and speed of use

» Good value in use economics

Today, this becomes more relevant as

foundries upgrade to modern, high

density power rated, batch melting


Calderys enjoys the major advantage

of totally owned and fully in-house

controlled production process available

to the valued customers as needed.

Calderys feels proud that its R&D and

extended resources permit the availability

of these special products and

concepts to over 60 countries and future


Hall 10, Stand A 18


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 83


Foundry 4.0: Digitalisation as a

key indicator for sustainable

business success

In the same way as the invention of

the steam engine and the production

line a few hundred years ago, digitalisation

is fundamentally turning production

processes as well our internally

and externally-oriented methods

upside down nowadays. Industrial

success and, as a result, the success of

the foundry industry will significantly

depend upon the success of improvements

in efficiency in terms of data

exchange and intercompany communication

in forthcoming years. Considerable

investments are required in

order to exploit the potential. As a consequence,

the topic is assuming a leading

position on the agenda of the highest

levels of management in German

industrial companies.

“Foundry Industry 4.0”: Redefining

and possibly revolutionizing the digitalization

and the data exchange of product

services and service offerings from

industrial companies in order to identify

customer requirements more quickly

and to fulfil them in a better way. Companies

are networking with customers

and partners. In doing so, the special

quality of the digital revolution is the

rapid acceleration of processes and the

amazing speed in terms of adjustment

and change. At this point, the greatest

changes will surely be faced by the socalled

“old economy” companies, i.e.

traditional producing companies such

as foundries.

With regard to the foundry industry,

this means that the aforementioned

improvement in efficiency and acceleration

of the processes are already being

increasingly practiced and re-quired by

the end customers (cast purchasers).

This starts with the provision and processing

of construction and production

data on shared virtual drives and

through to connected goods management

systems that update the needs of

the customers in the foundry system

each day. Within the framework of the

trend towards digitalization and process

acceleration, foundries have so far

experienced significant stipulations

from the customers. The objective of

these stipulations is to simplify inhouse

processes but not to necessarily

simplify those of the foundries.

Today, the suppliers to the foundry

industry are faced with the task of improving

the data exchange, communication

and support of the customer or

to adapt it to the new speed level. The

requirement in terms of response speed

in the event of technical problems or

issues with the supplier has dramatically

increased. Furthermore, the provision

of data such as drawings, 3-D data

sets, product and data sheets, etc. must

be automated and efficiently designed.

In addition to the aforementioned efficient

design of the data exchange, digitalization

can, above all, structure the

interaction between the foundry and

the supplier in a more efficient manner

and create new added

values. If a technical

problem occurs,

the founder

must be able to contact

the supplier

immediately, they

must be able to simply

collect images,

details and information


the problem at

hand and they

must be able to internally

and externally


them. Establishing

a working group that is then necessary

and that consists of foundry employees

and supplier application technicians

must take place smoothly and in an automated

manner. The solution to the

problem must take place promptly and

in a way that is transparent for all participants

of the working group. A loss of

information of individual participants

or a temporal delay caused by incomplete

mailing lists and full diaries is no

longer acceptable today.

Due to the aforementioned developments

and requirements of the market,

GTP Schäfer, Grevenbroich, Germany,

has designed an App solution for its customers.

The objective of this innovative

system is to structure the provision of

data and the exchange of information

with customers in a more efficient and

transparent manner. It is a network information

system that, via smartphones,

tablets and desktops, provides

required information in a targeted manner,

supports the collection and distribution

of “on the go” data and promptly

enables a problem-free integration of

internal and external persons into individual

working groups concerning various

topics. Within this framework, a

further aim is to provide the founder

with additional “tools” in order to support

their work in various modules. GTP

Schäfer will present Version 1.0 of the

“GTP Toolbox” within the context of

GIFA 2015.

“Many industrial companies misjudge

the transformational force of digital

network”, says Andreas Diehl who,

with his company firstangel.co, is specialized

in the field of digital business

modelling and products. Mr Diehl says

that there is often a shortage in terms of

the required willingness to innovate

and invest. “Digital products define our

everyday lives. GTP Schäfer has recognized

the potential for their own business

model and the advantages for its

customers and have implemented it in

a very resolute manner”, said a delighted

Andreas Diehl at the launch of the

GTP ToolBox. Interested parties can register

for further information today at


Hall 12, Stand E 22 + E 29


84 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


New Inorganic Binder System of Foseco (Photo: Foseco)

Binders for iron, steel and aluminum


At the show, Foseco, Borken, Germany,

is highlighting a diverse range of binders

that fulfil the needs of all foundry

production processes. This will be

achieved through the presentation of

individual binder solutions for the production

of automotive, marine engineering

and steel castings. Intelligent,

customized solutions help customers

to save resources and increase the efficiency

of their casting production, and

examples of this will be demonstrated

through specific case studies.

Specific focus will be given to environmentally

compliant solutions and

the launch of a newly developed, fully

inorganic binder system which is suitable

for the manufacture of highly

complex automotive castings such as

cylinder heads or motor blocks. In contrast

to conventional organic systems

the new inorganic binder system does

not release any harmful emissions and

contributes both to the well-being of

the foundry employees and the protection

of the local environment.

Hall 12, Stand A 1 + A 2


Videos about

Foseco products



New pelletizer provides best output to smallest footprint ratio in dry ice

production (Photo: Cold Jet)

E160 Pelletizer

Cold Jet, Loveland, USA, – the world

leader in developing innovative, environmentally

responsible dry ice cleaning

solutions and production equipment

– announces the launch of the

E160 Pelletizer, a highly efficient dry

ice extruder that has minimal space requirements

and is designed to manufacture

3 mm-16 mm dry ice pellets and

nuggets on demand. The E160 Pelletizer

provides the best output to footprint

ratio in dry ice production and has the

lowest maintenance cost and lowest energy


“The E160 Pelletizer is easy to operate,

can go to full production in less than

three minutes and requires only half of

the normal space needed by similar dry

ice production equipment on the market

today,” said Wim Eeckelaers, Senior

Vice President, Global Dry Ice Manufacturing,

Cold Jet.

In addition to its compact footprint,

the fully automatic E160 Pelletizer produces

up to 160 kg per hour of consistent,

high density dry ice pellets or nuggets

on demand; has the highest liquid

to solid conversion rate; is simple to

operate – either as a standalone machine

or when integrated into an automated

dry ice cleaning or surface preparation

system; has a closed, stainless

steel frame; can be operated from cylinders,

dewars or storage tanks of liquid

CO 2

; and has multiple industrial voltage

ports, enabling global installations.

Cold Jet once again sets a new industry

standard for dry ice production with

the E160 Pelletizer.

Cold Jet’s dry ice production equipment

produces consistent, high density

dry ice for transportation and blasting

and has been engineered to extrude the

highest density dry ice available. Due to

our proprietary knowledge of dry ice,

Cold Jet’s process creates a longer shelf

life, better transportability and offers

better blasting performance. Cold Jet

pelletizers are also fully automated with

one-button operation and are made to

UL, USDA, FDA and CE standards.

Hall 16, Stand A 24


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 85


Centrifugally cast iron cylinder

liners for iron and aluminium


Globally the accepted emission levels

for new vehicles is being driven ever

lower, with car manufacturers focusing

on lightweight design and energy efficiency

to meet the legislative requirements.

One area of specific focus is the

downsizing of engines whilst retaining

power output, in many cases utilising

low weight aluminium blocks with grey

iron cylinder liners.

Foseco, Borken, Germany, will be displaying

a technology package for the

process of manufacturing grey cast iron

cylinder liners. The liners exhibit a special

surface structure which enables the

casting to be directly cast into the aluminium

block by gravity die casting as

well as pressure die casting.

Hall 12, Stand A1 + A2


Videos about Foseco products


Foseco’s technology package for iron cylinder liners

(Photo: Foseco)


Shake-out feeders CAV and


Vario shake-out feeders (CAV) are particularly

suitable for shaking out sensitive

castings and for different casting

programs with small and big castings

per order. These shake-out feeders

work in the rotational speed range

from 1,000 to 1,500 rpm respectively

frequency 16-25 hertz, at an earth acceleration

of 4.5 to 5.0 g. Depending

on the casting program, the feeders are

equipped with longitudinal or transversal

slot grids and/or perforated metal

sheets. A typical case of application

exists where the casted molds require

different shakeout behaviours and adaptation

is necessary while production

is running. The shakeout behaviour

can be pre-selected individually and/

or model-related at the moulding

plant or via PC of the Vario shake-out

feeder. For this, the drives (directed exciters)

of the Vario shake-out feeder are

electronically synchronized. It is possible

to adjust the desired impact angle

and thus the conveying speed by

changing the phase position as well as

the intensity of shaking out by changing

the rpm to meet the requirements.

CAH type shake-out feeders are used

for the continuous separation of casting

and sand after automatically operating

flask or flask less molding plants.

They are suitable for a wide range of

castings including castings of different

sensitivity. These shake-out feeders

work in the rotational speed range

from 1,000 to 1,500 rpm at an earth

acceleration of 4.5 to 5.0 g. Depending

on the casting program, the feeders are

equipped with longitudinal or transversal

slot grids and/or perforated metal

sheets. The drive is usually provided

by means of directed exciters, which

can be located in the middle, above or

underneath the machine. Due to the

afore-mentioned arrangement of the

exciters, it is possible to carry out

maintenance works even from above.

Shake-out feeders are designed according

to the mold body dimensions and

the conveying capacity of the molding

plant. The width varies from 800 to

3,000 mm and the length from 4,500

(+500) to 7,500 (+500) mm.

However, in case of very different

casting programs and/or frequent

model changes the Vario shake-out

feeders, type CAV, are used.

Hall 15, Stand F 23


86 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Exhaust Air Filters


Vibrating machines and


Jöst, Dülmen, Germany, is globally

known for innovation and constant developments

of vibrating machines and

systems for the foundry industry which

are important to meet the changing requirements

of modern foundries.

As leading manufacturer of vibrating

machines and system solutions for the

foundry industry, Jöst GmbH + Co. KG


presents an interesting products overview

for primary and secondary metallurgy.

Our scope of supply refers to the

conveying of raw materials, screening,

storage and dosing of different products

up to the different furnace melting processes

like EAF, RH, VD or LF.

Hall 3, Stand F 33

Hall 17, Stand D 47


Process for concentration of


In the framework of a research project

by the German ministry of education

and Research with Velco GmbH, Velbert,


GmbH (BFI), Düsseldorf, and DK Recycling

und Roheisen GmbH, Duisburg,

(all Germany) as project partner, Velco

installed at DK Recycling and Roheisen

GmbH an installation for the injection

of zinc-bearing filter dusts.

The zinc-bearing furnace gas dust is

injected into the induction furnace via a

refractory dipping lance into the pig iron

melt, whereby the zinc at first is converted

into metallic form, vaporized and finally

changing over to zinc-oxide that is

separated in the filter of the dedusting

plant. This zinc-oxide contains up to

64 % Zn (about 80 % ZnO).

The dust is stored in transport bins and

brought to the injection installation

with fork lifters. The injection installation

consists of a support frame for receipt

of the transport bins, a sieving installation

for separation of overgrain and

foreign particles, a pneumatic conveying

installation and a manipulator allowing

to dip the lance deep into the melt. The

installation is running with conveying

rates up to 60 kg/min. About 2 t of dust

can be processed within one hour.

Hall 5 / Stand D 26


Clean the air in your

foundry and save


KMA has the right solution for

each exhaust air problem:

Centralized filter in an exhaust

air mode and with integrated

heat recovery

Or: Recirculating air mode

without heat loss

High energy savings:

up to 80 %

Combinable with extraction

hoods and room ventilation


High air quality by high

filtration efficiency

Reducing heatig costs &

CO2 emissions

Low maintenance by automatic

filter cleaning system

Filter replacement is not


Visit us at


in Dusseldorf/Germany!

Hall 11, Booth H73

Centralized exhaust air filter for an exhaust air capacity

of 30,000 m³/h.

With integrated heat exchanger and

automatic cleaning system.

Velco-Injection plant at DK Recycling und Roheisen GmbH in Duisburg, Germany

(Photo: Velco)

KMA Umwelttechnik GmbH

Eduard-Rhein-Str. 2

53639 Koenigswinter




Phone: +49 2244 - 9248 0


New cellular gas filter series


Medenus Gasdruckregeltechnik GmbH,

Olpe, Germany, will present the new

cellular gas filter series DF100 at THER-

MPROCESS 2015. This completes the

existing product range of gas pressure

regulators, safety shut off valves and

safety relief valves. These cellular filters

are available in size DN 25 – DN 200,

with DIN flanges PN16 or ANSI150RF.

The standard efficiency rate of dust

of the filter cartridge is about 99,9 %

> 2µm and they are suitable to all kinds

of dry gases according to G 260/262

(others upon request). If necessary it

is possible to add a differential pressure

gauge with or without remote indication

and ball valves as well.

Hall 9, Stand A34


New cellular gas filter DF100 – size

DN50 (Photo: Medenus)


Industrial standards from LGC

LGC, Teddington, UK, is a global leading

manufacturer and supplier for:

» Metals: pure metals as well as all

type of alloys, which are available

as CRM, RM or SUS. The established

IARM standards are produced by

LGC Standards in USA according

ISO Guide 34

» Powders: cement, slags and ashes,

ferro alloys and ores, geological materials,

plants, coke and coal

» Water and oil-based reference materials

which are produced by VHG

labs under ISO Guide 34, ISO Guide

35 and ISO Guide 17025.

The company also offers equipment and

consumable for sample preparation:

» Grinding, polishing and milling machines

for metals

» Own-brand autofluxer

» Plastic films and cups for XRF.

LGC also has the expertise to supply

your physical testing materials requirements.

To underline LGC Standards’

position as a single-source-supplier

in the industrial sector, it

continually seeks to expand its portfolio

to ensure it has the best fit for its

customers’ needs. This includes sourcing

materials from across the world including

unique suppliers in Asia, USA

and Europe.

Hall 11, Stand H 10


88 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Industrial furnace construction

At Thermoprozess Wärmebehandlungen

Austria GmbH an existing boogie

hearth furnace with measurements l =

13,000 x w = 6,500 x h = 7,000 mm for

charging weights up to 250 t was modernized

by Schlager Industrieofenbau

from Hagen, Germany, with new gas

heating including control system with

Siemens Simatic S7 PLC.

Following main improvements have

been achieved:

» About 30 % energy savings through

optimized gas-air control with pulse

control of the burners and installation

of an automatic electric motor

driven furnace pressure control valve

» Improved exhaust emissions according

requirements from local environmental

authorities – 50 mg/ Nm³ CO

from 300 °C operating temperature;

200 mg/Nm³ NOx up to 750 °C operating

temperature (values based on

5 % residual oxygen in the exhaust


There were 10 burners installed, each

with 360 kW power, including standard-compliant

valve technology. By

the new offset arrangement of the burners

in the side walls with high flame

speed and flame alignment under the

charge very good temperature uniformity

is achieved.

The conversion was carried out rapidly

within 2 weeks before Christmas.

Regarding the high energy savings,

the investment will pay for itself within

short time.

Thermoprozess Wärmebehandlungen

Austria GmbH offers heat treatments in

stationary furnaces in Linz and the following

other services:

Heat treatments at external customer

workshops or construction sites

» in temporary modular heat treatment


» On-Situ heat treatment operations

performed with methods of

-resistance heating,

-induction heating

» Production and supply of mobile heat

treatment equipment with

-resistance heating,

-induction heating

» drying-out of refractory linings

Its customers include renowned national

and international companies in the

areas of:

» Energy and environmental

» Power generation

» Plant, container and equipment manufacturing

(Photo: Schlager)

» Mechanical and piping manufacturing

» Chemical/petrochemical

Schlager Industrieofenbau provides new

industrial furnaces and offers modernizations

and refractory repairs to existing

furnaces. The company has its own

manufacturing as well as electrical and

automation department with cabinet


Hall 9, Stand E 39


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 89


Precise carbon and sulfur

analysis in inorganic samples

The CS-800 by Eltra, Haan, Germany,

is a flexible and robust combustion

analyzer for the determination of carbon

and sulfur in inorganic sample

materials such as steel, cast iron or cement.

Organic samples like soil, graphite

or chemicals can also be analyzed

with the CS-800. It is equipped with

a 2,500 °C induction furnace to examine

the element concentrations in

solids without time-consuming sample

preparation. The typical analysis

time is approximately 45 to 60 s.

Whereas spectrometric methods require

a homogeneous and plane sample

surface for C/ S analysis, the CS-800

also accepts samples in the form of

powders, grains, drillings or broken

Carbon/Sulfur Analyzer CS-800 (Photo:


pieces. Thanks to the high sample

weight of up to 1 g even inhomogeneous

samples can be reliably characterized.

The CS-800 features up to four independent

infrared measuring cells allowing

for accurate analysis of low as

well as high carbon and sulfur concentrations

simultaneously in one measurement.

The sensitivity of the IR cells

can be individually configured to ensure

optimum adaptation to application

requirements. If the analysis involves

aggressive reactive gases (for

example from acidulous soil samples)

the use of robust and durable gold cuvettes

is an option.


» Simultaneous analysis of carbon

and sulfur in a 2,500 °C induction


» Up to four independent infrared cells

with flexible measuring ranges

» Very short measurement times

» High sample weights from a few milligrams

to 1 gram

» Flexible sample geometry

» Gold IR cells (option)

» Automated sample feeding (option)

Hall 11, Stand H 29



Momometer Ad_186_128.indd 1 07.05.15 08:26

90 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Elemental analysis of metals and inorganic


As the leader in elemental analysis of organic substances,

Elementar Analysensysteme, Hanau, Germany,

uses its leading technology for the development

of a completely new instrument concept for the analysis

of the elements C, S, O, N, H in metals and other

inorganic materials.

The new Inductar instrument line with the worldwide

first “5-elements-analyser” for metals and

inorganic materials (Photo: Elementar)

Packed with innovative solutions and most modern

technology the induction based instrument line Inductar

sets new standards like:

» solid-state technology for the high frequency induction

furnace guarantees an almost unlimited


» due to its design, no annoying cleaning procedures

are necessary to remove dust or particulate residues

» sample feeding with semi- or fully automated 90 positions


» new detection technology for precise hydrogen determination

» optimized for safe and unattended 24/7 use

» extremely compact design based on the well-known

„cube“ platform of Elementar.

As top performer of the new Inductar instrument

line, Elementar introduces the worldwide first “5-elements-analyser”

for metals and inorganic materials.

It combines the analysis of CS and ONH in one

instrument. The modular concept of the instrument

line allows an upgrade of the CS and ONH analysers

to a 5-element-design, at any time or to any other element

combination for special applications.

Hall 11, Stand D 9


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 91


High quality and low priced

iron from cupola plant

The cupola furnace with hot blast generation

has been established over many

years as the practice for the production

of gray and ductile iron for serial castings.

Küttner, Essen, Germany, has built

over 300 cupolas in capacities ranging

from 7 to 100 t/h and offers the appropriate

design for specific process requirements.

For the cupola furnaces, Küttner has

developed a sophisticated design with

long-life insulation and a proven furnace

hearth geometry for the special

metallurgical tasks. In addition, injection

systems for oxygen to improve the

thermal efficiency and injection for

coke fines for flexible carburization are

recommended. For the treatment of the

iron different methods for desulphurization

and magnesium treatment are


Küttner has designed the dry gas

cleaning system so that internationally

required limits for dust, CO and SOx can

be reliably achieved. This is ensured by

special process technology with complete

combustion, cooling and particle

separation in a cloth filter system.

By using a hot blast process approximately

30 % of the energy of the off-gas

of the cupola is used. It is increasingly

important to use the remaining energy

and a variety of solutions based on thermal

oil and steam systems are available.

Solutions for the heating of furnaces for

core drying and painting but also for

vaporisation of curing chambers are implemented

at site. Blast drying systems

are efficient in humid tropical regions.

Examples of multi-site intergrated solutions

have been implemented between

neighbors from the paper industry,

laundries and food manufacturers having

a need for process heat. The environmental

benefits as well.

10 t/h Long-campaign cupola furnace with pressurized siphon and holding

furnace (Photo: Küttner)

Hall 16, Stand 26


Visit our booth in Hall 16 / A34

Working moment

to 12,300 kgcm




6,500 kgcm

FRIEDRICH Schwingtechnik GmbH

P.O. Box 10 16 44 · 42760 Haan · Germany

Phone +49 (0) 2129- 37 90-0

Fax +49 (0) 2129- 37 90-37



Unbalance Exciters

>> Extended product range for driving motors

with 750, 900, 1,000, 1,200 and 1,500 min -1

>> Centrifugal force from 29 to 482 kN

>> Working moment from 300 to 12,300 kgcm

Vibrator Motors

>> Maintenance free – bearings greased for lifetime

>> Centrifugal force from 0.5 to 216 kN

>> Working moment from 1.2 to 6,500 kgcm


Molding sand preparation for foundries of all sizes

Evactherm process: For many years, eco-friendly technology developed by

Eirich, Hardheim, Germany, has been the best option available to foundries

that are looking for top quality molding sand at an affordable cost. The mixing,

cooling and bentonite activation steps all take place in a single machine. Preparation

under vacuum prevents ambient climatic conditions from having any effect

on the molding sand. The sand has uniform quality and the temperature of

the prepared sand remains constant. More than 60 “vacuum mixers” have been

installed worldwide. Depending on size, the systems have a throughput rate of

6 - 300 m³/h. The mixing, cooling and activation process takes 70 s. The residual

moisture of the return sand is less than 0.5 % and the sand is cooled under

precision control to 40 °C. Besides the best possible bentonite activation without

prior ageing, there are other advantages as well. Consumption of bentonite

and auxiliary materials can be reduced. Elimination of the sand cooler and

other subsystems cuts dust extraction air volumes nearly in half. Fines remain

in the molding sand and do not have to be captured and disposed of as filter

dust at considerable expense. Entrained fines are deposited in a condenser and

the condensate is cycled back to the preparation process via the water scale.

Modular tower system design with integrated façade: The entire sand preparation

system is factory mounted on individual platforms. Modular design significantly

reduces installation and commissioning time. The advantages are

immense, particularly on modernization of existing sand preparation systems

including projects that are carried out while normal operations continue. Furthermore

Eirich has developed a comprehensive set of modular control solutions

designed to safeguard quality and increase productivity. The spectrum

ranges from entry-level versions to preventive molding sand management featuring

a model catalogue, formulation calculation and additive calculation

functions which work from a set of model-based parameters. Eirich control

systems offer proactive management and control of molding sand properties,

particularly in combination with the QualiMaster AT1 online sand tester (used

to determine the compactability and shear strength control parameters), Sand-

Report software (continuous acquisition, analysis and archiving of production

data) and SandExpert (additional calculation of all model-based formulations

using production plans). Teleservice (remote monitoring), Condition Monitoring

(online diagnostics) and IMD (Intelligent Material Distribution) modules

are also available. All production and system data can be transferred to higher-level

production data acquisition systems for further processing.

Molding sand aerator – also as a retrofit: The sand aerator improves the flowability

of the molding sand in the molding box and increases compactability

at the molding machine. Casting quality is better and post-processing costs are

lower. The aerator consists of an aerator tool and a sand collection unit. It is

installed along with a belt conveyor on the prepared sand line downstream from

a mixer. In addition to on-conveyor installation, between-conveyor or head-on

configurations are also possible. It is designed for all standard conveyor sizes,

takes up little space and can easily be adapted to existing conveyors.

Eirich sand preparation systems installed as complete or partial solutions are

highly versatile and can be adapted to different molding technologies and sand

parameters. They supply sand to molding lines made by all manufacturers. The

portfolio includes material handling, pre-treatment, return sand storage, sand

preparation and transfer to the molding line. Eirich can supply individual machines

or turn-key sand preparation solutions.

Hall 17, Stand A 38


A selection of innovative Chemex

feeders (Photo: Chemex)


Telefeeder technology for Aluminium

sand casting

A newly developed feeder material by

Chemex, Delligsen, Germany, makes

it possible: The approved and patented

telefeeder technology can now also

be used for aluminium sand casting.

This innovation allows for a significant

reduction of the melting, fettling

and parting costs, which means that

castings can be manufactured more


Up until 2014 technological and economic

circumstances made it impossible

to apply the innovative, modern

feeder technology in this sector. The

new feeder material from Chemex –

specially developed to meet the requirements

for aluminum casting – enables

this sector to benefit from the

advantages provided by the telefeeder

technology, from which the iron and

steel casting sector has benefited for

the past approx. 20 years.

Apart from the common open cylindrical

feeders, Chemex now also supplies

the entire range of telefeeders to

the aluminium casting sector in modules

starting from 0,8-8,5 cm. In so doing,

Chemex makes an important contribution

to the competitiveness of the

foundry industry.

Hall 12 - Stand C 50












• Blast Furnace - Capacity

2 Million Tonnes Per

Annum- Refurbished 2007

• Pulverised Coal

Injection Plant -

CMI / Paul Wurth

• Basic Oxygen Steel

Making Plant -

170 Tonnes Converters

• Continuous Caster -

Voest Alpine Twin Strand



• Continuous Caster - Demag Single Strand

• Electric Ladle Furnace - 160 Tonnes Capacity

• Sinter Plant - Delattre / Levivier

• Torpedo Cars and Locomotives

• Vibratory Screens – Skako




To view and bid on the lots, please visit:


For further details on technical specification or to arrange an inspection contact:

STEVE TRIBE Tel.: + 44 (0) 7836 688453 steve.tribe@liquidityservices.com

In association with

94 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


World market leader for core

shop equipment

Laempe & Mössner GmbH, Barleben,

is a German based international supplier

of core shooters and solutions

for core shops in the foundry industry.

Present in all relevant branches,

e.g. automotive, truck or railway industry,

Laempe & Mössner covers all

areas of core making. State-of-the-art

production equipment and technologies

assure the quality of the systems

of the company, whilst high flexibility

characterizes production and logistics.

Fundamental for the success are

the qualified and motivated employees.

Laempe & Mössner has about 300

employees worldwide at two German

locations in Barleben (headquarters)

and Schopfheim. With over 25 representatives

worldwide as well as direct

distribution Laempe & Mössner generates

an annual turnover of 65 million

Euros (2013).

At GIFA 2015 Laempe & Mössner focuses

all its interests on resource-efficient

production. Among other exhibits,

the company will present a product

range from lab machines to high-performance

core shooting machines. The

machines will show innovations that

do not only meet the increasing demands

on tool weight and precision in

tool guidance but also provide easier

operation and optimized control technology.

Hall 15, Stand F 2


Top of the Range: Extremely fast

cycle time thanks to solid design –

the LHL-series (here: LHL50) automatic

core shooters can cope with

the most challenging tasks (Photo:




- 5.7” T S D

- R S

- D L


- S ,

- N M

- G P

- I W O

O.M.LER 2000 H

- L ( E )


16.-20. JUNI 2015


High temperature resistant


During the last 35 years, the Insulcon

Group (Insulcon and Kermab) has

grown into the leading supplier of high

temperature resistant products with

thermal shock-, chemical and wear resistance

and/or high thermal insulation

properties for industrial energy


Insulcon was founded in 1980 and

with the experience since then of over

160 dedicated, specialized professionals

in heat management, the company is

confident to be the matching partner:

as manufacturer, adviser and as trouble

shooter. Innovative tailor-made solutions

are available for almost any application.


the Insulcon Group will show:

» HT Composite; a thin but strong,

> 1,350 °C, extreme thermal shock

resistant composite, composed out

of high temperature resistant ceramic

endless fibers and matrices, based

on metal oxides like AL 2

O 3

, mullite

or SiO 2

. Available in each required

thickness starting from 0,5 mm.

» Insulvax 1600 P shapes (1,600 °C)

manufactured by vacuum forming

high performance refractory fibres,

blended with specially selected organic

and inorganic refractory binders.

» Refrex heat shields, zone dividers,

mono en multi tube bellows and dust

free LTM hot face finish (REL system)

up to 1,400 °C.

» Wearflex tube seals and expansion

joints; flexible connections in air, flue

gas pipes and duct systems found in

all kind of industries

» Wearflex insulation covers; tailor-made

prefabricated insulation

mattresses of all kind of shapes and

in all kinds of dimensions.

» High temperature resistant textile,

manufactured in our Temse (B) industrial

high temperature textile plant

(Keramab N.V.)

» Hot spot repair and hot endoscopy

inspection services. Repair and/or inspection

of damaged refractory (LTM)

linings during full operation!

Keramab N.V. (part of the Insulcon

Group) is one of the leading manufacturers

of high temperature resistant

(textile) products up to 1,260 °C.

In our state of the art textile plant in

Temse, Belgium, a wide range of insulation

and sealing end products are being

custom made, such as twisted ropes, fibre

ropes, braided and knitted packings,

woven and knitted tapes, sleeves and

cloths. All Keramab products are available

in a wide range of dimensions and

various raw materials.

Whether made from E-Glass, HT-

Glass, ceramic fibres, body soluble fibres

or silica, with or without a special coating,

Keramab’s high temperature textiles

are always high quality and the best

solution to all gaskets and sealing applications

within the industry.

Hall 9, Stand D2



Head office of the Insulcon Group in Steenbergen, The Netherlands: Warehouse,

production facilities and offices (Photo: Insulcon)

please visit us:

METEC 2015 hall 5 booth D 26


Transport crucibles for aluminium


Transport crucibles for liquid aluminium

in foundries can have an essential

impact on the quality of the liquid metal.

Hydrogen pick-up and abrasion of refractory

material must be prevented to

avoid contamination of the melt.

Drache Umwelttechnik, Diez, Germany,

offers transport crucibles which

match even the highest quality demands.

The precast crucibles are manufactured

from Drache’s genuine refractory

material Drache fused silica, which

is characterized by its excellent non-wetting

properties, erosion resistance, thermal

shock resistance as well as resistance

again aluminium foundry alloys, combined

with a relatively low thermal conductivity.

Transport crucibles made by Drache

are always precast, fully dried and fired.

They are shipped as a ready-to-use,

moisture free part, which can be installed

immediately with no need for

further thermal treatment.

All crucibles are fully customized to

match the individual needs of the

foundry. In addition to the crucibles

themselves, Drache offers the full package

of installation services, including

the installation of a highly efficient insulation

as well the precast Drache fused

silica liner into existing steel housings.

Furthermore, beyond the crucibles

and installation services, Drache can

offer preheating stations as well as

highly efficient holding stations with

very low power consumption, keeping

the Aluminium liquid inside the crucibles

between two casts.

Hall 12, Stand C 22


Precast Drache fused silica transport

crucible for aluminium foundries

(Photo: Drache)


By order of Alcoa Australia & Alcoa Inc.






LOCATIONS: Point Henry, VIC; & Yennora, NSW; Australia

and Various Locations in USA & Canada

Australia Equipment





To view and bid on the lots, visit: http://tiny.cc/go-dove_CPTI

USA Equipment



To view and bid on the lots, visit: http://tiny.cc/084cyx

USA & Canada Equipment




To view and bid on the lots, visit: http://tiny.cc/ra5cyx

For further information, please contact:


Telephone: +61 (0) 404 800 397


Punkt-Sp_Federdorn_85x128_sw_eng.indd 1 18.03.15 10:01

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 97


Analysis of molten white iron

before pouring

Suyash Solutions Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India,

specializes in manufacturing carbon

cups, thermocouple tips, oxy

probes, samplers, carbon silicon analysers

(CSA) & temperature measuring

instruments for molten grey cast iron

& steel.

The patented super cup (carbon cup)

is the most economical way for instantaneous

and dependable analysis of

molten grey cast, ductil iron or white

iron before pouring. CSA detects CE, C

& Si in 45 s with unmatched accuracy.

CSA has got facility to measure molten

metal temperature also.

Hall 11, Stand 9


Modern bright annealing furnace (Photo: FK Industrieofen + Schutzgastechnik)


Bright annealing furnace for

tubular heating elements

FK Industrieofen + Schutzgastechnik

GmbH, Hagen, Germany, will attend

again the THERMPROCESS fair

during the time from 16. – 20. June

2015. The company will show its innovative

concepts which are the

guideline of the company for more

than 40 years.

“The whole spectrum of the heat

treatment technology out of one

hand” – following this guideline, you

get information about the most modern

heat treatment technologies, special

inert gas generators for DRI (direct

reduced iron) technologies, as well as

modern technologies for generating

inert gas.

This time the company will exhibit

a modern bright annealing furnace for

tubular heating elements. The tubular

heating elements will be transported

through heat resistant tubes made of

special heat resistant steel. The annealing

temperature will be approximately

1,150 °C. The tubes are filled with inert

gas (N 2

and/or H 2

). The inert gas remains

in the tubes during the annealing

process, because inlet and outlet of

the tubes are closed with special elastic

gaskets. The extreme low inert gas consumption

of max. 0,1 Nm³/h guarantees

excellent annealing results under

economic top conditions.

Modern pneumatic tensioning devices,

installed on the automatic feeding

device, guarantee a fast loading

and even feeding and transport of the

tubular heating elements into the furnace.

The feeding speed is adjustable

by use of a frequency converter. The

standard annealing furnaces are designed

with 2 up to 30 annealing channels

in accordance with customer´s

needs. The standard furnaces have a

throughput from 5 kg/h up to

300 kg/h. An additional cooling of the

tubular heating elements by means of

cooling water is not necessary. The

cooling tubes dispend the radiant heat

directly to the atmosphere. Due to the

number of tubes it is possible to reach

a large heat dissipation which makes

an additional cooling with water unnecessary.

The amortization time of the annealing

furnace is very short due to energy

savings and savings in inert gas and


Halle 9 B 29


98 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Installed thermal reclamation plant (Photo: FAT)


Thermal reclamation of

no-bake sand

Since 1973 the company FAT, Niederfischbach,

Germany, supports the

foundry industry with equipment. FAT

is able to provide the complete product

range for mold production and sand

reclamation in the no-bake sector.

Environmental protection, economic

use of resources and higher getting

demands on casting quality makes a

continuous development in processes

necessary for foundries. Economical

and sustainable recycling is becoming

more and more important.

By using a thermal reclamation the

organic binder, which is still on the

sand (LOI), gets burned. The system

ensures compliance with the German

“air quality regulations”. It has a thin

sand hight in the oven, therby every

sand grain has contact with the flame

and fine sands can be regenerated. The

reclaim sand has a loss of ignition

(LOI) of up to 0,1 %.

A decision for a thermal reclamation

offers following possibilities:

in bypass, generating new sand from

reclaimed sand. This generated new

sand can be added flexibly to the reclaimed

sand, which means a reduction

of LOI or treating reclaimed sand,

which should be removed to dump.

This thermal re-claimed sand can be

used as new sand.

A thermal reclamation is a chance to

minimize the costs for new sand as well

as the quantity and costs of used sand

which must be disposed. The acquisition

costs for new sand and the disposal

costs can be reduced by up to 95 %.

With costs of

» 40 € per t new sand and

» 40 € per t waste sand

a thermal reclamation produces potential

saving, of

» about 100,000 Euro/year in case of 8

t new sand per day

» about 240,000 Euro/year in case of

16 t new sand per day

» about 680,000 Euro/year in case of

42 t new sand per day

The maintenance-friendly system

does not need foundations and can be

integrated in existing plants respectively


Hall 15, Stand H 14




www.alpinemetaltech.com VISIT US AT METEC | HALL 04, BOOTH 4E18

Titel Key_Casting 2014.fh11 23.05.2013 12:35 Uhr Seite 1



Titel_Key Casting 2015.indd 3 29.04.15 09:16


(Photo: Euromac)

Foundry plants and core making


Euromac S.r.l., Marano Vicentino, Italy,

has served the foundry industry for

more than 50 years, originally under

the company name “CPF”.

Its speciality is the manufacture of

green sand molding lines, core making

machines and associated sand plant,

metal handling and treatment equipment.

The technical office, supported by

3-D model software, designs the entire

lines & machineries, takes care of every

detail thanks to the cooperation with

customer’s technicians and with the

purpose to find solutions suitable for

the foundry production requirements.

In the factory in Marano Vicentino,

Euromac takes care of all the production

phases. The facility is completed

with high specs CNC machines & high

performance workstations.

Its sales network covers most of the

states all over the world, in particular

Europe, Mexico, Brazil, North Africa,

Russia and India.

Furthermore Euromac is focused on

the South American market where a

branch facility has been built in Brazil.

Euromac America Latina carries out the

manufacturing and the assembl ing of

the same equipment produced in Italy.

Euromac’s philosophy is to pay special

attention to details and the individual

needs of the customers.

Manufacturing Program:

» Core making machines and robot

production cells (shell process, croning,

cold and hot box; inorganic processes)

» Automatic green sand molding lines

» Core sand preparation, mixing and

distribution plant

» Shell molding machines, complete

of automatic gluing systems

» Gas generators for isocure (Amine),

CO 2

SO 2

and betaset

» Amine scrubber towers

» Hydraulic molding machines

» Pouring, treatment and automatic

metal transfer and handling plant

for ladles

» Metal treatment plant with ferroalloys

dosing or cored wired inoculation

for nodular cast iron.

» Decore machines

Halle 16, Stand H 22-05


The KEY to Casting Industry and Suppliers 2014


to Casting Industry

and Suppliers THE KEY



2015. 14,8 x 21,0 cm, 68 pages

ISBN 978-3-87260-180-3

Order your free sample copy!


The Key to Casting

Industry 2015

The KEY to Casting Industry 2015 is a comprehensive English-language reference work,

a navigation aid through the international supply markets for the foundry industry.

Internationally active suppliers and equipment manufacturers

present themselves in a clearlystructured form.

GIESSEREI-VERLAG GMBH Postfach 10 25 32 · D-40016 Düsseldorf

Tel. +49 211 69936-264 · E-Mail: annette.engels@stahleisen.de · www.giesserei-verlag.de

The_Key_Casting_1_3_Q_D.indd 1 01.06.15 14:01

100 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Energetic air purification

through innovative heat

pump technology

Die casting processes generate huge

amounts of gases and vapors, which

consist of aerosols and fine smoke particles.

Due to the occupational safety

and environmental protection, these

must be removed from the work area.

For some foundry this is not an easy

task, because each foundry is designed

differently and standardized solutions

do not always provide the optimum

solution for individual plants.

KMA Umwelttechnik GmbH, Königswinter,

Germany, is specialized since

more than 25 years on the development

of energy-saving and environmentally

friendly methods of exhaust

air purification in foundries. KMA offers

to each exhaust air problem the

best solution. Today´s most energy efficient

method of exhaust air treatment

is the recirculating air mode. Due to the

high filtration efficiency of the KMA

electrostatic precipitators the purified

air often gets discharged back to the

workplace. Thus, the air circulates in

the hall and compared to the exhaust

air mode excessive heat loss can be

avoided during the heating period. Accordingly,

this method offers the greatest

potential for energy savings. However,

certain production processes or

the company´s corporate philosophy

in general does not always enable a recirculating

air mode. In addition, peripheral

devices – such as sprayers, furnaces

and presses – sometimes limit the

space around the die casting machine.

Therefore, installing extraction devices

such as hoods sometimes become impossible.

But even in such cases an energy-efficient

air purification solution

needs to be placed.

This view is what KMA Umwelttechnik

is standing for and that’s the reason

why they developed for such applications

an energy-efficient air filtration

system, which operates in an exhaust

air mode. The new system with a highly

efficient heat recovery system enables

by the use of 1 kW of energy (electricity)

to achieve more than 20 kW of

heat output due to utilizing the waste

heat. The high efficiency is based on an

innovative heat pump technology,

which will be introduced at the GIFA

exhibition 2015.

Hall 11, Stand H 73


RWP GmbH, Bundesstraße 77, 52159 Roetgen, Germany

Tel. +49(0)2471 1230-0



Customer success in mind

For many years Webac Gesellschaft für

Maschinenbau mbH, Euskirchen, Germany,

has been a reliable partner for

its customers, satisfying needs and requirements,

delivering quick and safe

solutions and providing the very best


In addition, the company offers innovations

from all the divisions of its

product range.

The product range of Webac:

» molding sand preparation plants

» core sand preparation plants

» sand regeneration plants (mechanical

and thermal)

» sand coating plants (also with proppants)

» No-bake molding systems

» High performance continous mixers

Webac Sandmixer WSM for molding sand preparation plants (Photo: Webac)

Hall 17, Stand A 41



New Dosing-Flux

A. Cesana company from Pero in Italy

will launch, at Gifa 2015, a new dosing

system called “Dosing-Flux” to perform

automatic addition of powdered

or granulated fluxes during transfer of

molten aluminium alloys.

The system is automatic and can be

placed either on a fixed or on a moving

station. Ideal as a retrofit on rotor degassing

machines or as a flux feeder for

transfer launders.

The dosing system eliminates the

manual addition problems.

Benefits include:

» Flux usage reduction.

» Improved and reproducible aluminium

quality thanks to the controlled

flux dosage.

» Reduced manual labour and improved

safety by keeping operators

out of the hazardous areas.

The “Dosing-Flux” system performs automatic addition of powdered or granulated

fluxes during transfer of molten aluminium alloys (Photo: A. Cesana)

The system is easily accessed for refilling

and maintenance. For the control of

nearly empty level in the hopper, Dosing-Flux

is equipped with a capacitative

sensor control. Ideal for all foundries,

casthouses and recycling plants.

Hall 12, Stand A 33


102 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Fire protection in the casting


Gases and fumes occur in many areas

in the metalworking industry. These

have to be removed by suction from

the workplace. Gases and fumes pose

a risk in exhaust pipes and filters.

Deposits in the exhaust pipe are extremely

dangerous. In addition to metal

parts, grease or wax can also condense

in the pipe. The process of

gravity casting contains additionally

proportions of the binder and the

blackening. When casting with lost

form polystyrene enters the air and

condenses in the pipe. The resulting

fire loads in the pipes are often underestimated.

The deposits can be ignited

by sparks or hot particles. This results

in glow nests or a fire in the exhaust

pipe. The fire extends in the conveying

direction. This process can last over a

long period of time.

Besides deposits in the exhaust pipes

a filter fire holds another risk. The exhaust

air can consist of many different

components. A very complex material

mixture can accumulate in the filter.

Depending on material, the accumulated

dusts can be flammable.

A fire in pipes or filters usually leads

to a shutdown for several days. Next

to the actual damage a delay in delivery

or even the loss of clients is imminent.

An individually tailored concept based

on a spark extinguishing system creates

remedy. The spark extinguishing

system detects and extinguishes sparks

before an actual fire starts.

The goal of a spark extinguishing

system is to detect the fire in its earliest

development. The selected extinguishing

medium is based on the material.

If the material is extinguishable with

water, a water extinguishment is the

cheapest option. For metals which

cannot be extinguished with water

(aluminum, magnesium and zinc) an

Filter with burn marks (Photo: Fagus-Grecon)

Argon-extinguishing system is an option.

Halle 15, Stand D 37



16. - 20. JUNE 2015

Please visit us at:

Hall 15 / F23


ConviTec GmbH

vibration machines and conveying technology

Project planning




ConviTec GmbH - Mühlheimer Straße 231 - D-63075 Offenbach - Germany - +49 (0) 69 / 84 84 897-0


Convitec_210_148.indd 1 22.05.15 08:52

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 103


Competent partner of the

foundry industry

Almost five decades of experience in

international plant engineering make

Klein Anlagenbau AG, Niederfischbach,

Germany, the competent partner

in the area of pneumatic conveying

systems, core sand preparation, sand

reclamation and peripheral foundry

equipment. The business activities of

Klein range from consultation to project

planning and execution; engineering

services, manufacture, installation

and start-up as well as training of operating

staff and after-sales services complement

this profile.

For modern core production the company

offers complete systems with the

main component, the unique core sand

mixer Statormix. Thanks to the special

design of this mixer with its horizontal

shaft and the two-chamber mixing

principle, most homogeneous core sand

mixtures are achieved in short mixing

times. This does in particular apply to

the preparation of inorganic sand-binder

mixtures, consisting of liquid and

powdery components. The preparation

of inorganic mixtures in a Statormix has

proven that considerably less binder is

consumed to achieve bending strengthes

comparable to those achieved with

conventional mixers.

Remarkable features are the tightness

of the mixer closure and very

short mixing cycles, contributing to

avoid moisture loss of the mixed batch.

The core sand mixer is equipped with

an integrated cleaning system by

means of which the mixer interior can

be kept clean very well. With three different

mixer sizes capacity demands of

up to 9 t/h can be met. More than 400

core sand preparation systems with

Statormix are operated worldwide.

During GIFA 2015 Klein will present

a complete core sand preparation plant

for inorganic binders, including a sand

conditioner for cooling/heating and

dedusting the sand, additive tanks

with disaggregation unit and dosing

screw, a pneumatic conveyor for additives,

a weighing system for the recipe

ingredients, a binder dosing system

and a core sand distribution system.

The energy-saving pneumatic conveyor

SP-HL was especially conceived

for the transport of granular bulk material

such as foundry sands. Visitors of

the companys booth in hall 16 will see

a tandem conveyor SP-HL in action,

where two conveyors feed sand into

one conveying pipe. With tandem installations

like that conveying capacities

of more than 20 t/h can be

achieved. More than 1000 SP-HL conveyors

are operated worldwide. Remarkable

features of the SP-HL are its

high performance with energy savings

of about 40 % compared to conventional

conveyors, its gentle transport

that saves the grain structure of the

sand as well as the minimal wear of the

conveying pipes and last but not least

its small space requirements.

In addition to the exhibited conveying

system for foundry sand, Klein also

supplies pneumatic conveyors for all

other materials handled in a foundry

such as bentonite, carbon dust, filter

dust, different additives etc.

Hall 16, Stand C11


Klein Anlagenbau AG develops and manufactures pneumatic conveying systems, core sand preparation systems and

used sand reclamation systems as well as peripheral foundry equipment (Photos: Klein)

104 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Infrared camera for temperatures

of up to 1,800 °C

The optris PI 1M thermal imaging camera

is the latest innovation in the camera

range of Optris GmbH, Berlin, Germany.

In addition to the well-known

advantages of Optris infrared cameras,

such as their compact size, USB interface

and license-free software, the new

PI 1M is the only model on the market

that features a continuous temperature

measurement range of 450 °C to

1,800°C, a frame rate of up to 1 kHz

and a choice of optical resolution/

frame rate modes. “The camera is designed

for measuring the temperature

of metal surfaces, graphite or ceramic,”

explains Torsten Czech, Product Marketing

Manager at Optris GmbH.

The optris PI 1M has an extensive

temperature measurement range of

450 °C to 1,800 °C. Unlike those of

other thermal imaging cameras in

this class, this range is continuous,

i.e. it can be used without subdivisions.

That means it no longer needs

to be switched for many applications,

making the camera much more versatile.

The highly dynamic CMOS detector

allows a maximum optical resolution

of 764 x 480 pixels at a frame rate

of 32 Hz. The ultra-compact infrared

camera can be switched to 382 x 288

pixels at 80 Hz or 27 Hz and 72 x 56

pixels at 1,000 Hz for fast processes.

“That way the camera can be operated

as a fast pyrometer,” adds Czech. “The

middle pixel can be displayed via a

0-10 V analog output with an adjustment

time of 1 ms in real time, which

Optris infrared cameras have frame

rates of up to 1,000 Hz for fast processes

(Photo: Optris)

puts it on a par with our high-performance


Halle 9, Stand B49
























CAN-ENG Furnaces International Limited is a leading designer and manufacturer of thermal

processing solutions. With 50 years of experience and installations worldwide, CAN-ENG

understands your business and its unique demands.

To learn more about CAN-ENG Furnaces International Limited’s Engineering, Design & Manufacturing

capabilities please visit us at GIFA in Düsseldorf, Germany, June 16 - 20, 2015 stand10G41,

www.can-eng.com or email furnaces@can-eng.com

P.O. Box 235, Niagara Falls, New York 14302-0235 www.can-eng.com | T. 905.356.1327 | F. 905.356.1817

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 105

StrikoWestofen engineers regularly evaluate the dosing system data recorded

and provided to them by the customers to take the needs of the companies

into account when developing the new series of dosing furnaces (Photo:



Dosing technology redesigned

Still under wraps: the StrikoWestofen

Group, Gummersbach, Germany, will

be surprising everyone at the GIFA

2015 in Düsseldorf with a completely

redesigned series of dosing furnaces.

According to the globally active

manu facturer of thermal process

technology, this marks the company’s

entry into the next stage of development

in dosing technology –

with numerous advantages for light

metal foundries. The new dosing furnaces

are to set new standards in the

fields of design, heating, efficiency,

controllability and operational safety

in particular.

How to reduce costs, save resources

and make work easier: aluminium

foundries are very experienced in the

constant optimization of their process

procedures and technologies. The StrikoWestofen

Group is no exception

here. For years now, the worldwide

manufacturer of thermal process technology

for light metal casting has been

well-known as an expert and a pioneer

for energy-efficient dosing and melting

solutions. In order to fulfil this

commitment in the future too, StrikoWestofen

is presenting the results of

its recent development work at the international

trade fair for the foundry

sector GIFA 2015 in Düsseldorf: a completely

redesigned series of dosing furnaces.

StrikoWestofen is also presenting

new options for the ProDos 3 control

to the specialist audience at the fair.

“We are proud to be a German company

at the forefront of development

whose innovations set new standards

for dosing furnaces in light metal casting.

Especially so considering that the

requirements – for the casting of structural

components for example – have

been steadily rising,” explains StrikoWestofen

General Manager Rudi

Riedel. “After years of development,

the GIFA is always precisely the right

context for presenting our innovations

to experts worldwide.” The focus

at StrikoWestofen was on offering a

new technology for aluminium foundries

with further improvements in

terms of availability, energy efficiency,

operation, operational safety, space

requirements and sustainability. This

is because even higher dosing precision

and easy controllability contribute

to saving resources and making life

easier for the personnel in foundry


The performance and availability of

dosing furnaces and the maintenance

effort they require can only be realistically

demonstrated by values measured

in practical operation. “5,000

Westomat sold mean 5,000 opportunities

to build on the experience of

our customers, which was valuable

and inspiring for our product development.

This is why good cooperation

with customers and manufacturers

of foundry machines is so

important for successful development”,

Riedel explains. For this reason,

the engineers from StrikoWestofen

regularly evaluate the

data coming from dosing systems.

These are recorded while the foundry

systems are in operation and are provided

to us by our customers. As these

values are based on the experience

gained with various in-situ parameters,

they give us information on the

optimum conditions in combination

with the foundry system used as well

as data showing the requirements of

a foundry company. “Among other

things, our new series profits from an

innovative type of heating, improved

insulations and an excellent, even

more functional design. Happily, we

were able to gain the services of an

internationally well-known machine

designer for the development of the

design” – that’s how much Peter

Reuther is prepared to reveal in advance.

In addition, our new developments

allow companies to make another

step towards doing more

sustainable business.”

Hall 11, Stand D 38


106 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Eco-friendly Geko LE and Ecosil LE green sand molding


Clariant, Muttenz/Basel, Switzerland, a world leader in specialty

chemicals, is gearing up to reveal its support for a greener foundry

industry at GIFA 2015. Visitors at the booth of the company can

look forward to a showcase of Clariant’s unique sustainable emission-reducing

casting additives

Geko LE and Ecosil

LE, already enabling more

eco-friendly production of

steel and iron castings by

We look after every

grain of sand

Pneumatic conveying


For dry, free flowing, abrasive

and abrasion-sensitive material

several major European automotive manufacturers.

Over 50 % of green sand castings produced in Europe in 2013 were

used in road vehicle production. The technology is used for molding

a vast array of vehicle components, including engine blocks, gearboxes,

drive shafts, suspension arms, and brake discs. It is characterized

by its flexibility, low cost as molds do not have to be pre-treated, short

cycle times and lower weight castings.

Ecosil LE and Geko LE significantly reduce emissions generated in

green sand mold casting. They build on the unrivaled precision,

smooth processability and surface finish, and easy shake out associated

with Clariant’s Ecosil lustrous carbon former ranges and Geko bentonite

boosters for green sand castings. Used together or individually,

Ecosil and Geko play an important role in mold production and

during the subsequent separation of casting and mold material.

Adding to the ranges’ sustainability value, customers choosing

those products have the assurance of Clariant’s responsible mining

approach, and long-term supply continuity guaranteed by Clariant’s

investment in its own bentonite mines and production facilities located

close to customers worldwide.

“Ecosil LE and Geko LE reinforce the market-leading position of

Clariant’s customizable Ecosil and Geko ranges, valued by the global

foundry industry for more than 25 years. As the only low emission

solution, they can help foundries comply with highly demanding

environmental regulations and standards. Customers also report a

significant reduction in additive quantity requirements.

The result is a one-of-a-kind efficient molding sand system that

supports manufacturers’ investment in becoming greener without

any compromise on mold quality or the surface finish of castings,”

comments Lorenzo Sechi, Head of Sales Foundry Additives Europe &

Middle East at Clariant.

Hall 12, Stand C 13


Ecosil LE and Geko LE

drastically reduce emissions

and help foundries

comply with highly demanding


regulations and standards

(Photo: Clariant)

Core sand preparation


Turn-key systems including sand

and binder dosing and

core sand distribution

Reclamation technology

Reclamation systems for

no-bake sand and core sand

GIFA 2015

Hall 16 / C11

Konrad-Adenauer-Straße 200 · D-57572 Niederfischbach

Phone ++49 27 34 / 5 01-3 01 · Telefax ++49 27 34 / 5 01-3 27

e-mail: info@klein-ag.de · http://www.klein-ag.de

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 107




Virtual experimentation using Magma 5 establishes the best compromise

between required quality and costs (Photo: Magma)

Fully optimize

At GIFA 2015, Magma GmbH, Aachen,

Germany, will present the next generation

of simulation software for process

optimization of all casting applications.

On its stand in Hall 12, the

company will demonstrate how casting

process simulation with Magma 5

contributes to foundry profitability

through optimization at all stages of

casting manufacturing.

In Düsseldorf, Magma will show the

new software version Magma 5.3 with

fully integrated capabilities for virtual

design of experiments and optimization,

and including extended capabilities

for all casting processes. For the

first time, Magma 5 5.3 makes virtual

experimentation and automatic optimization

on-screen possible. Robust

process conditions and optimized

solutions for casting layouts and part

production can be determined before

the first casting is produced. The software

is designed to find the best possible

conditions for runner dimensions,

gate positions and also for both the

position and optimum size of feeders

and chills. Foundrymen can use simulations

in a virtual proving ground to

pursue different quality and cost objectives


The company will present new options

for the simulation of all casting

processes and cast alloys, the optimization

of heat treatment processes, and

the optimization of the entire core production

process. Moreover, Magma

will provide insights into future developments

for high pressure die casting

and continuous casting. The use of

Magma results for a fast and easy exchange

of information, within a company

and for intensive communication

with customers, will be presented

interactively based on real examples.

A key focus of Magma’s GIFA presence

is on opportunities for further education

in the MagmaAcademy for foundrymen,

casting designers and casting


Hall 12, Stand A 20



Universal sand testing machine

and high volume sampler

for dust measurement

The innovative, computer-controlled

universal testing machine for molding

sands by Jung Instruments, Viersen,

Germany, enables the reproducible determination

of a large variety of mechanical-technological


– independent of the operator. The

robust, time- and space-saving unit is

designed and manufactured acc. to the

guidelines of the Association of German

Foundrymen (VDG) and bundles

many functions of a sand test lab. State

of the art technology combined with

ease of use and user-friendly operation

allows for a reliable quality control

of molding materials and helps

you avoid unnecessary costs of defective


The new dust collection device Gravikon

VC 25 II is designed for stationary

sampling of dust at work places with a

controlled flow rate of 22.5 m 3 /h. The

sampler combines new technologies in

operation and flow control with proven

and recognized dust collection. With

the original interchangeable sampling

heads of the former VC 25, type

Ströhlein, the collection of the inhalable

and respirable dust fraction acc. to

EN 481 is guaranteed. The filter cassettes

for filter diam. 150 mm enable

easy handling and safe transport and

shipment to the lab for subsequent

gravimetric and analytical evaluation.

Hall 13, Stand B 30


108 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Aero foundry edition - recommended

cleaning technology

A major issue for the foundry and forging

industries is the downtime caused

when cleaning permanent aluminum

molds, core boxes and vents, die

cast machines and tooling, shell core

molds, semi-solid castings and conveyors.

Cold Jet, Loveland, USA, has

developed an all new foundry edition

– a comprehensive application solution

that addresses all the needs for

the foundry industry.

The foundry edition systems are full

pressure dry ice cleaning systems packaged

with accessories that will provide

the best clean for the foundry environment.

They are performance class machines

utilizing the advanced sureFlow

pellet technology, featuring an isolated,

insulated hopper with advanced

agitation, internal pressure regulator,

full pressure dosing system, stainless

steel rotor and are equipped with

foundry-friendly accessories. They

guarantee the best pellet integrity,

maximum cleaning aggression and the

most reliable blast stream on the market.

Additional features and accessories

include an upgraded stainless steel rotor

for improved durability; a high performance

applicator with sealed electrical

switches, tough outer shell, designed

water release channels and dual triggers

to protect against moisture, grit and

drop damage; a urebrade blast hose

with fire sleeve to protect from high

temperatures and ensure continued

blast flow; Sureflow quick disconnect

fittings that are ultra-light and aerodynamic

to ensure full particle flow and

maximum performance; a low noise

foundry nozzle that is axisymmetric to

allow you to clean at a distance from the

contaminant without sacrificing pellet

integrity; and a protective machine cover

to provide a barrier around the machine

to shield the feeder system from

foreign contaminants and further protect

the investment.

Dry ice cleaning with the Cold Jet

aero foundry series offers significant

improvement in cleaning times (up to

60 %) as well as reduction of damage to

equipment and resulting scrap product.

Cold Jet aero foundry series offers

significant improvement in cleaning

times (up to 60 %) as well as reduction

of damage to equipment and

resulting scrap (Photo: Cold Jet)

Hall 16, Stand A 24



Part of the solution

Knight Wendling, Düsseldorf, Germany,

is a leading consulting firm in the

cast metals industry. Over 40 years of

experience, an extensive worldwide

network and in-depth market expertise

enable the company to provide

a comprehensive range of consulting

and engineering services

Strategic consulting comprises mergers

& acquisitions, due diligence and

joint-venture projects. In the field of

“merger & acquisition /due diligence

– strategic partnership” the firm has,

in the last 10 years, been involved in

about 80 of such projects for financial

and industrial interested parties working

either on buyer or seller side. This

represents approximately 20 % of all

closed deals in the casting industry.

Operational consulting offers creative,

practical yet sustainable solutions to

technical as well as operational issues

in the complete range of foundry processes.

Knight Wendling performs Interim-

and Turn-around Management

as part of their range of services. Within

the scope of the increasingly important

market globalisation, the firm

also provides for international/global

casting competence analysis. International

investment groups have consulted

Knight Wendling’s extensive

operational and strategic expertise

for operational audit & evaluation of

business potential, turnaround management

as well as for benchmarking

analysis and in-depth products’, technology

and market studies.

Together with sister company Gemco

Engineers the company is dedicated to

build long-term relationships with the

mission to make customers successful.

Clients can be found among international

key-players in the automotive

Benchmarking KPI (Image: Knight


industry, heavy machinery, railway,

wind energy, and many other business


Hall 16, Stand C12


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 109


Foundry Plant & Equipment

For 50 years, FTL Foundry Equipment

Ltd, Willenhall, UK, has been

designing and supplying technically

advanced molding and material

handling systems in a cost-effective

way. Visitors to GIFA will again get a

chance to witness some of FTL’s latest

innovative technology for no bake and

green sand molding plants, reclamation

and material handling systems.

At GIFA, FTL will be highlighting its

know-how and expertise in offering

complete turnkey projects, providing

plant design, consultancy, through

to project management. On display

will be a range of its No Bake Equipment

with FTL’s full range of foundry

material handling equipment to give

increased productivity and improved

casting quality.

FTL has designed and installed

equipment in many notable foundries

in the UK and is building a well-earned,

respected reputation in foundries all

around the world in particular repeat

orders from Turkey Russia, Scandinavia,

Europe and the Middle East having

commissioned and installed a variety

of plant and equipment in those regions

over the years. As UK foundries

consolidate their position, overseas

customers are investing in new production

capacity or converting from older

greensand production to chemically

bonded molding. FTL has an extensive

range of chemically bonded sand mixing,

molding and reclamation equipment

for them to choose from. From

simple manual handling, semi auto or

fully automatic molding plants with

30tph mixer & linear molding plant

with rollover strip (Photo: FTL)

versatile mold shuttle, loop or carousel

molding and auto rollover strip machines

to the latest design.

Hall 15 Stand H15



One stop cast iron pipe production

In 2014, Küttner Centrifugal Casting

GmbH, a joint venture with Düker

(both Karlstadt, Germany) has been

completely integrated at Küttner, Essen,

Germany. In the production of

ductile iron pressure pipes Küttner

is able to offer the melting operation

up to centrifugal casting, everything

from a single source, as well as the engineering

for the complete pressure

pipe manufacturing plant including

the fitting foundry.

Ductile iron pressure pipes in nominal

sizes 80-1200 mm are produced in

Delavaud-centrifugal process in which

the molds are spinning in a water bath.

This process enables the production of

up to 80 pipes per hour for smaller diameters.

Highest process accuracy and

optimum material logistics or liquid

iron logistics are basic requirements for

a consistent quality and a continuous


The Delavaud centrifugal casting

machines are equipped with an automatic

pouring system, which allows a

flying exchange of ladles during the

solidification cycle. A precise dosage of

liquid iron allows the production of

very small wall thicknesses of class C40

with the best possible material efficiency.

The liquid iron is introduced via

runners into the mold. Two runners

are alternately in use, allowing cleaning

and maintenance of the standby

runner during the operation. The runners

remain fixed, while the machine

carriage moves with the mold. Into the

mold a sand core is inserted, which

models the pipe sleeve. An optical sensor

on the bell end of the mold detects

the incoming liquid metal and triggers

the traveling motion of the machine

DeLavaud centrifugal casting machine

(Photo: Küttner)

carriage. In the end position, the pipe

is automatically extracted from the

mold and the casting cycle starts again.

The Delavaud centrifugal casting machines

are just one component of a fully

automated production line: from

casting, heat treatment, mechanical

processing, coating inside and outside,

etc. Küttner integrates the centrifugal

casting machines into existing production

lines or provides the engineering

and supply of completely new plants.

Hall 16, Stand G 26

Hall 4, Stand C 28


110 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Gamma 400 G – improved blast performance,

higher uptimes and easier maintenance

Shot blasting for surface cleaning and surface preparation

represents an indispensable manufacturing

phase in many metal-processing industries. Generally,

blast turbines are the most expensive component

of many shot blasting system, requiring significant

upkeep in terms of maintenance and wear parts.

By simply turning the Y-shaped throwing blades

in the new Gamma 400 G turbines around, both

blade sides can be utilized resulting in a doubling

of the uptime compared to conventional blast

turbines (Photo: Rösler)

At the GIFA exhibition in Düsseldorf, Rösler,

Untermerz bach, Germany, will present its newly developed

and extremely versatile Gamma 400 G blast

turbine which will be setting new standards in cost

efficiency. For example, compared to conventional

turbines the Gamma 400 G offers a 100 % higher

uptime and a significantly improved blast performance

together with drastically reduced maintenance


Rösler GmbH is international market leader in the

production of surface finishing, shot blasting machines,

painting systems and preservation lines as

well as process technology for the rational surface

finishing (deburring, descaling, sand removal, polishing,

grinding…) of metals and other components.

Besides the German plants in Untermerzbach and

Bad Staffelstein, the Rösler Group has branches in

Great Britain, France, Italy, The Netherlands, Belgium,

Austria, Switzerland, Spain, Romania, Russia,

China, India, Brazil, South Africa and USA.

Hall 16 Stand G 40


Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 111

Anzeige_CT_P_International_022015.indd 1 11.05.2015 14:24:08

Gemco realized the expansion of the iron foundry of Georg Fischer in Kunshan, China (Photo: Gemco)


Complete foundry solutions

Gemco Engineers, Eindhoven, The

Netherlands, counts for more than 35

years of worldwide experience in the

foundry industry and offers dedicated

foundry solutions for iron, steel, aluminum

and all other castable metals. The

company’s track record includes the

realization of over 100 Greenfield and

Brownfield foundries worldwide. Gemco

operates from offices in The Netherlands,

Germany, China, Mexico and

Russia. An extensive global network of

foundry experts cover all foundry disciplines

and provides a full range of services

from process- and feasibility studies,

(concept-) engineering, design, and

planning and project management of

smaller as well as bigger projects up to

overall contracting and turnkey realization

of foundry projects. Further services

encompass, among other:

Engineering and Management of

Foundry Projects:

» Master-planning capital investments

(greenfield / brownfield / modernizations)

» Operational and financial feasibility


» Energy and logistic simulations/process

integration and interface engineering

» Risk management and project control

» Contracting and turnkey deliveries

Dedicated Installations:

» For improvement of ergonomics

» For improvement of safety and environment

» For efficiency improvements

Gemco Engineers is an independent

company and makes use of the latest

technology and engineering tools

such as 3-D design and Foundry Logistics

Simulation, emphasizing on

Efficiency, Energy and Environment.

Clients can be found among international

key-players in the automotive

and truck industry, mining, dredging,

oil & gas, rail, heavy machinery, wind

energy and many other business sectors.

Recent and current projects include

foundry modernizations in Europe

and the USA and new foundries

in Mexico and China.

Hall 16, Stand C 12


Advertisers‘ Index

ABP Induction Systems GmbH 43

AGTOS Ges. für technische Oberflächensysteme mbH 71

Alpine Metal Tech Holding GmbH 99

Hannover-Messe ANKIROS FUARCILIK A. S. 79

ASK Chemicals GmbH 45

Bühler AG 11

Büro für angewandte Mineralogie 44

CAN-ENG Furnaces 105

ConviTec GmbH 103

Gustav Eirich GmbH & Co. KG 2

Eltra GmbH 80

Euromac spa 61

FRIEDRICH Schwingtechnik GmbH 92

Giesserei Verlag GmbH 48, 72, 100

112 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


The HA Group – innovative

and multifaceted

Casting has been for centuries and

will remain in the future one thing

above all else: an innovative process.

The Hüttenes-Albertus Group, Düsseldorf,

Germany, has set itself the goal to

be a reliable and inventive partner to

all foundries – worldwide and with all

products and services that are required

for advanced and efficient casting processes.

At GIFA 2015 Hüttenes-Albertus will

be represented by its very own GIFA

foundryman. He will guide the visitors

over the HA Group stand in hall 12 and

will show them the way to various exhibits,

presentations and demonstrations.

The world’s leading foundry fair is

the ideal platform to present the latest

developments and trends relating to

foundry chemistry. Visitors can expect

numerous exhibits – from very small

and filigree parts to huge castings.

Based on these displays the results of

intensive research and technological

progress can be discussed in detail.

More than 30 subsidiaries and trading

partners of the HA Group will be represented

by technical and sales experts at

the GIFA stand, to answer all questions

and provide comprehensive advice.

The major challenge in our time is

the compatibility of high productivity

with environmentally friendly raw materials

and „green“ casting processes.

The Hüttenes-Albertus Group accepted

the challenge and will present various

innovations and developments regarding

organic and inorganic binder systems

and foundry auxiliary materials.

When developing environmentally

friendly and economical products

Hüttenes-Albertus did not only focus

its efforts on inorganic binder systems

– even if this will surely be a major topic

of interest at GIFA. Further progress

was also made in the field of established

organic processes. Cold-Box systems

with reduced emissions and carbon

are important keywords.

In the product category coatings specific

emphasis is laid upon the new impregnation

coating against the casting

defect “white film”, which can occur

on casting surfaces. Interested visitors

can certainly find out more about this

innovation at the HA stand but they are

also welcome to attend the lecture at

the Technical Forum. A further presentation

will be held about the latest innovations

in feeder technology, where



(Image: HA)

great advancements

have been

made regarding

aluminium sand


The HA Group

is known to lay

value on the education

of new

young talents and

therefore gladly

supports the initiative


Interesting experiments and

demonstrations will be carried out on a

separate stand. The aim is to familiarize

the young groups of visitors with the

exciting world of foundry chemistry.

The team of experienced chemists and

analysts was overwhelmed by the participation

in past years and expect even

more young visitors this year.

Overall GIFA visitors can expect much

action at Hüttenes-Albertus‘ stand – be

it the machines, animations or exhibits.

Hall 12, Stand C 50


GLAMA Maschinenbau GmbH 59

GoIndustry (UK) Limited 94

GTP Schäfer GmbH 97

HOMA Hochstromtechnik GmbH & Co. KG 67

Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke GmbH 118




Jasper Ges. für Energiewirtschaft & Kybernetik mbH 30

JÖST GmbH + Co. KG 111


Targi Kielce S.A. 94

Klein Anlagenbau AG 107

Helmut Klumpf Technische Chemie KG 70

KMA Umwelttechnik GmbH 87

Küttner GmbH & Co. KG 39

Liquidity Services Global Solutions Pty Ltd 97

Metef Srl 23

Monometer Holdings Ltd 90

O.M.LER 2000 S.R.L. 95

Refratechnik Casting GmbH 37

Regloplas AG 93

Retsch Technology GmbH 81

RÖSLER Oberflächentechnik GmbH 49

Konrad Rump Oberflächen technik GmbH & Co. KG 91

RWP GmbH 101

S&B Industrial Minerals GmbH 9

Space Srl 63

Rudolf Uhlen GmbH 70


VETTER Krantechnik GmbH 55, 56

VHV Anlagenbau GmbH 89

Heinrich Wagner Sinto Maschinenfabrik GmbH 31

WEBAC Gesellschaft für Maschinenbau mbH 88

Eugen Weil 14

WOKO Magnet- und Anlagenbau GmbH 38

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 113


Heat treatment solutions

6 pages, English

This brochure sets out the range of materials and complementary products developed

by Mersen for thermal applications, for example, resistors, insulating elements,

walls and channels. The materials used include graphite, carbon and carbon

composites, rigid carbon and carbon foam insulation materials, etc.

Information: www.mersen.com

Laser welding

8 pages, English

A product catalogue presenting laser welding systems offered by joke Technology.

Product photos and descriptions, technical data, fields of application as well as descriptions

of additional features of the products are provided. Also accessories such

as work positioners or magnetic clamping balls are covered by the brochure.

Information: www.joke.de

Two-platen die casting machine

8 pages, English, Italian, German, Spanish

A brochure setting out the range of two-platen die casting machines offered by

Italpresse-Gauss. It lists the key advantages of the toggle-free casting machine

design and contains a table of technical data for all machine types as well as various

photos and drawings illustrating the components and the outstanding features of

these machines.

Information: www.italpresse.it; www.gaussautomazione.it

Rotary bed regenerator

4 pages, English, German

A product brochure detailing the functioning principle and the advantages of the

EcoReg® rotary bed regenerator developed by Jasper. Photographs and drawings

illustrate the process flow and explain the key components of this regenerator design,

which is custom-built for gas, oil and coal dust furnace systems.

Information: www.jasper-gmbh.de

114 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015

Vibrating and conveying solutions

24 pages, English, German, French

A brochure summarizing the range of vibrating and conveying solutions offered by

ConviTec. This includes equipment like shake-out systems, casting coolers, picking

conveyors, sand regeneration systems, polygonal screens, conveyor belts, vibrating

machines as well as the associated drive, control and visualization systems.

Information: www.convitec.net

Mobile metals analyzer

6 pages, English

A brochure describing the performance features and innovative aspects of the analyzer

system Q4 Mobile offered by Bruker. The mobile optical emission spectrometer

is designed for all fields of application in metal sorting and analysis, such as incoming

goods inspection and mix-up tests.

Information: www.bruker.com/oes

Universal sand testing machine

4 pages, English

A brochure presenting a new sand testing instrument developed by Jung Instruments.

Due to its comprehensive functionalities and wide-ranging analysis options,

the instrument may replace an entire sand test lab. The brochure provides an overview

of the technical parameters, benefits and specifications of the instrument.

Information: www.jung-instruments.com

Cast, forged and welded parts and constructions

16 pages, English, German

A comprehensive brochure outlining the range of activities and services provided by

Cast-Con Engineering, a company specialized in the construction, optimization and

supply of castings, welded constructions and forgings for plant engineering applications

as well as melting plants.

Information: www.cast-con.de

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 115


Fairs and Congresses

Metallurgy/Tube/Aluminium 2015

June, 8-11, 2015, Moskow/Russia



June, 16-20, 2015, Düsseldorf/Germany


Aluminium China

July, 8-10, 2015, Shanghai/China


China Diecasting 2015

July, 8-10, 2015, Shanghai/China


Foundry China 2015

September, 8-10, Beijing/China


55th International Foundry Conference

September, 16-18, 2015, Portorož/Slovenia


Next Metef scheduled

for 2017

Metef, expo of customized technology

for the aluminium and innovative

metals industry, and its siding shows

Foundeq, Metalriciclo and Alumotive

move to odd-numbered years.

This choice was announced by

Giovanni Mantovani, General Manager

of trade fair organiser Veronafiere, and

aims at meeting the needs of the adhering

companies by showcasing the specialization

of the Italian and European

firms in the aluminium and innovative

metals industry in a single event scheduled

for June 21-24, 2017.

In force of this process, Metef will invest

on a communication plan that involves

a further development of Metef’s

project, approaching new markets and

offering real business opportunities to

the companies that invest on the expo.

This is why from 2015 Metef is organizing

a series of Road Shows and B2B

meetings in different reference markets

to boost promotion by the potential

visitors of the show’s next edition, that

is international specialized operators,

technicians and purchasing managers

as well as foreign institutional de le -

gations in order to side the e xhibiting

companies in an uninterrupted

relationship path in view of the expo.

The fair cooperates with Amafond – Italian

association of companies which produce

machinery, plants, furnaces products

and services for the foundry


Visitors watch a multi-piston squeeze

molding machine at Metef 2014

(Photo: Veronafiere)

“It’s a crucial decision having a major

evolution value for Metef in the light of

the economic context of the Italian and

European manufacturing industry. This

change will make us focus even more on

promoting the event abroad with ad

hoc projects and in dedicated markets

aimed at bringing international operators

to our show” – says Giovanni Mantovani.

Veronafiere along with Amafond,

Assomet – Italian Association of

Non-Ferrous Metals Industries, Assofond

– Italian Foundries’ Association,

Anfia– Italian Association of the Automotive

Industry, Assofermet - National

Association for the distribution of Iron

& Steel products and ferrous and non

ferrous scrap collection, and AIB – Industrial

Association of Brescia, which

represent some of the business sectors

present at the exhibition, will work together

to consolidate the expo 10-edition

experience thus offering real business

opportunities to the exhibiting


“We have satisfied the needs of our

exhibitors and of the international

technical and scientific communities

who asked for the show to be in a different

period from that of other sector

events thus allowing potential foreign

operators to visit the exhibition and

come to know the Italian sector excellence

products, which have showed the

international players their capability to

offer innovative and customized solutions

in quick time”, explains Giovanni


Metef has gone through the structural

changes of the global economic system

and the aluminium global production

chain and has adjusted its contents

and communication strategies to the

new evolving situations. In this respect,

the expo has magnified its efforts and

commitment to represent and protect

the interests of the small and medium

converting enterprises upstream the aluminium

and innovative metals production

chain. These sectors are the real

propellers of the downstream application

development and account for the

largest share of the entire sector’s workforce

in Italy and Europe.


116 Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015


Preview of the next issue

Publication date: 4 September 2015

Selection of topics:

Strong bath movement is possible

with the new furnaces in the Frischhut

foundry allowing rapid material corrections,

e. g. a subsequent carburizing

increasing the flexibility of foundries

with a large product range (Photo:

BDG/R. Piterek)

R. Piterek: Towards smaller batch sizes with product flexibility

The fittings foundry Frischhut in Neumarkt-Sankt Veit, Bavaria, Germany, has invested three million Euros in more flexible and energy-saving

production. The company is thus well equipped for the future. Maintenance Manager Max Altmannshofer played an important part in the

modernization process – a caster with a penchant for extreme sports

S. Borgs; W. Stets: Porosity in ductile cast iron and its influence on mechanical properties

The most common defects in ductile cast iron are porosities or microscopic shrink holes as a result of shrinkage. As part of a research project

funded by AiF, a German Research Network for SMEs, the negative impact of increasing porosity on the mechanical properties of samples

made of ductile cast iron was quantified

Interview: Designing optimal production processes

Complex casting concepts require accomplished foundry expertise, the necessary technical equipment, extensive experience, and a high

degree of interdisciplinary competence. How suppliers face this challenge was the issue of an interview with Jörg Brotzki, a member of the

senior leadership at ASK Chemicals, Hilden, Germany, a manufacturer of foundry chemicals and auxiliaries


Pub lish er:

Ger man Foundry As so ci a tion

Ed i tor in Chief :

Michael Franken M.A.

Ed i tor:

Robert Piterek M.A.

Ed i to ri al As sist ant:

Ruth Fran gen berg-Wol ter

P.O. Box 10 51 44

D-40042 Düsseldorf

Tele phone: (+49-2 11) 68 71-358

Tele fax: (+49-2 11) 68 71-365

E-mail: re dak tion@bdguss.de

Pub lished by:

Gies se rei-Ver lag GmbH

P.O. Box 10 25 32

D-40016 Düsseldorf, Ger ma ny

Tele phone: (+49-2 11) 69936-200

Tele fax: (+49-2 11) 69936-225

E-Mail: cpt@stah lei sen.de

Man ag ing Di rec tor:

Jürgen Beckers, Arnt Hannewald

Ad ver tis ing Man ag er:

Sig rid Klinge

Cir cu la tion:

Ga briele Wald

Pro duc tion Man ag er:

Burk hard Star kul la


Peter Büchele

Ad ver tis ing rate card No. 26 from 1.1.2015

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Pho to me chan i cal re pro duc tion (pho to copy,

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Cer tifi ca tion of cir cu la tion by the

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ISSN 0935-7262

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 117


Preview of the next issue

Publication date: 4 September 2015

Selection of topics:

Strong bath movement is possible

with the new furnaces in the Frischhut

foundry allowing rapid material corrections,

e. g. a subsequent carburizing

increasing the flexibility of foundries

with a large product range (Photo:

BDG/R. Piterek)

R. Piterek: Towards smaller batch sizes with product flexibility

The fittings foundry Frischhut in Neumarkt-Sankt Veit, Bavaria, Germany, has invested three million Euros in more flexible and energy-saving

production. The company is thus well equipped for the future. Maintenance Manager Max Altmannshofer played an important part in the

modernization process – a caster with a penchant for extreme sports

S. Borgs; W. Stets: Porosity in ductile cast iron and its influence on mechanical properties

The most common defects in ductile cast iron are porosities or microscopic shrink holes as a result of shrinkage. As part of a research project

funded by AiF, a German Research Network for SMEs, the negative impact of increasing porosity on the mechanical properties of samples

made of ductile cast iron was quantified

Interview: Designing optimal production processes

Complex casting concepts require accomplished foundry expertise, the necessary technical equipment, extensive experience, and a high

degree of interdisciplinary competence. How suppliers face this challenge was the issue of an interview with Jörg Brotzki, a member of the

senior leadership at ASK Chemicals, Hilden, Germany, a manufacturer of foundry chemicals and auxiliaries


Pub lish er:

Ger man Foundry As so ci a tion

Ed i tor in Chief :

Michael Franken M.A.

Ed i tor:

Robert Piterek M.A.

Ed i to ri al As sist ant:

Ruth Fran gen berg-Wol ter

P.O. Box 10 51 44

D-40042 Düsseldorf

Tele phone: (+49-2 11) 68 71-358

Tele fax: (+49-2 11) 68 71-365

E-mail: re dak tion@bdguss.de

Pub lished by:

Gies se rei-Ver lag GmbH

P.O. Box 10 25 32

D-40016 Düsseldorf, Ger ma ny

Tele phone: (+49-2 11) 69936-200

Tele fax: (+49-2 11) 69936-225

E-Mail: cpt@stah lei sen.de

Man ag ing Di rec tor:

Jürgen Beckers, Arnt Hannewald

Ad ver tis ing Man ag er:

Sig rid Klinge

Cir cu la tion:

Ga briele Wald

Pro duc tion Man ag er:

Burk hard Star kul la


Peter Büchele

Ad ver tis ing rate card No. 26 from 1.1.2015

Pub li ca tion: Quar ter ly

An nu al sub scrip tion rate (incl. post age)

Home: 110,– incl. 7 % VAT; Mem ber States

in the EC: Sub scrib ers with VAT-No. and

Third Coun tries: 110,–; Sub scrib ers without

VAT-No.: 110,– plus 7 % VAT; Sin gle

copy 33,–.

Min i mum sub scrip tion pe ri od 12 months.

Ter mi na tion of sub scrip tions can only be

made from 31st De cem ber and no tice of ter -

mi na tion must be re ceived by the Pub lish ers

by 15th No vem ber.

Oth er wise, the sub scrip tion is au to mat i cal ly

re newed and pay able for a fur ther 12


© 2015 Gies se rei-Ver lag GmbH. Düsseldorf

Print ed by:

Kraft Druck GmbH

Industriestr. 5-9

76275 Ettlingen, Ger ma ny

Printed on paper bleached totally chlorine-free

All rights, in clud ing those of trans la tion

into for eign lan guag es and stor age in data

banks, re served.

Pho to me chan i cal re pro duc tion (pho to copy,

mi cro copy) of this tech ni cal pub li ca tion or

parts of it is not al lowed with out spe cial per -

mis sion.

The re pro duc tion in this jour nal of reg is -

tered trademarks does not war rant the as -

sump tion, even with out any spe cial marking,

that such names are to be con sid ered

free under the trade-mark law and may be

used by any one.

Cer tifi ca tion of cir cu la tion by the

Ger man Aud it Bu reau of Cir cu la tion

ISSN 0935-7262

Casting Plant & Technology 2/2015 117

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