CPT International 03/2015

cptinternational

The leading technical journal for the
global foundry industry – Das führende Fachmagazin für die
weltweite Gießerei-Industrie

www.giesserei-verlag.de

4. September

2015

CASTING

PLANT AND TECHNOLOGY

INTERNATIONAL

GIFA

Followup

3

Hand-held temperature

measurement of liquid metal


FORMING FUTURE

Core shooting machines | Automation | Sand preparation | Gassing technology | Core treatment | Service

www.laempe.com


EDITORIAL

GIFA an international

melting pot again!

This year the “Bright World of Metals” shone more brightly than ever! This

was the verdict of Joachim Schäfer, Managing Director of Messe Düsseldorf, as

GIFA and the other three metallurgy fairs finished on 20 June. The renewed

increase in international guests – both among the exhibitors (51 %) and the

visitors (56 %) – was particularly satisfying. 78,000 visitors and 2,214 exhibitors

are numbers that speak for themselves: a small town was put up in the exhibition

center in order to implement the quartet of metal trade fairs, reflecting

why casters, furnace constructors and suppliers go to work day after day – in

Germany and worldwide! The visitors’ conclusions were also thoroughly gratifying:

98 % considered their visit a success!

We look back in our GIFA Follow-up and take a closer look at how the companies

experienced the trade fairs and what they had to offer. But CASTING also

considers a range of other interesting topics: Sebastian Borgs and Dr. Wolfram

Stets offer us a detailed and competent view on the topic of shrinkage-related

porosities in spheroidal graphite cast iron (from P. 8). Bob Simpson, from Foseco

Europe, provides us with an example of best practice for sand regeneration

in the Metso steel foundry in the Czech Republic where, in the wake of a capacity

expansion, they decided on a combination of olivine sand and Fenotec

binding agents (from P. 22).

In addition to Combicore cores for die casting (P. 28) and refined component

construction with the help of topology optimization, casting process simulation,

service life analyses and 3-D printing (P. 32), ESI – with its more than

25-year-old ProCast simulation software – also plays a role in this issue

(from P.35)

The topic of foundry plant construction is involved in our company report on

the Frischhut fittings foundry in Bavaria, where two new five-tonne medium-frequency

furnaces have been commissioned that are ideally suited for

flexible production (P. 40), as well as in the report on the foundry plant constructor

Gemco regarding plant optimization in the Wescast foundry in Hungary

(P. 38).

CASTING’s editorial team will include another country special in the coming

issue – this time on North America. Are you active there? Then contact us and

participate in this issue, with either content or advertising!

Have a good read!

Robert Piterek, e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 3


FEATURES

INTERVIEW

with Jörg Brotzki

Designing optimal production processes 6

MATERIALS

Borgs, Sebastian; Stets, Wolfram



MOLD AND COREMAKING

Simpson, Bob


Fenotec binder process 22

PRESSURE DIE CASTING

Rupp, Susanne; Heppes, Frank


3-D-PRINTING

Riker, Stefanie




Cover-Photo:

Keller HCW GmbH





Portable infrared thermometer CellaCast for

detecting liquid metal temperature

28

40

Combicore cores cut weight, reduce material and conserve

resources (Photo: Drahtzug Stein combicore)

The Frischhut foundry in Bavaria has invested three million Euro in

increased production flexibility (Photo: BDG/Piterek)


CASTING

3 | 2015

PLANT AND TECHNOLOGY

INTERNATIONAL

SIMULATION

Gallerne, Céline


ENGINEERING OF FOUNDRY PLANTS

Van der Weiden, Huub


COMPANY

Piterek, Robert





GIFA FOLLOW-UP



Editorial 3

News in brief 54

Brochures 60

Advertisers´ index 59

Fairs and congresses 62

Preview/Imprint 63

45

With a participation of 78,000 visitors and 2,214 exhibitors the “Bright world of metals” was once again very successful.

Our GIFA Follow-up shows how the companies experienced the trade fair and what they had to offer (Photo: Messe Düsseldorf)


INTERVIEW

Designing optimal production

processes - with customer-tailored

solutions

For quite some time now, foundries no longer require their suppliers of choice to only provide

them with products and materials for their foundry processes; today they need a genuine partner

on their side whom they can consult on all issues. In other words, the dedicated product

supplier of old must evolve into a process consultant and advisor – ideally, equipped with a customer-tailored

concept. The manufacture of complex casting concepts, however, requires accomplished

foundry expertise, the necessary technical equipment, extensive experience, and a

high degree of interdisciplinary competence. How do suppliers face this challenge? CASTING

spoke with Jörg Brotzki, a member of senior leadership for ASK Chemicals, a manufacturer of

foundry chemicals and auxiliaries

Foundries today are no longer purchasing

products only, rather much

more process and product solutions.

What is ASK Chemicals doing to meet

these requirements?

Today’s foundry market is being molded

by a diverse range of influencing

factors. The most significant of these

is the spreading globalization, which

on one hand offer foundries some interesting

opportunities in new markets,

on the other hand, however, also

raises the pressure of competition and

costs. Concurrently, development cycles

are becoming shorter, whereas the

demands placed on the applied technologies

are continuing to grow. We

should also not forget the environmental

aspect, which is particularly

relevant here in Europe. These are the

circumstances under which foundries

must meet the challenge of maintaining

their market success based on the

strength of their products’ outstanding

complexity and quality.

If a foundry opts for this strategy of

differentiation, then speed, innovation,

and leadership in technology are

the critical factors for success. This in

turn means that the foundries must

demand more from their suppliers. If

you want to stand out from the competition

by offering the best quality and

state-of-the-art solutions, you will not

Jörg Brotzki, a member of senior leadership for ASK Chemicals, explanined

in an interview with CASTING how suppliers meet the high demands of their

custumers (Photo: ASK Chemicals)

6 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


only have to gear your choice of suppliers

based on price factors, but also

have to weigh a large number of variables

against each other.

Our customers demand solutions that

return measurable added value. In doing

so, they consider the entire process,

from the concept to the prototyping to

the use of raw materials in series production

through to the finishing costs.

This is precisely the approach that we

pursue at ASK Chemicals. Our experts

from R&D, product management, applications

engineering and technical sales

keep a watchful eye on the entire process

chain and work as an interdisciplinary

team. Both our research foundries

in Germany and the USA, as well as our

simulation services are of special significance

here. Only in this manner can we

ultimately put our concepts to the test

and validate them before the customer

embarks on series production and invests

in tools. Moreover, the experience

we have gained over many years in our

business has long taught us that our sector

cannot offer any “one fits all” solution.

The constant demand is for solutions

tailored to the customers’ needs.

You speak of “solution-selling”. How

do sales and applications engineering

respond to this subject?

First of all, solution-selling means understanding

the actual motivation behind

my customers. What are their

specific needs? What do they need to

increase their business success? A further

key aspect is the question which

latent trends will make themselves apparent

in the concrete needs of our

customers. This may sound abstract,

but is ultimately what the customer

wants: A supplier that can provide

a solution to a challenge the moment

it appears. One example of this is the

early commitment of ASK Chemicals

ten years ago to the field of simulated

core shooting. At that time, the potential

for foundries compelled us in

both Germany and the USA to familiarize

ourselves with modern simulation

technologies. Today, as a partner

for foundries, we can utilize this knowhow

to simulate important foundry

processes such as core shooting and

solidification and, in this manner, afford

a key contribution to the challenges

mentioned earlier.

Speaking of partners, the ASK Chemicals

Sales and Technical Services departments

are partners to our customers,

but have at the same time their finger

on the pulse of the market. Their knowledge

of the market and their feedback

provide us with a basis for the development

of new concepts and product solutions.

In the end, this too gives rise to a

solution for the customer’s benefit, a

solution coupled with products and services,

but by way of a different means.

In a nutshell, we increase our success

by evaluating requirements as seen by

our customers. As a provider of specific

solutions, we then deliver the required

package consisting of a product and a

service. In doing so, we assign a central

role to our pilot foundries, for this is

where we can reconstruct the tasks and

challenges which keep our customers

busy. Not until we have perfected our

solution to the problem do we integrate

this in the customer’s production process

on-site. The customer benefits by

receiving a fast and reliable result without

losing time through complex trial

and error at his own plant.

Can you name an example of a successful

project that bears the clear

marks of this solution-selling approach?

One good example here is BMW group,

which had commissioned a completely

inorganic engine production plant

in China. ASK Chemicals accompanied

the Bavarian engine manufacturer

to China and there actively supported

setting up the core molding plant

with state-of-the-art inorganic technology

– transferred on a one-to-one

basis from Germany. The applications

engineers at ASK Chemicals provided

key support throughout the entire

process from planning through to the

choice of sand and are still active on

an advisory basis. Of course, we are actively

supervising similar projects for

other leading OEMs and international

foundry groups as well.

Does ASK Chemicals see itself in this

strategic position as more of a quality

leader than a cost leader?

ASK Chemicals sees itself quite clearly as

a quality leader. We run our own research

and development centers and manufacture

products on-site at our own locations.

When developing solutions, we focus

on the optimization potential for our

customers. What I have in mind here,

for example, is the reduction of reject

rates, greater efficiency in the use of materials,

lower finishing costs, and equally

low cleaning costs for tools – overall

a diverse range of enhancements to

productivity. Of course, a solution is always

a particularly successful one when

it ultimately offers our customers added

monetary value. Naturally, our employees

play an extremely important role in

achieving this – top-quality solutions are

first made possible by excellent workers.

At ASK Chemicals, we are very proud to

have a team of verified, highly-experienced

experts in all foundry segments,

but in particular who serve as an interface

at the customer level.

How important is your international

alignment in this strategy?

Many of our customers operate in the

international arena. They run production

facilities across the world and, accordingly,

place great value on partners

that provide global support with a

team of application engineers, and additionally

boast a global product portfolio.

This is exactly what ASK Chemicals

offers. Yet, at the same time, we

also take the local circumstances into

consideration – for instance, sands,

climate, technical equipment, cultural

mindsets, etc. Supported by its applications

engineering laboratories active

across the globe, ASK Chemicals

is the perfect channel for this transfer,

providing solutions tailored perfectly

to the particularities of each country.

This also applies to customers with international

sales, who do not have

their own production on-site. We are

equally dedicated to these customers,

for we have recognized that sharing experiences

and international expertise

has become more important than ever

in today’s highly competitive casting

industry.

www.ask-chemicals.com

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 7


MATERIALS

Authors: Sebastian Borgs and Wolfram Stets, Institute of Foundry Technology, Düsseldorf

Porosity in ductile cast iron and its

formance

under cyclic loading









Especially in ductile iron castings, additions

of steel scrap, pig iron, scrap

iron or returns with elevated contents

of tramp elements have a negative effect

on the formation of the microstructure,

e.g. through a non-optimal

spheroidal graphite form, formation

of pearlite or carbide, etc. [1]. Also the

solidification behaviour may change

such that there is a growing tendency

of shrinkhole formation. These shrinkholes

occur predominantly in the form

of accumulations of micro-shrinkholes

(see lead picture).

Moreover, the shrinkage behaviour

of an alloy depends on its basic morphology

of solidification. The solidification

of ductile cast iron is predominantly

endogenous with a mushy

zone. To compensate liquid shrinkage,

the solidification morphology requires

interdendritic feeding (feeding

through the interdendritic channels)

[2]. As this feeding technique cannot

always be guaranteed in foundry practice,

porosity due to shrinkage is the

consequence. If located in a critical

area of the casting, depending on their

size and distribution, shrinkholes may

have a negative effect on the mechanical

performance of a casting, resulting

in a significant decrease in the service

life. This holds particularly true for

Correlation between cyclic properties and 3-D and 2-D porosity distribution

in ductile cast iron (Photos and graphics: IFG)

components subjected to cyclic stress

in their field use.

The basis for dimensioning a ductile

cast iron component according to

its future field use are the static and,

above all, cyclic mechanical properties

stipulated in the applicable standards

(DIN EN 1563) and in material data bases

and guidelines. To date, the common

practice of dimensioning and designing

ductile iron castings for their specific

field use has been limited to the use

of (cyclic) performance data without

considering internal defects. There is a

lack of information about correlations

between the quantity, size and distribution

of shrinkholes and the static and,

especially, the cyclic mechanical properties.

This holds true, last but not least,

for the ferritic high-Si GJS grades.

However, quantifying micro-shrinkage

in destructive and non-destruc-

8 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


* Unless otherwise stated, the indicated

percentages are mass fractions.

tive tests is problematic. Shrinkholes

are usually detected by non-destructive

ultrasonic or radiographic tests.

However, these methods are still hardly

or only insufficiently able to allow

a quantification based on the size, ratio

or distribution of the defect. A

common practice to account for the

influence of real microstructures

(i.e. containing deviations in the microstructure

and micro-shrinkage) on the

strength of GJS components in a rather

generalist way is to apply safety factors

[3]. Safety factors applied to the yield

strength may be as high as 2.1, depending

on the stress load and the risk potential

of the component [4]. For materials

featuring an elongation at fracture A5 <

12.5 %, they may be even higher.

As the correlations between the distribution

of micro-shrinkage in the

casting and the cyclic mechanical performance

values of GJS are still largely

unknown, it may happen that despite

the application of safety factors a component

must be downgraded.

A key objective of the below described

project was to determine scientifically

profound correlations between the static

and cyclic mechanical properties and

the 2-D and 3-D distribution of porosity

(micro-shrinkage) in cast GJS samples.

The porosities were characterized

using 2-D X-ray tests, X-ray computer

tomography and 2-D analysis of microsections.

A major part of the project

consisted in comparing and discussing

the results of the 2-D microsection analyses

and of the X-ray tomography with

the mechanical performance values determined

in the tests. A further objective

of the project was to develop optimized

procedures for the evaluation of

CT data. Additionally, preparation and

evaluation algorithms for the analysis

of micrographs of the porosity distributions

in GJS were to be developed.

Testing

Tested materials

This project focused on ductile cast

iron according to DIN EN 1563:2012,

namely the conventional ferritic grade

Alloy

designation

EN-GJS-400-15 and the solid-solution

strengthened grade EN-GJS-500-14.

Reference samples (graphite of form V

and VI according to EN ISO 945-1, metallic

matrix predominantly ferritic)

and samples with shrinkage porosity

were cast and examined. The chemical

compositions of these alloys, as specified

in [5] and [6], are listed in Table 1.

Casting of the specimens

The specimens were gravity cast and

machined at the Technical Centre of

the German Institute of Foundry Technology

(IfG) in Düsseldorf, Germany.

The melt was produced in a 100-kW

medium-frequency induction furnace.

The basic melt for the casting tests

consisted of 60 % commercial-grade

foundry pig iron and 40 % steel scrap.

The Si content was adjusted to GJS

specifications by means of FeSi-90 and

the C content by means of commercially

available carburizing agents. The

melt was treated with the Mg master

alloy by the Sandwich-Method. Here

the treatment ladle at the same time

served as pouring ladle. To guarantee

Alloy no. Contents of chemical elements in %*

Si approx. P max. Mn max.

EN-GJS-500-14 5.3109 3.8 0.05 0.5

EN-GJS-400-15 5.3106 2.4 0.03


MATERIALS

a

b

Figure 2:

distribution after 303 s and b) predicted porosity in %

Alloy Contents of chemical elements in %

entire arrangement (Figure 2) for the

intended purpose. It is clearly visible

that by using the designed cooling

chills ( cover and hollow chill) the formation

of porosities could be shifted

to the central region of the cylindrical

sample. With this arrangement, three

porosity levels were produced with

each alloy (36 cast bars of equal porosity

level per cast heat). The different porosity

levels were adjusted by applying

suitable inoculation practices. In other

words, certain inoculant ratios were

applied while leaving all other casting

parameters unchanged. The reference

samples were cast as Y2 wedges according

to DIN 1563. The chemical compositions

are given in Table 2.

C Si Mn P S Cr Ni Cu Mg Sc

Reference specimen

GJS-500-14 3.11 3.7 0.09 0.01 0.004 0.04 0.046 0.019 0.05 1.02

GJS-400-15 3.5 2.4 0.09 0.01 0.004 0.04 0.046 9.019 0.042 1

Porosity level 1

GJS-500-14 3.2 3.78 0.089 0.01 0.007 0.051 0.052 0.016 0.05 1

GJS-400-15 3.42 2.5 0.079 0.01 0.003 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.045 1

Porosity level 2

GJS-500-14 3.1 3.6 0.081 0.01 0.003 0.029 0.041 0.015 0.043 0.99

GJS-400-15 3.39 2.36 0.066 0.01 0.003 0.03 0.05 0.022 0.043 0.97

Porosity level 3

GJS-500-14 3.1 3.67 0.086 0.01 0.003 0.031 0.047 0.02 0.053 1.01

GJS-400-15 3.4 2.44 0.079 0.01 0.003 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.043 0.98

Table 2: Chemical compositions of the cast specimens

2-D X-ray tests

Digital radiography was used for the

2-D X-ray tests. 100 % of the produced

as-cast samples were tested. In each

case, the radiographic tests were made

from positions A and B. The X-ray parameters

are detailed in Table 3. The

X-ray images were evaluated using the

ISAR evaluation software for digital radiography.

This software allowed the

measurement of the grey value profile

of defects and the measurement of

the length and width of renderable defects.

Based on the X-ray tests, as-cast

samples were selected for the subsequent

examinations and categorized.

X-ray computer tomography

All samples evaluated in this project

were tomographed by a Varian/BIR

450/225 kV-600 CT/DR system at a voxel

resolution of 100 x 100 x 200 μm.

As test method the fan beam technique

(line scan detector) was applied using a

section line distance of 0.1 mm. Based

on the results from the 2-D X-ray tests

a region of interest (ROI) of 50 mm

was defined. For the scans, the settings

listed in table 3 were used. The specimens

scanned by CT were evaluated by

means of the defect analysis module of

the VGStudio Max2.2 evaluation software.

The defect analysis feature contains

a great number of different algorithms

and analysis modes, which can

be objectively set to obtain detailed information

about any analyzed defect.

As not all the evaluation algorithms of

the software were equally suitable for

the here investigated porosity, first the

evaluation methods were optimized by

means of a metallographic microsection.

The position of some of the porosities

were exactly measured in the

CT data set and identified by targetted

metallographic preparation. Based on

the analysis of the 2-D microsections,

10 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


Testing

method

Tube

voltage

in kV

Tube

current

in mA

Filter

Exposure

time in s

Magnification

Dimension

of focal

spot in

mm • mm

Voxel size

(x, y, z)

in μm

X-ray

source

2-D x-ray 400 5 - 54 - 4.5 -

CT 420 1.5 2 mm Brass

Table 3: Parameters of the X-ray tests

64 for 40 mm

32 for 15 mm approx. 3 - 128 x 128 x

250

MG 420

(ROE 1)

-

the threshold values for the detection

of porosities were specified using VG-

Studio Max 2.2 (grey value contrast,

size, probability of porosity). With this

technique it was possible to reliably determine

whether any variations in grey

values in the CT cross-sectional image

are defects or CT artifacts. Figure 3

shows a comparison of a metallographic

microsection and the corresponding

CT section. The circled areas in the metallographic

specimen can be clearly related

as porosities to the corresponding

areas in the CT section. For the investigated

shrinkage porosities, standard

V.2.1 proved to be the best suitable evaluation

algorithm. This algorithm comprizes

multi-level image analysis techniques

which are capable of identifying

defects even if the grey value of the material

and the contrast behaviour of the

defect vary locally. When CT artifacts

(e.g. ring artifacts) occur, it is possible

to set analysis parameters in such a way

that the defect recognition thresholds

are partly reduced.

Mechanical material testing

Tensile tests

For the strength tests of the samples,

a tensile testing machine of type

Z 250 (manufacturer: Zwick & Roell)

was used, subjecting the cross-section

of the specimen to an evenly

distributed linear tensile stress. The

tensile strength tests were conducted

according to specifications in DIN

EN ISO 6892-1 with samples of shape

B specified in DIN 50 125. The performance

values tensile strength R m

, yield

strength R p0.2

and elongation at fracture

A were determined.

Fatigue strength tests

The fatigue tests were performed with

a high-frequency pulser of type Ru-

Figure 3: Comparison: a) metallographic specimen and b) the corresponding

CT section

Fast

Easy Fixes.

and

This is How I

Perform.

Independent welding in forestry and the timber

industry has become reality with UTPperform.

voestalpine Böhler Welding

www.voestalpine.com/welding

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 11


MATERIALS

mul Testronic (manufacturer: Russenberger

Prüfmaschinen AG). The testing

machine features a nominal force

of 100 kN and can apply frequencies

between 40 and 250 Hz.

The fatigue tests were conducted under

symmetrical load cycles with zero

mean stress R = - 1. The samples were

oscillated at a frequency of approx.

125 Hz. A sample was deemed broken

when the oscillation frequency had

fallen below 120 Hz or the output of

the testing machine rose by 10 %. 107

cycles were chosen to represent the fatigue

life. A combination of methods

(staircase method + horizontal method)

was used to determine the fatigue

strength.

Additionally, investigations were

made using the horizontal method

at a constant stress amplitude of

230 MPa.

Samples according to ASTM E 466

were used as test specimens. The results

were evaluated using the SAFD

(statistical analysis of fatigue data)

evaluation software.

The individual fatigue strengths

were compared at 50 % probability

of fracture.

Metallographic examinations

Scanning electron microscopic (SEM)

examinations

The SEM examinations were conducted

with a Hitachi S-3400N Thermo

EDX & WDX scanning electron microscope

allowing a maximum magnification

of 30,000 x and a minimum

magnification of 8 x (with SE detector).

This instrument allows an up to 10

mm depth of focus. The fracture sur-

Figure 4: Mean grey value versus factor of circularity

Category Feature Min. Max.

Porosity

Graphite

Mean grey value 37 70

Factor of circularity 0.25 0.75

Area in μm 2,800 μm² >2,800 μm²

Mean grey value 10 37

Factor of circularity 0.75 1

Area in μm 20 μm² 2,800 μm²

Table 4: Determined category limits for object differentiation

a b c

Figure 5: Results of 2-D radiographic tests: a) porosity level 1, b) porosity level

2, c) porosity level 3

Method

Porosity

level

Length in

mm

Width in

mm

Volume in

mm³

Surface

area in mm² Projection

area in mm² Porosity

in %

Porosity

in mm²

2-D x-ray

CT

2-D

microsection

1 2.0 – 5.0 2.0 – 4.5

2 5.0 – 11.0 4.5 – 8.0

3 11.0 – 30.0 8.0 – 13.0

1 >0 - 80 >0 – 500 >0 – 50

2 80 - 215 500 – 1,670 50 - 90

3 215 – 1,200 1,850 – 4,600 90 - 150

1 0.1 – 3.0 0.2 – 5.3

2 3.0 – 9.0 5.3 – 15.8

3 9.0 – 18.5 15.8 – 32.6

Table 5:

12 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


a

b

c

d

Figure 6: Results of the defect analysis of a specimen with

porosity: a) as-cast specimen, b) specimen for fatigue

tests, c) CT section prior to the defect analysis, d) CT section

after the defect analysis

Figure 7: Example of a fracture region

faces of selected broken samples from

the fatigue tests were examined by SEM

to identify any crack-inducing factors

such as porosities, inclusions and/or

degeneration of graphite. Moreover,

with the SEM it was possible to provide

high-resolution images and evaluations

of the characteristic fracture areas

in a specimen broken due to fatigue

failure (area of fraction due to fatigue

failure and the residual fracture area).

Light-microscopic tests

The light-microscopic tests were made

on unetched and etched metallographic

microsections using a Zeiss Axio Imager.M1

microscope and a UI1460SE

digital camera with a standard chip

producing a resolution of approx.

2048 x 1536 pixels. The image analysis

software dhs was used to evaluate the

graphite including the metallic matrix.

For the quantitative image analysis

to determine shrinkage porosities

(micro-shrinkage) an image analysis

programme working with a motorized

microscope table was used, in order to

allow a maximum micrographic surface

to be evaluated. A 2-D analysis of

the microsections aimed at identifying

porosities in ductile cast iron poses

some problems because graphite

nodules embedded in the microstructure

have similar grey values as shrinkholes.

Therefore, initially, the task was

to define size and shape criteria allowing

a quantifying analysis of the images

according to the size, number and

voestalpine Böhler Welding

www.voestalpine.com/welding

distribution of porosity. Following the

sample preparation, characteristic microstructural

images of micro-shrink-

Local

Independence.

This is How I

Perform.

Independent welding in agriculture has become

reality with UTPperform.

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 13


MATERIALS

age and spheroidal graphite were taken

at a magnification of 100 (10x lense). If

a sufficient digital resolution is available,

the 100x magnification allows an

exact analysis of the components in

the microstructure. The characteristic

parameters of the microstructure were

determined by measuring the individual

objects (shrinkholes and graphite)

using the image analysis software Pixelferber.

The obtained data were then

exported to Microsoft Excel and contrasted

with the determined features

of the objects. This approach allowed

to identify certain image-analytical

features that differentiated from each

other in specific respects. Especially

data analysis based on the normal distribution

proved to be a very successful

method. The features with the smallest

overlaps were later on used for the

classification. The following features

proved to be particularly suitable:

» mean grey value,

» factor of circularity and

» area.

In order to reduce the overlap of the

normal distribution, both parameters

referring to shape characteristics, i.e.

mean grey value and circularity factor,

were applied together. Figure 4 shows

the mean values (shrinkholes in red,

graphite nodules in green) and a confidence

region of 95 % for the mean

grey value and the circularity factor. As

a matter of course, the accuracy of the

classification depends on the selected

confidence region. A small confidence

region leads to poorer accuracy, while

a larger confidence region improves the

accuracy, however, at the cost of a certain

degree of overlapping of identification

regions. The selected confidence

region of 95 % still allows good distinction

between graphite particles and micro-shrinkage.

The interval limits were

set based on the determined data. The

category limits are summarized in Table

4. The classifiers or category limits were

entered into the Pixelferber image analysis

software. With the aid of a motorized

cross table, the 2-D analysis of the

microsections was carried out in parallel

at the fracture surface of the tensile test

samples and at selected samples from

the fatigue tests. The microscope table

Figure 8: Metallographic specimens versus CT sections of the fatigue specimens

(15 mm diameter)

a

Figure 9: Results of a metallographic 2-D microsection analysis: a) panoramic

view, b) single image prior to the image analysis, c) single image after the

image analysis; red-colored areas are shrinkage porosities, green-colored areas

are graphite nodules

Figure 10: Static performance data of alloys EN-GJS-500-14 and EN-

GJS-400-15 with and without porosities

b

c

14 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


and the Z-axis were both automatically

controlled via the Pixelferber software.

Especially the automatic steering along

the Z axis ensures that the sample images

are sharp over the entire area of measurement.

The images were taken by a

digital camera of type UI-1460SE and

combined into a complete image (panoramic

view) for the subsequent analysis,

allowing also objects at the rims of

the individual images to be captured.

Test results

2-D X-ray tests

Figure 5 shows results from X-ray tests

of three different as-cast samples with

varying porosities. Different grey value

profiles and intensities are visible.

They are the result of the varying absorption

of the X-rays in the different

regions. All phenomena shown correspond

to defect class C of ASTM E-186,

i. e. sponge-like shrinkage or disintegration

of structure. Table 5 shows the

classification into three porosity levels.

The analysis of the 2-D X-ray images

revealed a relationship between

the intensity of the voids (blackening

ratio between defect and matrix) and

the porosity level. Greater porosity resulted

in greater intensity and better

detectability. Detecting porosity levels

2 and 3 generally did not pose a problem.

However, porosity corresponding

to level 1 in terms of shape and distribution,

were not detectable with sufficient

reliability by 2-D X-ray tests. In

some cases, the porosity could only be

made visible by adjusting specific contrast

settings via the analysis software.

Nevertheless, reliable detection of porosities

was not guaranteed.

X-ray computer tomography

The samples to be used in the CT tests

were selected from the cast samples

based on 2-D X-ray tests. They were

scanned in the as-cast condition, i.e.

40 mm diameter, and then in the machined

condition (as for fatigue testing),

i.e. 15 mm diameter. Following

criteria were selected for the defect

analysis :

» volume in mm 3 ,

» surface area in mm 2 and

» area of projection in Z plane in mm 2

(cross-sectional area of the samples).

Figure 6 shows exemplary defect analysis

results obtained by means of Volume

Graphics from an analysis of ascast

and fatigue test samples. Figure 6a

shows a porosity in the as-cast sample,

and figure 6b in a fatigue test sample.

In this case, there is exact correspondence

between the as-cast sample and

the fatigue test sample. The defects

are shown in different colors depending

on their size or volume. When the

analysis has been completed, the defect

size can be read from the included

legend (defect volume [mm 3 ]). Figures

6 c and d show CT sections from

a given plane in the specimen (2-D section)

of a 15-mm-diameter bar – before

and after the defect analysis by Volume

Graphics. The classification into

the three porosity levels is detailed in

table 5.

Selected broken samples from the

horizontal tests were used to measure

the position of the fracture surfaces.

Then, the defect analysis was made using

the data of the thus measured fracture

region in the set of data acquired

during the CT tests of these samples.

The fracture region was defined as

having a length of 2 mm (1 mm from

each fracture bank) and a diameter of

14 mm. Thus it is possible to analyze

the porosity volume in the fracture region

and correlate it with the cyclic

performance data from the horizontal

tests. Figure 7 shows the fracture

region of a specimen as an example.

Unlike 2-D X-ray tests, CT tests generally

allow the detection of porosity

level 1. A more detailed examination

of the contrast distribution in a tomographic

section (one voxel layer) reveals

that if disintegration of structure

(accumulation of many micro-shrinkholes)

exists the resolution of the individual

micro-shrinkholes is limitvoestalpine

Böhler Welding

www.voestalpine.com/welding

This is How I

UsingWell-Matched

Components.

Perform.

Independent welding in the oil & gas industry has

become reality with UTPperform.

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 15


MATERIALS

ed, which means that it is often only

possible to examine a porosity region.

shows a comparison of CT

sections and the corresponding, specifically

prepared metallographic specimens.

The images in the top row are the

metallographic specimens, the images

below are the CT sections. The metallographic

specimens were evaluated using

the developed 2-D analysis method.

It immediately shows that while

the sharpness of the metallographic

specimens is good the CT sections

are somewhat blurred. Moreover, the

smaller the area of porosity, the poorer

the detectability becomes, and vice versa:

the detectability improves when the

porosity is more pronounced. Porosity

is sufficiently reliably detectable if the

area is between 13 and 2.25 %. In case of

porosity areas below 0.9 %, the detectability

decreases significantly, while

porosity areas of 0.15 % and below are

no longer distinguishable.

The evaluation of the defect analysis

revealed that areas of matrix material

between the individual micro-shrinkholes

had actually been classified as

defects (see figures 6c and d). The result

is a falsification of the real quantity

and size of the porosity. In order

to optimize the resolution, it would

be possible to reduce the tube voltage

from 450 kV to 225 kV or 180 kV. However,

to achieve these lower tube voltages,

CT systems with micro- or nano-focus

tubes would have to be used.

These CT systems are of smaller size,

setting limits to the geometry of specimens

that can be handled by the systems.

Moreover, the maxi mum penetration

depth is limited. According to

[8], in iron-based alloys the maximum

penetration depth of a 225 kV microfocus

tube is approx. 30 mm, while a

450 kV macro-focus tube achieves a

penetration depth of about 70 mm.

In other words, many castings will be

larger than the maximum penetration

depth of the lower tube voltages.

Metallographic 2-D analysis of microsections

The results from the analysis of the microstructure

of ductile cast iron were,

within a certain scatter band, comparable

in all specimen types:

Figure 11: Yield ratios of the tested tensile specimens

Figure 12: S/N curves of the tested specimens (probability of failure 50 %)

» graphite rate in the phase: 10.2 –

11.2 %,

» particle density: 310-352 1/mm 2 ,

» nodularity index: 75-82 % and

» ferrite/pearlite ratio: 98/2-94/6.

Figure 9 shows the result of a 2-D analysis

of shrinkage porosity in a microsection.

This example shows that the

different components of the microstructure

have been distinguished by

different colours based on the results

of the evaluation algorithms for the

image analysis. Graphite nodules are

shown in green and shrinkage porosity,

the subject of this investigation, are

shown in red.

The results from the classification

into porosity levels by way of the 2-D

analysis of the microsections are summarized

in table 5. This proves that

this is a reliable method, in terms of

both quantity and quality, to analyze

shrinkage porosity in ductile cast iron,

however, presupposing a suitable

preparation of the microsections. Ad-

16 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


Figure 13: Effect of porosity (volume and area of projection) on the lifetime

of the tested specimen (porosity determined by CT)

ditionally, certain overlapping of the

characteristic features of shrinkholes

and graphite nodules must be tolerated.

However, it is possible to improve

the accuracy by increasing the microscopic

magnification. It would be

possible to step up the magnification

from 100 x to 200 x or 500 x, however,

at the cost of a prolongation of the

duration of measurement for the same

measurement area.

Mechanical material testing

Static performance values

Figure 10 summarizes the performance

values of the examined samples

with and without porosity. The

strength values (tensile strength and

yield strength) of the Si-containing

alloy (EN-GJS-500-14) are generally

higher than those of EN-GJS-400-15.

Only the elongation at fracture of EN-

GJS-500-14 is slightly lower in the reference

specimens. This is due to the

different chemical composition and

the significantly higher Si content. In

EN-GJS-500-14, the higher Si content

causes solid-solution strengthening

of the ferrite. On the one hand, this

leads to higher strength, on the other

hand, it reduces the elongation at

fracture. The static strength values of

the samples of porosity level 1 did not

decrease compared to the reference

samples. The elongation at fracture

is lower than in the reference samples

by approx. 6-7 %. In contrast, the

samples of porosity levels 2 and 3 are

characterized by distinctly lower static

performance values. The elongation

PERFORM

YOUR OWN WAY!

voestalpine Böhler Welding

www.voestalpine.com/welding

at fracture slumps from 11.3 % to 1.43

and 0.8 %. Also the tensile strength

and the yield strength - at 368 and

336 MPa respectively - fall short of the

values stipulated in DIN 1563 for EN-

GJS-500-14.

In ductile cast iron, the yield ratio

plays a central role. The yield ratio is

the quotient of the yield strength and

the achieved tensile strength (R p0.2

/

R m

). It indicates the elastic loadability

of component. Of two materials

having the same tensile strength but

different yield ratios the one with the

higher yield ratio can be more heavily

stressed [9]. The yield ratio is also

a parameter that may characterize

the overload allowance of a material.

A high yield ratio means a low overload

allowance, that is, when the yield

point has been exceeded only very little

stress growth will be possible until

reduction of area (plastic instability/

component failure) occurs. For safety-critical

components this bears the

The independent welding system

• High Performance Electrodes

• High Performance Power Source

• High Performance Welding Results

UTPperform is a unique welding system that allows

you to weld independently of any stationary power

supply – anytime and everywhere. A machine

designed for the demands of independent people

who go for individual welding performance.

Welding filler metals designed for the special welding

requirements even under toughest conditions.

Check out your live independent welding demo at:

www.utp-maintenance.com/perform

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 17


MATERIALS

risk that, in case of a high yield ratio,

failure of the component will occur instantaneously

once the yield point has

been exceeded.

Figure 11 shows the yield ratios of

the tested tensile samples of grades EN-

GJS-500-14 and EN-GJS-400-15.

Like in the case of the static performance

values, as described above, porosity

also has an effect on the yield

ratio. The yield ratio increases with increasing

porosity. However, the rise is

only significant in the case of porosity

levels 2 and 3. Consequently, the overload

allowance of ductile cast iron decreases

with increasing porosity.

A highly critical aspect is the fact

that this increase in yield ratio is the

result of decreasing tensile strength

and not of increasing yield strength

with the tensile strength remaining at

the same level.

Cyclic performance values

The S/N curves (50 % probability of

fracture) of the reference specimens

and of the specimens of porosity level

1 are plotted in Figure 12. The fatigue

limit for alloy EN-GJS-500-14 is

above that of EN-GJS-400-15 for both

specimen types (see S/N curves 1 and 2

versus S/N curves 3 and 4). The higher

Si content of alloy EN-GJS-500-14 has

a positive effect on the cyclic performance

values, similar to its effect on

the static performance values.

Figure 12 also shows that the fatigue

limit of the samples of porosity

level 1 is about 20 MPa or 8 –10 %

lower than that of the reference samples.

This holds true for both alloy EN-

GJS-400-15 and alloy EN-GJS-500-14.

Figure 13 compares the results from

the horizontal tests (selected samples

of alloys EN-GJS-500-14 and EN-

GJS-400-15 subjected to a constant

stress of 230 MPa) with the results from

the defect analyses by means of Volume

Graphics in the fracture region

of the same samples (see figure 7). It is

obvious that the fatigue limit decreases

along with a growing porosity volume

(3-D) and a growing projection

area (2-D).

The influence of the area fraction of

porosity (2-D) on the lifetime is also

Figure 14: Effect of porosity on the lifetime of the tested specimen (porosity

determined by metallographic 2-D microsection analysis)

a

b

Figure 15: SEM analysis of fracture surface in an EN-GJS-500-14 reference specimen:

a) panoramic view, b) residual fracture area, c) area of the fatigue crack

/ crack initiation

c

18 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


depicted in Figure 14. The fracture surfaces

of the samples from the horizontal

tests were examined by 2-D analysis

of the microsections and set in relation

with the endured cycles. Analogously

with the curves in figure 13, the fatigue

limit decreases with increasing

porosity. The determined data points

and the approximated curves of alloy

EN-GJS-500-14 are generally at a

higher level than those of alloy EN-

GJS-400-15. This phenomenon is due

to the higher strength values of Si-alloyed

GJS. The barrier to fatigue crack

initiation is higher.

From these test results it can be derived

that the lifetime is most likely

to be dependent not only on the porosity

present in the fracture plane

but that it also correlates with the porosity

volume in the fracture region.

Fracture surface analysis

Figure 15 shows a fracture surface of an

EN-GJS-500-14 reference sample from

the S/N curve in the transition area. It

was possible to determine the area of

crack initiation (incipient cracking),

the area of the fatigue crack and the

residual fracture area.

In high-resolution images it was possible

to show that especially in the residual

fracture area of EN-GJS-500-14

there is a high fraction of transcrystalline

cleavage fracture. EN-GJS-400-15,

in contrast, shows mainly intercrystalline

fracture of the common honeycomb-like

pattern. While intercrystalline

honeycomb-like fracture is

characteristic of ductile fracture, transcrystalline

cleavage fracture is characteristic

of brittle fracture. These differences

in fracture behaviour will have

to be followed up on in future investigations.

In the fracture surface shown in figure

15, there is no characteristic feature

in the microstructure that could be interpreted

as crack initiator.

shows the fracture surface of an alloy

EN-GJS-500-14 sample containing

porosity. In the central area of the

sample, zones of porosity and/or micro-shrinkage

are clearly visible. From

these zones, cracks propagate towards

the sample surface. The residual fracture

areas in the porosity-containing

samples are very much like those in the

reference samples. Also in this case, the

solid-solution strengthened alloy EN-

GJS-500-14 features a higher fraction of

transcrystalline cleavage fracture than

the conventional alloy EN-GJS-400-15.

In the reference samples, cracking

initiates at the sample surface and

propagates towards the centre of the

sample. The cracks take semi-elliptical

or pitch circle forms. From the results of

the SEM analyses of the fracture surfaces

it can be concluded that the cracks

in the samples with porosities are predominantly

enclosed internal cracks.

The crack initiates in the existing micro-shrinkage,

propagating towards the

surface of the sample. Hence, the micro-shrinkage

can be considered as the

crack initiator. When the sample is subjected

to stress, the lines of flux are diverted

at the micro-shrinkage, causing

the local stresses inside the specimen

to rise. The local internal stress is higher

than the stress acting on the sample

surface. This explains why the internal

cracking occurs first. Figure 17

shows an image of a fracture situation

in which the fatigue crack initiated

at the surface of the sample although

there was micro-shrinkage in the central

area of the sample. This can be explained

by the fact that there was a subsurface

defect, which was more likely to

initiate a crack than the micro-shrinkage

in the sample centre.

Summary

The project involved the casting of

samples of EN-GJS-400-15 and EN-

GJS-500-14 ductile cast iron with and

without porosities and their subsequent

testing. First the shrinkage porosities

were quantified and classified using 2-D

X-ray testing and X-ray computer tomography.

This was followed by static

and cyclic tests of the reference samples

and the samples containing porosities.

The fracture surfaces of the broken sam-

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 19


MATERIALS

Figure 16: SEM analysis of fracture

surface in an EN-GJS-500-14 containing

porosities: a) panoramic view,

b) porosity, c) residual fracture area

a

ples were analyzed by means of metallographic

2-D microsection analysis and

SEM. The results from the porosity analyses

were compared with the mechanical

performance values and discussed.

Methods of characterizing shrinkage

porosity

While the suitability of 2-D X-ray testing

for detecting shrinkage porosity

of level 1 in the as-cast GJS samples

of 40 mm is only limited, this testing

method has proved successful for accurately

detecting porosity levels 2 and 3.

However, with X-ray computer tomography

it is in most cases possible

to also detect and quantify micro-porosity

of level 1. The CT image allowed

only limited resolution of individual

micro-shrinkholes. Therefore, it was

often only possible to examine the porosity

region. Consequently, the defect

analysis by Volume Graphics classified

also areas of matrix between the micro-shrinkholes

as defects. The result is

a falsification of the real quantity and

size of the porosity. Another finding

was that detectability decreases with

decreasing porosity. In samples of 15

mm diameter, for example, it is no longer

possible to accurately detect porosities

as low as 0.25 % or 0.44 m 2 (determined

by 2-D microsection analysis).

For the prevailing porosity (disintegration

of structure due to shrinkage

through to pronounced shrinkhole accumulations)

the Standard V.2.1 algorithm

integrated in the defect analysis

of Volume Graphics has proved as the

most suitable evaluation algorithm in

this application. Additionally, the results

from the analysis of the metallographic

microsections can be used to

assess and calibrate the 2-D or 3-D information

obtained from the X-ray tests.

Analyzing shrinkage porosities by

means of the developed preparation

and evaluation algorithms for image

b

a

b

Figure 17: Fracture surface of an EN-GJS-500-14 specimen: a) stereomicrograph,

R = crack initiation, S = crack propagation, G = residual fracture area;

subsurface defect marked red, micro-porosity marked yellow; b) SEM image,

micro-porosity marked yellow

analysis has proved to be reliable in

terms of both quantitative and qualitative

accuracy. Therefore, this analysis

may be used as a reference for the

c

verification of other CT-based examinations.

This method is also a suitable

tool for the quality control of components

made of ductile cast iron.

20 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


ical

performance values

It can be summarized that there is a

general effect of the here studied, deliberately

produced shrinkage porosity

on the static and cyclic performance

of the casting. This holds true for both

the solid-solution strengthened alloy

EN-GJS-500-14 and the conventional

ferritic alloy EN-GJS-400-15. Samples

without defects (ideal condition)

served as reference material.

The effect of porosity on the static

performance first and foremost shows

in a decreasing elongation

at fracture. Samples of porosity

level 1 did not exhibit

any negative effect

on the strength properties

(R m

, R p0.2

). The strength values

only started to decrease

in samples of porosity levels

2 and 3. At these levels,

the elongation at fracture

is likewise negatively influenced.

The fatigue limit is about

20 MPa or 8-10 % lower

than that of the reference

samples. These figures

are the same for alloys

EN-GJS-500-14 and EN-

GJS-400-15.

The fatigue limit decreases

with increasing porosity,

with the lifetime depending

on both the porosity

volume and the area of porosity

in the fracture region.

Fatigue cracking may be

initiated by micro-shrinkage.

However, cracks may

also initiate from surface

pores or subsurface defects,

although micro-shrinkage

– even if representing a significant

volume fraction - is

present inside the sample.

The relationships between

porosity and the performance

of the materials

under cyclic stress, which

were identified as part of

this project, are exclusively

valid for fatigue tests with R

= -1. Bending and torsional

tests were not conducted.

The IFG project 17316 N of FVG Forschungsvereinigung

Gießereitechnik e.V.

(Research Society for Foundry Technology)

was conducted under the sponsorship

of the German Federal Ministry of Economy

and Technology via the AiF (Association

of Industrial Research Societies)

within the framework of the Programme

for Industrial Collective Research and Development

based on a resolution by the

German Federal Parliament. We would

like to take this opportunity to express our

thanks for this support. We also wish to

thank the companies of the working group

which accompanied and supported us

during the entire project period of more

than two years. Our special thanks go to

the enterprises Iron Foundry Baumgarte

GmbH, Bielefeld, Ford-Werke GmbH,

Cologne, and Volume Graphics GmbH,

Heidelberg, for their contributions to the

project.

References:

www.cpt-international.com

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 21


CORE AND MOLDMAKING

Author: Bob Simpson, Foseco Europe, Tamworth

Production of manganese steel

castings with olivine sand and the

Fenotec binder process

The use of olivine sand and the Fenotec binder process in combination creates some challenging

technical obstacles if high levels of reclamation were to be achieved. The article shows what methods

were employed at the Czech Metso steel foundry to ensure that these obstacles were overcome

Introduction

Metso steel foundry, Prerov based in

the Czech Republic was established in

2008 for the production of manganese

and chrome molybdenum steel castings

for the mining and construction industries.

They can produce finished castings

ranging from 300 kgs to 5 tonnes in

weight. Mold and core production initially

consisted of a combination of traditional

green sand and CO 2

cured sodium

silicate binder processes. In 2009

a decision was taken to extend the production

capability of the foundry from

5,000 to 16,000 t. To achieve this goal a

complete process change was required

to achieve the required productivity

levels and to improve the quality of the

castings produced. A decision was taken

to install an IMF fast loop molding system

and an IMF sand reclamation system

utilizing a chemically bonded binder

process. The sand reclamation plant

was built in 2 stages, initially a primary

and secondary attrition unit and finally

the addition of a thermal reclamation

system. Sand disposal is becoming

more and more difficult due to tighter

environmental legislation and higher

transportation costs and taxation. In addition

the purchase of new sand is becoming

more costly due to rising energy

prices and the decreasing availability

of locally sourced high quality material.

To reduce the impact of these sand costs,

a requisite for the new molding system

was that high levels of reclamation were

required to minimize new sand input

and waste sand output from the process.

Metso Steel Foundry manufactures at its headquarters in Prerov in the Czech

Republic manganese and chromium-molybdenum steel castings for the mining

and construction industries with a component weight of 300 kg to 5 t

(Photos and Figures: Foseco)

Metso decided that to achieve these

goals a unit sand system based on olivine

sand bonded with the Fenotec binder

process would be the best option. The

use of olivine sand and the Fenotec

binder process in combination would

create some challenging technical obstacles

if high levels of reclamation were

to be achieved. This article shows what

methods were employed to ensure that

these obstacles were overcome.

MgO 50.12 % Na 2

O 0.02 %

SiO 2

41.53 % K 2

O 0.03 %

Fe 2

O 3

7.50 % CaO 0.15 %

Al 2

O 3

0.42 % MnO 0.09 %

Table 1: Typical chemical composition

of olivine sand

Olivine sand

Olivine sand (Table 1) is an ideal mineral

to use for the production of manganese

steel castings as it is chemically

less reactive than silica sand. SiO 2

reacts

with MnO in the steel to form a MnSiO 3

slag resulting in serious burn on defects.

A further advantage is that olivine sand

has a low thermal expansion rate compared

to silica sand and its high ther-

22 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


mal shock resistance furthermore reduces

sand expansion problems.

Olivine sand (Figure 1) is, however, a

difficult sand to use successfully in a

foundry environment for the following

reasons:

» High alkali content (Typical pH range

9 to 10, thus restricting its use with

certain chemical binder processes)

» Angular grain shape and poor grain

size distribution (Figure 2) leading to

a high binder requirement and poor

sand compaction

» Not easily sourced and quality can be

variable depending on location

» Expensive compared with silica sand

Figure 1: Olivine sand grain shape

The Fenotec binder process

Introduced to the foundry market

35 years ago, this alkaline phenolic ester

cured resin binder process has proved

very popular in all casting segments. One

of the main markets for this process is in

the steel foundry as the excellent hot

strength properties greatly reduces hot

tearing defects on critical steel castings.

The surface finish on all ferrous and

non-ferrous castings is also improved

with this binder process.

The Fenotec binder process is an alkali

system and as such is one of the few chemical

binder processes that is compatible

with olivine sand. Other processes such

as Furan and PUNB are not compatible

for use with olivine sand due to acid neutralisation

with the former and uncontrollable

rapid curing with the latter process.

A further benefit is that the curing

speed can be easily controlled by using

PLC controlled ester blending to give

constant levels of productivity over a

variable temperature range.

However, one limitation of this binder

process is the low reclaim levels achieved

using conventional dry attrition techniques

due to the build-up of alkali salts

on the sand grain which ultimately

cause a reduction in re-bonding properties

(Table 2). To overcome this constant

additions of new sand are required.

% Retained

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

1000 710 500 355 250 180 125 90 63 PAN

Fenotec binder optimization

for use with olivine sand

When the new plant was commissioned

it was decided that the best in

class Steel foundry resin and ester combination

would be used.This would be

Mesh Size

Figure 2:

Process Average reclaim Maximum reclaim*

Alkaline Phenolic (Fenotec) 75 % 85 %

Furan 85 % 95 %

Polyurethane Self Set 85 % 90 %

Table 2: Typical reclaim levels using dry attrition techniques*

* Maximum reclaim levels achievable in foundries where excellent control systems combined

with good thermal breakdown within the mould cavity exist

Fenotec 3000 Fenotec 280ES

80 % Attrited sand 85 % Attrited sand

1.7 % Resin 1.5 % Resin

25 % Ester 25 % Ester

Table 3: Comparative addition rates

following the introduction of

Fenotec 280ES

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 23


CORE AND MOLDMAKING

taken as a benchmark for future development

with an aim to optimize

the process in respect to productivity,

mold strength, addition rates (Table 3)

and process costs.

Fenotec 3000 resin was chosen in combination

with Fenotec HX 35 medium

cure and Fenotec HX 75 slow cure esters.

It is based on a high solids/alkali

containing recipe designed to give

very good strength properties in boxless

mold applications. In 2012 it was

decided to evaluate a modified resin

recipe having a lower alkali content

and at the same time introduce a combination

of a Potassium and Sodium

Hydroxide alkali base. The basis of this

recipe development was to reduce the

residual alkali in the reclaimed sand

and thus improve the rebond properties

of the sand, allowing for reduced

binder addition rates to be used and

greater use of attrited reclaimed sand.

This was a successful introduction and

this grade of resin, Fenotec 280ES, is

now fully established.

Figure 3: 50 t/h continuous mixer

The molding process at Metso

A 50 t/h continuous mixer (Figure 3)

is used to prepare and mixtures for the

production of boxed molds (Figure 4).

This mixer has the capability of running

multiple sand recipes including

variable resin binder addition rates.

Chemical addition rates are monitored

and adjusted using flow controllers.

In addition the resin is maintained

at a constant temperature of 25

°C to reduce viscosity variation and

thus improve mixing efficiency.

A mold strip time of 45 min is required

and can be achieved consistently using

a PLC controlled hardener blender process

based on medium and slow curing

esters. By using a multi program mixer

binder addition rates can be optimized

so that the minimum level of resin and

hardener can be added to give the required

properties.

Binder addition rates are important

in respect to achieving the desired

strength necessary for mold handling,

the casting process and to ensure the

lowest amount of residual binder in

preparation for sand reclamation.

The residual binder in the sand influ-

Figure 4: Typical mold assembly

Figure 5: Electrical conductivity meter

24 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


Sand type

Conductivity range [μS/cm]

New Sand < 10

Reclaimed Sand: low alkali 100 – 200

Reclaimed Sand: medium alkali 250 – 350

Reclaimed Sand: high alkali > 350

Table 4: Conductivity values for foundry sand

Dust collector

3

2

Shake out

1

Dust collector

1. Shake-out plant with pre-reclaimer

2. Dust suction hood

3. Filter for dust removal

4. Pneumatic transport to the surge silo

5. Surge silo

6. Surge silo dust filter

Figure 6: Primary dry attrition and secondary attrition plant schematic

ences the re-bonding properties of the

sand. If the residual binder levels are

too high the strength development is

significantly reduced and furthermore

it will also have a detrimental effect

on casting performance. The normal

way of measuring this residual binder

is to determine the loss of ignition

and % of Alkali in the reclaimed sand.

These tests indicate the level of organic

and inorganic binder left in the sand

6

4

5

10

7. Reclamation tower

8. Evaporative tower

9. Circulation pump

Vibrating screen

7 11 12

and as such can be used to determine

how much clean sand is required to

maintain equilibrium in the sand system.

Loss on ignition is a common test

method used by foundries, however,

the % of alkali in the sand is normally

conducted by the binder supplier or a

specialist analytical laboratory.

One method of determining the alkali

content is to use a simple titration

method. This involves boiling the sand

8

9

Fluidized bed/

cooler classifier

10. Sleeve filter for dust removal

11. Pneumati transport to user locations

12. Reclaimed sand silo

13

Figure 7: Secondary

attrition with rotary

unit

together with a known quantity of acid

and then titrating with a standard alkali

solution to pH 7. Unfortunately

as Olivine sand is already alkali then

this method is not suitable. As such, in

conjunction with Ostrava University a

method based on electrical conductivity

was developed (Figure 5).

Electrical conductivity is the measure

of the total concentration of dissolved

salts in water. When salts dissolve

in water they give off electrically

charged ions that conduct electricity,

the more ions in the water the higher

the conductivity. It can be seen from

this that a relationship between residual

alkali salts in the sand and electrical

conductivity can be established as

a means of controlling this alkali residue.

This test method is fully established

at Metso as it gives accurate results

and it is a very quick and easy test

procedure (Table 4).

Sand reclamation

The function of a sand reclamation system

is to take lumps of used foundry

sand and process it back to sand grains

that are suitable for rebonding. Sand

that has been reclaimed must have

similar properties to that of new sand.

To achieve the maximum level of sand

reuse, Metso installed a 3 part system

based on conventional primary dry attrition,

secondary attrition and thermal

reclamation processes (Figure 6).

Primary dry attrition uses high intensity

vibration to reduce the sand

lumps down to grain size. This vibration

helps to break the bond between

each sand grain but only removes a

small amount of the binder film coating

the sand grain. Vibrating screens

help to control the grain size distribution

by removing large agglomerates

and metallic contaminants.

Sand from this process alone, however,

will only allow low levels of reuse

due to the high levels of residual binder

present in the sand. To overcome

this a more vigorous secondary attrition

process is used to remove additional

binder film from the sand grain.

This is achieved by sand from the dry

attrition process being scrubbed between

high speed rollers and the side

walls of the attrition chamber causing

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 25


CORE AND MOLDMAKING

the sand grains to impact with each

other (Figure 7).

Sand taken from the secondary attrition

unit is then fluidized with cold

air to remove dust particles and cool

the sand to ambient temperature. This

sand is suitable for rebonding at the

molding station. Whilst this secondary

attrited sand is suitable for molding,

the system still requires a low level

input of clean sand to ensure that residual

binder levels in the sand remain

consistent.

To achieve this clean sand a thermal

plant is used to remove all of the organic

binder from the sand (Figure 8).

Sand is taken from the primary dry attrition

stage and fed into a gas fired fluidized

thermal plant. The thermal bed

temperature is maintained at 600 °C to

ensure total combustion of the organic

components in the sand (Figure 9).

The calorific value of the binder helps

to reduce the energy required to maintain

temperature and also helps to ensure

that the exhaust gases are clean.

Sand is cooled and fines extracted prior

to transferring into the clean sand

hopper.

It is standard practice when thermally

treating reclaimed sand from an alkali

phenolic resin process to use a special

additive to prevent sand fusion in

the thermal bed. This fusion occurs

due to the residual inorganic component

of the binder melting at low temperature

and bonding the sand grains

together. The additive can also help to

reduce the alkali content of the sand

by ion exchange between the sand

and the additive, the additive is then

removed by fines extraction.

As experience of thermal reclamation

using olivine sand is very limited a thorough

laboratory study was initiated to

develop/optimize the use of these special

additives (see Tables 5 to). The final

outcome from this study was that

an additive was not required as fusion

Sand to be

reclaimed silo

Vibrating sand

feeder

Electrical panel

Gas fired

fluidizing

Fluidized bed

sandcooler

Figure 8: Thermal plant schematic

did not occur at the operating temperatures

required to run the thermal bed. In

addition the residual alkali was reduced

significantly by combustion alone.

Hot fume ducting

To reclaimed

sand silo

Figure 9: Fluidized thermal bed under operating conditions

Dust collector and fan

Hot fumes

heat exchanger

Water

cooling system

Current molding recipes

The majority of molds are prepared using

a standard recipe based on 85 % reclaimed

sand + 15 % thermally reclaimed

sand. Special recipes can be used for spe-

Loss on

ignition

Electrical

conductivity AFS

Average

grain size

Fines %

(90 - 63 μm)

Dust %

(< 63 μm)

New olivine 0.13 % 72 μs/cm 44 323 μm 4.08 % 0.76%

Reclaimed olivine secondary attrition 0.71 % 323 μs/cm 47 366 μm 1.57 % 0.22%

Thermal reclaimed 0.05 % 100 μs/cm 46 338 μm 0.58 % Zero

Table 5: Comparison of physical properties, olivine, reclaimed and thermal olivine sands

26 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


45 Minutes 2 Hours 24 Hours

New olivine 1.3 % binder 46 69 102

Reclaimed olivine 1.5% binder 27 67 77

Thermal reclaimed 1.3% binder 79 128 185

Table 6: Compression strength development comparison, olivine, reclaimed

and thermal olivine sands – all values N/cm 2 **

Additive

Type

550 °C 600 °C 700 °C 800 °C 900 °C 1,000 °C

Organic 165 μs/cm 121 μs/cm 114 μs/cm 70 μs/cm 72 μs/cm 26 μs/cm

Inorganic 140 μs/cm 86 μs/cm 84 μs/cm 59 μs/cm 76 μs/cm 23 μs/cm

No Additive 380 μs/cm 108 μs/cm 103 μs/cm 68 μs/cm 87 μs/cm 27 μs/cm

Table 7 : Effect on residual alkali content using traditional thermal additives compared

with a sample containing no additive based on reclaimed olivine sand ***

Recipe Sand type Sand Ratio Resin % Ester %

Reclaimed sand +

General molding

thermal olivine 85/15 1.25 % 25 %

Special backing sand Reclaimed sand 100 1.25 % 25 %

Table 8: Current sand mix recipes

Year

2013

2014

New olivine

sand

942 Tonnes

(3.7 %)

250 Tonnes

(0.6 %)

Reclaimed

sand

20,591 Tonnes

(82%)

39,752 Tonnes

(87 %)

Thermal

sand

3,634 Tonnes

(14.3 %)

5,774 Tonnes

(12.4 %)

Table 9: Sand consumption values for 2013 and 2014

Total sand

25,167 Tonnes

45,776 Tonnes

** Note: 45 minute strength is critical as this is related to the actual mould strip time

in the foundry

*** The differences in alkali content are insignificant and indicate that a thermal additive

is not required

Temperature Control.

Smart. Reliable.

cial applications such as the production

of large grinding ring castings, or indeed

on occasions when the thermal plant is

switched off for maintenance.

Summary

By careful control of the sand system and

by utilizing the Fenotec binder process,

Metso has shown it is possible to produce

quality Manganese Steel Castings using

very high levels of reclaimed sand based

on Olivine sand. Since the introduction

of the new molding process, 4 years

ago, Metso has significantly improved

productivity and casting quality and reduced

process costs dramatically.

Acknowledgements go to Ivo Dolezal,

General Manager Metso Czech Republic

s.r.o; Ostrava University, Foundry Division;

IMF Group; Jiri Duda, Michal Szotkowski

and Tomas Stepan, Foseco Czech

Republic; Hengelo Binders Team

www.foseco.com

Individual solution &

optimised performance

Get more out of your production

facilities right from the start - with

temperature control units from

REGLOPLAS. They are matched

to your requirements and compatible

with your components and processes.

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 27

www.regloplas.com


PRESSURE DIE CASTING

Authors: Dr. Susanne Rupp and Frank Heppes, Drahtzug Stein combicore GmbH & Co. KG, Altleiningen

The revolution in die casting

Combicore cores cut weight, reduce material use and conserve resources

Drahtzug Stein combicore GmbH & Co.

KG, in Altleiningen, Germany, is the

sole supplier of stable casting cores enabling

undercuts in die casting. Foundries

can use this invention to cast nearnet-shape

components as Combicore

cores reproduce the required ventilation

or oil channels and hollow spaces.

This process reduces weight, saves

on material and conserves resources,

both during the production process

and in subsequent running operation.

Applications are found in the automotive

sector, in particular. The innovative

Combicore cores have received several

prizes and awards ().

High-quality components are produced

in large unit numbers in die

casting. Undercuts, however, have

hitherto been impossible to achieve

and casting cores could not be used

due to the high casting pressures. This

has changed: Combicore cores are

highly stable, ideal for large-scale serial

production, and have already proved

themselves in many die-casting applications.

Whereby Combicore cores can

also be used for other casting processes,

e.g. in sand casting for pre-production

and prototype casting ().

As a positive mold, the salt core and

core casing form the necessary hollow

space in the casting and are shaped

into the desired contour on forming

machines, automatic machines, rollers,

presses or using some other process

(). Whereby the Combicore

core can closely follow the later

Salt core is stable at over 1,000

bar casting pressure

Combicore cores retain their shape

even at casting pressures of well over

1000 bar (). Two aspects are responsible

for this:

» on the one hand, they consist of a

solid, generally porous, molding material

(pure salt, NaCl – as found in

every kitchen – is generally used for

light metal casting);

» on the other hand, the salt core is

surrounded by a stable metal casing

that can be adapted to the particular

melt (alloys, such as AlMn1, AlMg-

Si0.5, or pure aluminum are frequently

used for light metal casting).

Figure 1: Hybrid component with combicore ventilation channel wins award at

international die-casting competition (Photos: Drahtzug Stein combicore)

Advantages of Combicore cores at a glance

» Near-net-shape casting with considerable material savings and consistent

light construction

» Implementation of optimized efficient temperature control concepts,

such as cooling for batteries and motors/engines

» No liberation of gas during the casting process

» Ecological and recyclable forming material and metal

» Implementation of innovative component geometries with greater

freedom of design

» Streamlined channel shapes possible

» Simultaneous de-coring and tightness test

» Suitable for mass production with consistent high quality

28 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


component geometry, enabling nearnet-shape

casting with considerable

material and weight savings.

While the salt core is removed from

the casting after the casting process,

the metal casing remains within it

and forms a protective channel wall.

The medium passed through here can

no longer end up in neighboring cavities

or flaws.


duction

In its original state, the core jacket is

a coiled pipe several meters long. The

molding material is evenly applied on

special coil-filling plants ( ).

Empty, unfilled areas can thus be

ruled out. Given a pipe over 1,000 m

in length, this process can take several

hours. Then the filled pipe is drawn

through a die, reduced in diameter,

and filled with salt to make a solid

core. Whereby neither salt nor pipe is

heated.

A variety of parameters that will affect

the remaining production process

and subsequent casting process can already

be adjusted during this forming

process. Thus every Combicore core

is individually produced according to

customer requirements and application-specifically

(see Info Box on the

advantages on the left) – particularly

regarding geometry and the casting

process – and its properties adjusted.

Comprehensive advice for customers is

a matter of course for the core producer

Drahtzug Stein combicore GmbH &

Co. KG. Core geometries are also frequently

developed and optimized in

collaboration with customers. In this

way, cores for samples and prototypes,

as well as for mini-series and high-volume

production with several million

cores, are economically developed and

produced with consistent high quality.


supportive measures

Combicore cores can be several meters

long. The core is made more stable by

welded-on wire clamps or sheet- metal

bridges, frequently simplifying the robotic

insertion process. If required,

several individual cores can also be

joined together to create a convenient

Combicore cores master individual undercuts and complex channel

geometries

The salt core, compressed by drawing, is protected by a metal casing

and retains its form even at casting pressures of over 1,000 bar

Channel heights of less than 1 mm are required for motor block bar

cooling systems

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 29


PRESSURE DIE CASTING

core package that can then be inserted

into the mold easier and more quickly.

An oxide layer on the aluminum casing

can cause problems in some applications,

particularly if they involve

temperature control. This layer can be

removed by pickling followed by galvanization,

achieving better binding

to the melt. The cores are not faced,

but used in the state they were delivered

to the foundry by Drahtzug Stein

combicore.


from a single casting

Insertion of the prepared formed core

in the pre-treated and sprayed metallic

mold is carried out by a robot. Whereby

the core is frequently held in the

mold and fixed with blind holes and

slots. In sand casting, chaplets can simplify

fixing of the Combicore core.

In the case of gravity casting a vacuum

should, in most cases, be connected

to the core. There can be air inclusions,

depending on the geometry and

diameter and the corresponding degree

of compaction of the salt core. During

the casting process this air expands. In

order to prevent it penetrating the soft

core casing and causing damage it must

be deliberately suctioned off before and

during the process. As an alternative,

compaction of the salt core can be increased

in some applications.

If necessary, the pipe is pre-heated

before or after insertion to reduce the

cooling effect on the melt. This can

be sensible with voluminous and long

pipes, in particular, with strongly differing

casting wall thicknesses (Figure 6).


After the casting process, the castings

are removed from the mold as usual.

Drawing of the Combicore core can

take place directly thereafter or later

in a separate work process. As already

mentioned, the metal casing remains

as a ‘lost’ form and protective channel

wall in the casting. Removal of the

mold material can, depending on the

application and geometry, be assisted

by a wire helix embedded in the core

as a mechanical drawing aid (Figure 7).

The surrounding mold material can be

segmentally pulled out by drawing.

The starting material is a coiled pipe generally over 1,000 m long

Figure 6: Combicore cores replace complex drilling (with its unwanted openings)

and permit near-net-shape casting

This drawing aid is unnecessary in

most applications. It is usually sufficient

if the mold material is ecologically removed

with a high-pressure jet of water.

In order to prevent corrosion, the water

is targeted so that the rest of the component

remains dry. De-coring generally

only takes a few seconds within the cycle

time defined by the production process.

Whereby there is a very tight positive

and linear correlation between the

flushing-out time and the core size or

quantity of mold material used, and its

geometry (diameter, length, bending

angle). In the case of complex core geometries,

the jet of water very rapidly

reaches the mold material – even with

reduced pressure. In this case, the insertion

of a nozzle, with which the jet of

water is targeted at the point requiring

de-coring, proves useful.


tion

If water is used for de-coring, a tightness

test can be directly integrated into

this process. Whereby the cast channel

is impinged with the desired water

pressure for a previously defined time.

Alternatively, the tightness test can be

carried out with compressed air as part

of a subsequent drying process.

Drahtzug Stein combicore offers

comprehensive solutions with which

30 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


Figure 7: In cases where the interior

diameter is greater than 10 mm a

wire coil embedded in the salt core

can support the dry mechanical de-

-coring process

existing equipment at the customer

can often be integrated and used in the

production process. Alternatively, the

company offers its own appropriate

de-coring services. With its own plant

construction department, it also develops

and implements economically

priced, effective stand-alone solutions

for small batch sizes.


terials

The molded channel and the alloy of

the aluminum core casing have properties

that are comparable with the

surrounding material. During subsequent

processing of the casting on

milling machines, tool wear is considerably

lower than with conventional

inlays made of hard steel. Energy consumption

is also lower.

The salt is straightforwardly disposed

of or completely recycled, whereby the

existing waste heat already present in

foundries offers practical use. The salt

thus obtained can be returned to the

material loop, as can reject castings after

being melted down.


» Interior diameter from 3 mm

» Metal casing thickness from 0.5 mm

» Core lengths of up to several meters possible

» Use of variety of alloys, such as AlMn1 or AlMgSi0.5

» Salt core (NaCl) in light metal castings without binder

» Other mold materials for heavy metal castings

» Applicable for all casting processes with individual production parameters

» Suitable for samples, prototypes, small-scale and mass production

Numerous applications, parti


Combicore casting cores are particularly

suitable for long, complex channels

in castings. There are numerous such

applications in the automotive sector,

in particular, e.g. water, oil and fuel

channels in cylinder heads, weight-reduced

gear housings, or cooling elements

for batteries in e-cars.

Highly stable Combicore cores have

proved ideal in practice, are environmentally

friendly and resource-conserving

and, as lost cores, offer numerous

production-related economic and

ecological advantages (see Info Box on

construction above).

www.combicore.com

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 31


3-D PRINTING






Blending engineering technologies lead to an innovative design and manufacturing process: to

create a better-performing, lightweight vehicle component a group of innovative technology and

IT companies combined design optimization, casting simulation, fatigue analysis, and 3-D printing

Altair, Troy/USA, Click2Cast, Barcelona/Spain,

HBM nCode, Rotherham

/UK, and voxeljet, Friedberg, Germany,

collaborate on a new design and

manufacturing process which combines

the freedom of 3-D printing

for innovative mold making with a

simulation driven design process.

Together they presented a technology

demonstration that stands out

with dramatic performance improvements

and the solid potential for serial

manufacturing and mass production.

Improved performance criteria

Bringing design optimization, fatigue

analysis, casting, and 3-D print-

32 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


Figure 1:

ponent was created using simulation tools that inspire



Figure 2:

ing together addresses the challenges

of lightweight design and enables the

creation of an innovative design and

manufacturing process that enhances

performance and efficiency.

“When it comes to speed and capabilities

for serial production you might

want to look at this process,” said Kevin

Smith, Director Global Applications,

voxeljet. It marks the “rebirth” of one

of the oldest manufacturing processes

available – casting! The new process includes

molds made with 3-D printing,

an entirely new approach to mold making.

By using the voxeljet 3-D printing

process, mold making is dramatically

faster and the design freedom this

process offers is great. 3-D printing the

patterns and molds, is potentially the

only way we can achieve this level of

cast complexity. To leverage the design

freedom 3-D printing offers to full capacity,

the design for the printed piece

comes from simulation tools, which

provide structural inspiration and enable

the assessment of manufacturability

and durability. The result we have

received is very promising: the component

is now 3-5 times stiffer (depending

on the load case) than the original

design without having to add weight.

Another great advantage of this approach

is, that the manufacturing

process is already well established, certified

in various industries and is suitable

for mass production.”

Test run with a wheel carrier

Using a milled billet aluminum upright

(wheel carrier) for a student racecar

to demonstrate the process, designers

and engineers from the companies

focused on creating a new shape for

the wheel carrier that would be equal

in mass but would perform significantly

better than the original. The

wheel carrying component is subject

to deflections and deformations under

load, which significantly impact the

road-holding performance of the entire

suspension. Stiffness of the component

is critical. The original design,

driven more by manufacturing needs,

was now reworked for performance.

Program for design space determination

First, the design space was defined using

Inspire, a concept design and optimization

tool based on Altair’s OptiStruct

optimization solver. Then the

most severe load cases, such as hard

braking, maximum cornering, and

driving over bumps, were applied to

the model. After running the optimization,

which also took manufacturability

into account, the result was a

part with exactly the same amount

of material (now aluminum cast) but

distributed in such a way as to increase

stiffness by a factor of 3-5, depending

on the load case (Figure 1).

Prediction of fatigue failure

Because fatigue damage is driven by

the component’s entire loading history

and not just the maximum load,

a fatigue schedule of 35 h of loading

from five different road conditions was

developed and imported into nCode

DesignLife. Stresses computed by Altair

OptiStruct from unit loads were

also included, enabling the engineers

to assemble stress histories for all locations

on the wheel carrier. This data,

along with material properties from

the DesignLife’s database, was used to

predict fatigue damage (Figure 2).

Casting simulation

Click2Cast (C2C) casting simulation

was used at two points – the beginning

and end of the design process. In the

early phase, C2C allowed designers to

test the manufacturability of the component

design and optimize it, avoiding

internal defects and analyzing critical

areas while also reducing iterations

between the design and production

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 33


3-D PRINTING

Figure 3:

the optimized component with


Figure 4:


departments. At the end of the design

phase, C2C was used to simulate the

full mold filling process and thermal

solidification, helping create the most

efficient manufacturing method and

minimizing any waste in energy, time,

and materials (Figure 3).

3-D Printing

With optimization, fatigue analysis,

and casting simulation complete, the

results were sent to voxeljet for 3-D

printing of the molds. Using CAD

data, voxeljet produces plastic models

by applying a particulate material

(in this case, polymethylmethacrylate,

or PMMA) in layers, bonded with

a binding agent. This organic material

results in a very low ash content and

zero pattern expansion, with perfect

burn-out characteristics, and is therefore

well suited for investment casting

(Figure 4). With excellent dimensional

accuracy and high-quality surface finish,

PMMA 3-D printed models allow

for highly complex designs that are

mechanically stronger than previous

cast designs. While cast designs may be

lighter in weight, the 3-D printed plastic

models cost vastly less to produce,

having no tooling investment.

Figure 5:

Is there a paradigm shift in the

development of components?

“We are very pleased to realize such

an innovative initiative with our partners,”

said Mirko Bromberger, Marketing

Director, Altair Engineering

GmbH. “The technology demonstration

clearly shows the potential this integrated

process offers. By combining

optimization, fatigue analysis, casting

simulation and 3-D printing, it is possible

to leverage the full potential of

lightweight design or, as in this case,

significantly improve performance

without compromising weight goals.

With this wheel carrier component,

Altair, our APA partners Click2Cast

and nCode, and voxeljet have proven

that a paradigm change in how products

are developed is possible and already

available today.”


34 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


Casting simulation software

ProCast is 25 years on the market



This year, ESI’s ProCast proudly celebrates

its 25th anniversary. Casting

process modeling has come a long way

since the early 1980s when the casting

designer using simulation was limited

to deciphering a full casting through

primitive two-dimensional sections.

In the early days, the focus was on the

simple quest of identifying hot spots

in the casting. As computer-aided design

(CAD) and numerical simulation

software packages evolved, the foundry

engineer became able to make quick

changes to the feeding design, fixing

potential defects with relative ease.

Today, ESI’s ProCAST allows for a full

coupling of thermal-flow-stress analyses

and evaluations of all casting processes,

for all castable alloys, including

defect detection, residual stresses, part

distortion, microstructure and mechanical

properties prediction. The

solution also addresses other castingrele

vant manufacturing processes such

as core blowing and heat treatment.

ProCast is considered as one of the

most powerful, comprehensive and

accurate casting simulation solutions

in the industry today. Not only are its

first users, who embraced ProCast at

its inception, still valued customers

today – like General Electric, PCC Airfoils,

Rolls Royce, Amcast Automotive

(now General Aluminum) and Howmet

(now a division of Alcoa) – nearly

1,000 more have adopted ProCast

since then.

In 1990, one of the first customers

to adopt ProCAST was the USAbased

PCC Airfoils LLC, a producer

of high-precision investment casting

parts for turbine engines primarily for

aircraft and power generation. Kathy

Bell, Simulation Engineering Manager,

was an early adopter of casting sim-

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 35


SIMULATION


ulation and selected ProCAST as PCC’s

primary casting analysis tool. 25 years

later, she is certain this was and continues

to be the right choice: “PCC Airfoils

has experienced numerous direct

benefits from the use of ESI’s ProCAST,

such as resolving defects in production

parts, and decreasing time and dollars

for new part introductions. One of the

largest benefits has been the reputation

we’ve developed with our customers

as being a leader in the use of simulation

technology.”

Inseparably linked to the development

of ESI’s ProCast is software

founder Dr. Mark Samonds. During the

late 1980s, Mark started the development

of ProCast at the Processing Sciences

Division of UES Inc. Like many

high tech startups at the time, ProCast

originated in Dr. Samonds’ basement.

In the next three years, Mark’s basement

operation, joined by 4 other

colleagues, quickly developed a global

footprint. One of ProCast’s major

milestones included adding dedicated

modules to address a variety of physics

involved in the casting process. Key

fundamental additions in the 1990s

included radiation, stress analysis, deterministic

micro-modeling and grain

structure. These developments were

considered forward thinking at the

time and remain unique functionalities

today.

In 1994, UES Inc. signed an agreement

with Calcom SA Lausanne, the

developers of casting simulation software

Calcosoft, for the exclusive distribution

of ProCast in Europe. Calcom

went much further than distribute the

software and teamed with EPFL (Swiss

Federal Institute of Technology), taking

part in international, European

and Swiss research projects all aimed at

bridging the gap between macroscopic

entities and metallurgical aspects occurring

during solidification. This collaboration

resulted in the creation of

two new ProCast modules including

the CAFE (Cellular Automaton and Finite

Elements) module for the prediction

of grain structures.

In December 2002, ESI Group acquired

ProCast and Calcom SA. This

was a perfect fit as ESI Group is a

world-leading provider of virtual prototyping

solutions for the most challenging

product development and

manufacturing applications. The ac-

36 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


-


quisition quickly accelerated the expansion

of the ProCast brand name

and team, now encompassing over

100 dedicated casting employees in

40 countries. This partnership integrates

casting process modeling into

the manufacturing process and lifecycle

history so that customers can make

the right decisions throughout the

product development cycle. Kathy Bell

from PCC states: “We enjoy an open

line of communication and work with

ESI as partners in our effort to have a

useful, accurate, and dependable tool

in our analytical toolbox. This helps us

better simulate and analyze the physics

needed to produce cast shapes of ever-increasing

complexity”.

Taking advantage of more powerful,

faster computers, ESI’s ProCast analyses

can span across multiple cores,

processors and even computers, cutting

weeks and days of simulation

time down to hours and minutes. In

2012, ProCast migrated to ESI’s visual-environment,

with its state of the

art graphical user interface. Dr. Antton

Melendez, a ProCast user for over 20

years who now acts as Foundry and

Steelmaking Project Manager at Technalia

in Spain, notes that of all of the

developments in the last two decades,

one of the biggest and most beneficial

improvements has been the move to

visual-environment. The platform enables

users to gain efficiency by enjoying

a common platform for all their

CAE needs from pre- to post-treatment,

meshing and results visualization.

Loic Calba, Product Manager of

Casting Solutions at ESI Group, believes

casting process modeling will

continue to evolve in the next 25

years: “We passionately work to enhance

the physics in our product, extending

its functionality, quality and

performance. One major topic for the

future is a closer interaction with CAD:

the current launch of integrated optimization

and design tools is an initial

step.”

In 2006, ESI’s ProCast received the

Frost & Sullivan Technology Leadership

Award in digital simulation for

its contribution to streamlining casting

process design. Humbled by this

recognition for excellence, ESI’s focus

remains steadfast: helping each and every

customer create unparalleled products.

If you have flown in a jet, driven

a car, heated your home, washed

your hands or even spent a lazy Sunday

watching motorsports, then you

have probably benefitted from a quality

product engineered with the help

of ESI’s ProCast.

www.esi-group.com

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 37


ENGINEERING OF FOUNDRY PLANTS

Author: Huub van der Weiden, Gemco Engineers B.V., Eindhoven

Optimization during operation

Wescast is a foundry group and largest global manufacturer of cast exhaust manifolds and turbocharger

housings for passenger cars and light trucks. With a European market share of 38 %,

Wescast is a key player in this industry. Gemco Engineers does the full range of foundry projects

and services, ranging from turn-key complete new foundry facilities to foundry modernizations,

engineering and project management

When Gemco Engineers B.V., Eindhoven,

The Netherlands, engineered

and built the Wescast Hungary Autoipari

Zrt foundry in Oroszlány, Hungary,

in 2000/2001, the facility with

greensand molding line and a capacity

of 73,000 metric tons per year was destined

to produce larger series of compacted

graphite iron castings (CGI) and

SiMo metal castings. However, under

(often) changing market demands, Wescast’

customers also need to be served

with smaller series and – very subject

to trend – customers also ask for special

steels/alloys. Westcast’s focus on continuous

improvement includes researching

new materials in order to achieve higher

standards in product quality.

At present the portion of special alloys

is increasing in overall production

and is being produced on a secondary

line for smaller series. However, it is expected

that in the future the demand

for special steels will further increase

up to 40 – 50 %.

The changing market conditions

plus evolving and challenging new

heat materials’ requirements for turbo

housings imply that Wescast take

the required measures so to optimize

its production facilities and to reinforce

its strong reputation. Wescast

asked Gemco not only because they

built the foundry and would therefore

be very familiar with the plant and because

of its broad experience in the

field of material traceability and handling

but also, and maybe foremost,

because Gemco approached the subject

with a very open mind and presented

new ideas for this line.

Installation works in a small area in which a gentle shakeout, conveyors and

the new screening system are to be positioned next to the installation of a

new drum (Photos: Gemco)

Due to the increasing level of special

alloys being produced in the foundry

there is a growing necessity for optimization

of separation of the different

return metals – in order to avoid contamination

– and its traceability. Also,

since the secondary line was not originally

designed for higher production

speeds and capacity – it was originally

designed as a sample line – it is now

subject to review the line’s shake-out,

the casting cooling system, the shotblaster

and de-gating, tramp- and return

material handling, all in order to

fulfill the sought after increased speed

and capacity on that line.

After Gemco – always in close cooperation

with Wescast – defined and

evaluated the solution for the after-cast

Foundry and machining facility of

Wescast, Oroszlány, Hungary, as built

in 2001. The production facility manufactures

exhaust manifolds, turbocharger

housings and integrated turbo-manifolds

38 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


Positioning

of the gentle

shake

out equipment

Illustration of the required detailed

engineering in order to perform installation

in an operational foundry

within designated area

Process, the “separation of tramps and

return”, resulted in:

» Two sand flows (one for special steels

and one for iron)

» Two casting flows with gentle shakeout,

sand screening and casting

cooling/shotblasting (iron and steel)

» Two specific tramp metal separating

systems (iron and steel)

» separate steel return handling, incl.

traceability of returns in scrap storage

The optimization works are performed

in a live environment. The realization

is done in phases. Project “Gemco 1” of

this transition has been completed, encompassing:

new shakeout, sand- and

tramp-transport, and a new separation

system.

www.gemco.nl

Advertisement

In great form thanks to

ROTOMAX ® load turning device

Heavy moulding boxes with a deadweight of

up to 200 tonnes - it‘s hardly imaginable that

such monsters can be rotated once around

their own axis while hanging freely. Thanks

to the ROTOMAX ® load turning device built

by the German company Vetter Krantechnik

GmbH this process is increadibly simple.

In the depicted case moulding boxes with

weights of up to 50 tons are turned.

The drive wheel distance of the load turning

device is adjustable between 2,500 and

7,200 mm, so that boxes of different sizes can

be handled. In order to balance the moulding

box for being turned safely both drive units

can easily be adjusted by finger-tip.

However, this ROTOMAX ® load turning device

is not only used for turning moulding boxes,

but also for lifting considerably heavier loads:

The load turning device can lift up to 80 tons

in its function as a lifting beam.

The operator uses a remote control to operate

the impressive process from a safe

distance. For the customer, this equipment

is a great boon, as it has considerably

improved the working process and the safety

at work, too. Due to recurrent and often very

serious accidents caused by inappropriate

turning manoeuvres, also the institution for

statutory accident insurance and prevention

expressively argue for the use of accordingly

safe load turning devices as well-proven

solutions for such working processes.

ROTOMAX ® load turning devices are designed

for a very wide range of applications, e.g.

for turning heavy machinery, diesel engines,

welded structures, etc. The devices can

be supplied in standard and special designs

offering capacities from 1 to 200 tons.

VETTER Krantechnik GmbH

Siegtalstr. 22 · 57080 Siegen · Germany

Telefon: +49 271 3502-0

Fax: +49 271 3502-299

E-Mail: info@rotomax.de

ROTOMAX ® load turning devices

for fast and safe handling of moulding boxes

rotomax.de

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 39


hood (Photo: BDG/Piterek)

Robert Piterek, German Foundry Association, Düsseldorf


declining batch sizes





Customers buying castings increasingly

expect just-in-time deliveries of

cast parts for which, depending on requirements,

smaller batch sizes can be

ordered at ever-shorter intervals. This

development poses major problems

for small and medium-sized foundries

because they are frequently technically

unable to meet the demands

for flexible production. Older plants

require more energy and resources for

such an approach to production – reducing

competitiveness because costs

rise.

Comprehensive modernization

Ludwig Frischhut GmbH & Co KG in

Neumarkt-Sankt Veit in southeast Bavaria

(Germany) was also threatened

by this development. The iron foundry,

with its 90 employees, produces

about 5,500 tonnes of castings per

40 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


COMPANY

year at the site, with batch sizes of between

three and several hundred units.

“Our batch sizes have halved in recent

years,” reports Max Altmannshofer,

Maintenance Manager at Frischhut.

The foundry therefore made the necessary

decisions with the help of its

parent company, the Talis Group – involved

in fittings technology among

other things. The furnace technology

was replaced, the mixing hall and

charging system renewed, modern energy

management introduced, and an

efficient and economical casting line

extraction plant installed for a total of

almost three million Euros. In order to

meet customers’ needs for ready-to-install

castings, a state-of-the-art grinding

center was also constructed – described

by experts as “the future of grinding”.

The necessary work in Neumarkt-

Sankt Veit finished in late October 2014

and the core of the conversion measures

– the two state-of-the-art five-tonne medium-frequency

furnaces from the furnace

constructor Otto Junker, Simmerath,

Germany – could go into operation

on time. The new furnaces replace four

12-tonne line-frequency furnaces from

ABP Induction Systems, Essen, Germany,

of which two have meanwhile been

sold to the St. Leon-Rot foundry in

the neighboring German federal state

Baden Württemberg.


cranes in summer 2014 (Photo: Frischhut)

Casters at work decanting the melt into a casting ladle. The two new Junker

furnaces can be seen in the background (Photo: Otto Junker)

Bath movement allows material

corrections

After initial tests it was clear that the

plants provide remarkable production

flexibility with improved quality. “It is

said that there are more shrinkage cavities

when medium-frequency operation

is introduced,” according to Roland

Wimmer, Foundry Foreman at

Frischhut. “However corrections can

be carried out at any time because the

technology of the new Junker furnaces

allows a magnetic bath movement to be

generated as required, so that a subsequent

carburization can be performed.”

Altmannshofer adds: “With the new

furnaces we can use different materials

for each batch and thus more flexibly

produce our huge range of parts.”

The artificially generated bath movement

is a fascinating spectacle that Altmannshofer,

Wimmer and Otto Junker

Project Manager Rudolf Schwarz

proudly demonstrate in the foundry’s

production hall: the immense suction

hood rises, gradually revealing the

glowing melt (at about 1,400 °C). The

temperature surrounding the furnace

opening immediately rises sharply. Altmannshofer

makes a few hand movements

on the operator’s console, lowering

the Hertz rate of the inductors

from 250 to 125, as the melt suddenly

starts to bubble and the hot iron almost

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 41


COMPANY


Wimmer, and Otto Junker Project Manager Rudolf Schwarz coordinating up


Cem Bayraktar, Quality Assurance

Manager, is impressed by the new


forms a whirlpool in a circular bath

movement. Anything poured into the

melt now is completely mixed within

a few seconds. And the result speaks

for itself: “According to our quality assurance,

the first metallographic specimens

are perfect,” says a satisfied Wimmer.

Another advantage of the new

melting plant, called Monomelt Furnaces

by Otto Junker, is its failsafe operation.

“If one furnace has a fault we

still have the security that the second

furnace is running,” according to Altmannshofer.

State-of-the-art melting operation

In addition to the new production flexibility

and process security, Frischhut is

also pleased about the substantial energy

savings (and thus cost reductions)

that the new medium-frequency furnaces

are capable of. If nothing else because

they are so much easier to maintain

than the old line-frequency melting

operation: “We can cut costs and maintenance

effort because we empty the

furnace every day,” Altmanns hofer explains,

and continues: “In the past, we

had to run down the old furnaces to a

certain heel and keep this heel liquid

all night, i.e. we consumed electricity

round-the-clock. Now heating up takes

place automatically, before the shift

starts. We adjust the time and the furnace

starts automatically. So when we

start here early, at five o’clock, the iron

is already prepared.”

The precise melting management

system from Schneider Elektrik, Ratingen,

Germany, is also of primary importance

for reducing energy consumption,

as Altmannshofer explains: “The


42 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


Piterek)

requirement is immediately calculated

on the basis of the measurements, the

energy is sent to the furnace, and the

melt is brought to exactly the temperature

that we set. In addition, after the

first temperature measurement, an accurate

forecast is automatically made

of when the iron will be ready.” As a

result, the whole plant achieves 7 %

savings in energy use, calculates the

Maintenance Manager who has been

working at Frischhut since 1978.

Modern casting line extraction

The Frischhut foundry makes its money

by producing fittings for drinking

water and gas, as well as customer-defined

castings. The former family-run

company, founded in 1945, original-


Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 43


COMPANY

Several hundred castings per day can

thus be machined. A clever solution, because

it is now almost impossible to find

personnel for such cleaning work. Robot

processing also ensures consistent quality.

Cost factor: half-a-million Euros.




ly consisted of 13 foundries. The Neumarkt-Sankt

Veit site was opened in

1970. Frischhut’s independence ended

in 1998 with its sale to Deutsche Armaturen

AG, the parent company of the

Frischhut Group founded two years

earlier. Both companies were incorporated

in the Tyco/Flow Control/Waterworks

Group in 2001. Frischhut has

been part of the Talis Group since 2010.

The comprehensive holistic concept

of the innovations at Frischhut has been

implemented since 2013 and includes

sophisticated casting line extraction

for the two molding plants from Künkel-Wagner,

Alfeld, Germany, and

Heinrich-Wagner-Sinto, Bad Laasphe,

Germany. The extraction plants from

Ambros Schmelzer & Sohn GmbH &

Co. KG, Waldersdorf, Germany, have an

installed output of 110 KW. In the casting

area, extraction on the two molding

plants takes place via tunnel suction,

while the casting line extraction

is divided into three blocks. Sensors detect

the progress of the casting and the

exhaust flaps above the casting line are

then automatically switched on blockby-block.

The electricity requirement

for the ventilation can be very precisely

adapted thanks to coupling with the

frequency convertors that regulate the

voltage. This also results in considerable

savings.

Programming the molding plant is

Altmannshofer’s hobbyhorse. He considers

himself more a technician than

a metallurgist, and was already interested

in programming languages (such

as Basic, Turbopascal and CC+) in the

late 1970s. He later also gained comprehensive

knowledge in the programming

of programmable logic controllers

(PLC) for controlling machines.

The future of the grinding shop

Most of the modernization work at

Frischhut took place within just three

weeks in July and August 2014. At its

peak, up to 50 fitters worked on the

demolition and reconstruction of the

mixing hall, as well as on installation

of the plants. Hall constructors, roofers,

a demolition company and Otto

Junker technicians formed an efficient

team that was able to carry out

the work quicker than planned and

parallel to foundry operation.

The state-of-the-art grinding center

from Evolut S.P.A, Castegnato in Italy

– which can carry out the work of seven

grinders – was then commissioned in

July. The personnel had to be specially

trained to operate the machine. At the

heart of the plant is a working robot that

can autonomously detect and process

the castings on three loading stations:

from detaching the sprues to deburring.

Mastering challenges – professional

and private

For Altmannshofer the modernization at

Frischhut was a welcome break from the

routine of the job. The 59-year-old loves

challenges like this, for which organization

is everything. This applies both for his

professional and his private life: few would

guess that the wiry Bavarian with the red

work jacket is also an extreme athlete. He

has been climbing four-thousand-meter

mountains in the Alps, one after another,

for 41 years. He has already conquered

45 of them. But that is not all: the father

of two sons enjoys hang-gliding and has

already been individual German Champion

in this discipline several times. As in

his career, however, systematic preparation

is required for feats such as a 300-kilometer

hang-glider flight in nine hours.

Alt mannshofer also runs marathons, goes

inline skating, enters cycling races, and is

active in the Gangkofen Alpine Club, a

few kilometers from Neumarkt-Sankt Veit.

Someone like him is never still – just like

production at Frischhut. If the orders situation

should increase, he can also imagine

changing from the current ten-hour

shift to two-shift operation. “In the old

days we used to produce up to 40 tonnes

a day,” he enthuses. Altmannshofer also

sees the investments in the company’s future

positively: “We are well equipped,” he

is certain.

Whatever happens, he can also rely

on the support of his bosses regarding

his work/life balance – whether for longer

tours of the Andes or a hang-gliding

outing from his local mountain in

Ruhpolding, one hour away.

About Talis Group

Frischhut’s parent company Talis produces

premium valves, hydrants and

other solutions for water flow control.

It employs 1,400 people in 16 countries.

www.frischhut.de

com

44 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


Casting

Special

GIFA 2015

Followup


FOLLOW-UP

Author: Tanja Vellen, Messe Düsseldorf

“The Bright World of Metals“

shines brighter than ever

Trade visitors in spirits of investment

After five days Messe Düsseldorf delivers

a very positive summary of “The

Bright World of Metals” on Saturday

20 June. The metal fairs quartet registered

good marks on the exhibitors’ as

well as on the visitors’ side. In particular

the internationality again increased

distinctly and now amounts to 56 % at

the visitors and 51 % at the exhibitors.

With 78,000 visitors from more than

120 countries GIFA, METEC, THERM-

PROCESS and NEWCAST 2015 in Düsseldorf

were on the level of the previous

events. The experts presented themselves

in high spirits to invest and the

2,214 exhibiting companies reported on

numerous business transactions with

customers from all over the world. Especially

in the Asian region there is a great

demand for European metallurgy and

foundry technology corresponding current

requirements of the industry regarding

the saving of energy and resources.

Two third of the visitors are directly involved

in investment decisions in the top

and middle management of their companies.

On top of the international visitor

ranking there are experts from India,

Italy, Turkey, France and China.

Messe Düsseldorf Managing Director

Joachim Schäfer: “The ‘Bright World of

Metals’ shines brighter than ever. The

atmosphere in the fair halls was excellent

every day. The trade visitors really

appreciated that complete machines

and systems are presented here in Düsseldorf.

Accordingly, the sales talks

run extremely positive.” Global market

leaders as well as companies specialized

in niche technologies evaluated

their fair participation as very

satisfactory. Trade visitors evaluated

best marks for GIFA, METEC, THERM-

PROCESS and NEWCAST: Up to 98 %

regarded their trade fair visit as good.

This year the trade fair quartet attracted even more international visitors

than four years ago (Photos: Messe Düsseldorf)

46 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


FOLLOW-UP


formation on the latest trends in technology

The ecoMetals trails, organized by the trade fair,

were very well attended. A major focus were the


Spokesmen of the exhibiting companies

reported that they exactly met

their target groups at the fairs. At the

GIFA these were precisely the experts

of ferric, steel and non-ferrous metal

castings as well as of engineering.

At the METEC the major visitor group

traditionally came from iron and steel

production together with plant engineering

and construction, apparatus

engineering and tool making. This is

also valid for THERMPROCESS. Especially

experts of automotive and gear

manufacturing as well as of the ancillary

industry came to NEWCAST but

also visitors from engineering, apparatus

engineering and tool making

played a decisive role.

The ecoMetals campaign has already

been performed for the second time in

2015 on the occasion of “Bright World

of Metals” and by this campaign the

topic of energy efficiency and saving

of resources was obviously in the focus

of the visitors’ interest. Director

Friedrich-Georg Kehrer: “For the customer

industries the recent technologies

for the saving of resources and

energy efficiency play a considerable

role in placing investments. Companies

distinguishing themselves in

these aspects were in great demand

as a visitors’ target on the four fairs.”

Consequently, the “ecoMetals Trails”

were well booked leading interested

trade visitors to the participants of the

campaign. There the companies presented

their innovative technologies

and thus could get in direct contact to

potential customers from all over the

world.

The fairs were a complete success for

the promoting associations - bdguss,

VDMA, Stahlinstitut VDEh and IVG

Industrieverband Gießerei-Chemie -

of GIFA, METEC, THERMPROCESS and

NEWCAST. The three VDMA trade associations

of casting machines, foundry

and rolling mill equipments as well

as of thermo process and waste engineering

represented by their managing

director Dr. Timo Würz were

pleased with the good course of the

fairs: “The expectations were exceeded.

In particular we were very pleased

about the internationality of the visitors.

Also from our participating companies

we received a very good feedback.

GIFA, METEC, THERMPROCESS

and NEWCAST again have given proof

of their outstanding position as leading

trade fairs for our branches.” Max

Schumacher, spokesman of the general

executive board of the federal association

of the German casting industry

bdguss concludes: “The GIFA again

demonstrated that it is the principal

trade fair and the international venue

of the casting industry.”

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 47


FOLLOW-UP

voxeljet presents fundamental


The presentation of the results by voxeljet´s Director Casting Applications (North America), Tom

-


-

tion

Mr. Mueller, what was the major motivation

for your research?

The casting performance of larger printed

furan cores has been demonstrated

and documented. However, there

are needs in industry for much smaller

cores and little was known about how

well they would perform. In particular,

it was not known whether they would

adequately vent gases generated in the

casting process or whether they would

be strong enough to withstand the stress

encountered in filling. This investigation

was done to answer those questions.

3-D printing´s big potential lies in

the capability of printing any kind of

complex geometries. At this stage are

there any major limitations concerning

the geometry of sand cores?

At this point, it appears that there are

few limitations. We certainly can print

cores that cannot be manufactured by

conventional core-making methods. The

only condition is that it must be able to

remove unprinted material with compressed

air or industrial vacuum cleaners

from the core. That allows us to print

cores that normally would be made

in several pieces and assembled in the

mold. That eliminates most of the possibility

of core shift and the need to deal

with flash between core prints. With this

investigation, we now know that we can

also create complex smaller cores that

will provide adequate venting.


such knowledge?

We will see benefits in any casting that

uses complex coring. For example, cylinder

heads use a number of cores in each

casting; typically a core for each intake

and exhaust port, one for the water jacket,

one for the oil gallery and often for

the combustion chambers. The ability to

print them all as one piece eliminates assembly

and cleanup labor. Knowing that

smaller printed cores can perform adequately

during casting may allow us to reduce

the size of some cores. We will also

see benefits in cores used to form flow

Tom Mueller, voxeljet´s Director

Casting Applications North America

(Photo: voxeljet)

passages. We will be able to use printed

cores to form flow passages in tighter.

www.voxeljet.de/en

WEBAC GMBH

Precision and experience for

future-oriented plant construction

Once again this year’s GIFA demonstrated

its position as a pioneering international

trade fair for the foundry

industry. Webac, Gesellschaft für

Maschinenbau mbH, Euskirchen/Germany,

also gained a lot of interest. The

company once again used the trade

environment as an important event

for communication amongst experts.

The company regards the direct contact

to customers and potential clients

from all over the world as fundamentally

important to act on valuable market

impulses and to obtain immediate

feedback on product innovations.

For over 50 years Webac GmbH has

placed great emphasis on the targeted

further development of reliable and

high quality machines and systems for

the foundry industry. Therefore customers

benefit from the valuable experience

in development and manufacture

of customized solutions from

modular system components to complete

worldwide plant construction.

“Our global and locally positioned service

network allows us to support companies

quickly and flexibly and to optimize

their productivity,” says managing

director Jürgen Rixen. Sound and

48 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


FOLLOW-UP

long-lasting quality is shown in the long

service life of Webac systems and machines.”Our

customers have been building

and relying on the dependability of

“Made in Germany” for decades.”

The company was able to introduce

a new base for molding sand mixers as

a future oriented innovation at GIFA

2015. This new segment base is an extension

to the standard stripping base.

The new base consists of eight individual

segments of armour plated casts

and offers the customer greater service

life whilst at the same time requiring

less maintenance. Customers particularly

like the reduction in maintenance.

Compared to the normal base,

the customer can now exchange the

base or individual segments himself,

which is a direct economic advantage

compared with standard bases. Obviously

the mixing tools can also be replaced

with carbide versions when restructuring

the segment base.

The thermal sand regeneration systems

were a particular product highlight

at the trade fair and Webac GmbH

generated great international market

interest. The fluidized bed furnace and

the fluidized bed cooler, which were

developed especially for organically

bound used sands, have proven themselves

in a number of ways in the foundry

industry. “Apart from the effective

regeneration process, the high level of

environmental sustainability and

therefore the economical use of resources

present a great advantage,

The Webac trade fair stand at the GIFA15 (Photo: Webac)

which will increasingly benefit the customer,”

says managing director Heinrich

Richard Kairies. “Regenerating instead

of dumping means a direct saving

potential in the production process.”

Modern control systems guarantee fully

automatic operation of the regeneration

systems and, at the same time, consistently

good regeneration quality.

The continuous further development

of tried and tested methods, the

innovation strength in finding new

solutions and the proven reliability in

comprehensive service performance

ensure that Webac GmbH meets its

claim of always being one step ahead

of customer and market requirements.

Many discussions with national as

well as international visitors during the

trade fair provide valuable impulses.

Many existing customers used the opportunity

for direct communication to

start up new projects. The keen reception

from potential international customers

also contributed towards the

positive success of the trade fair.

GIFA 2015 was a huge success for Webac

GmbH which is looking forward to continue

supporting its customers in future.

www.webac-gmbh.de

EIRICH

Mechanical engineering com-


GIFA

GIFA, the world’s flagship trade fair for

the foundry industry, is held every four

years in Düsseldorf. The event, which

attracted around 70,000 trade visitors,

ended on June 20th this year. Eirich

from Hardtheim in Germany is a

specialist supplier of machinery and

equipment used in the preparation of

clay-bonded molding sand, and it was

one of the exhibitors at GIFA this year.

Outstanding, reproducible sand quality,

tailored solutions and superior cost

efficiency were high on the priority list

for visitors at the show. Following numerous

in-depth technical discussions,

Eirich received a large number of queries

on new sand preparation equipment

and modernization/modification

of existing machines. Eirich had

been looking forward to this flagship

event with considerable anticipation,

and the show exceeded expectations.

At GIFA 2015, Eirich placed the emphasis

on technical solutions which

give ferrous and non-ferrous metal

foundries new opportunities to make

quality and cost-efficiency optimizations

on new construction, retrofit and

modernization projects. A recap: Depending

on size, the systems have a

throughput rate of 6 m³ - 300 m³/h.

Mixing, cooling (from more than

100 °C to 40 °C) and bentonite activation

are combined in a single machine

and take 70 s to complete. A demonstration

was performed in a lab vacuum

mixer. Besides the quality of the molding

material, lower consumption of

bentonite and auxiliary materials and

a nearly 50 % reduction in dust extraction

air volumes were factors which

visitors found particularly significant.

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 49


FOLLOW-UP

Eirich booth at GIFA 2014 (Photo: Eirich)

At the booth, visitors had the opportunity

to find out more about control

system technologies such as proactive

management and control of molding

sand properties, particularly in combination

with the QualiMaster AT1 online

sand testing unit (used to determine

the compactability and shear

strength control parameters), SandReport

software (continuous acquisition,

analysis and archiving of production

data) and SandExpert (additional calculation

of all model-based formulations

using production plans). Teleservice

(remote monitoring), Condition

Monitoring (online diagnostics) and

IMD (Intelligent Material Distribution)

also generated considerable interest.

The fact that Eirich has already delivered

more than 1,500 sand preparation

systems to large, mid-size and small

foundries and has gained a wealth of

experience over the years also made

quite an impression. New drive subsystems

with synchronous motor reduce

resource consumption and further

enhance the energy efficiency of

the preparation systems which supply

sand to the molding systems of all

manufacturers.

www.eirich.de

FTL FOUNDRY EQUIPMENT LTD.

GIFA 2015 again proved to be

a successful exhibition

FTL, Willenhall/UK, displayed its extensive

range of no-bake equipment

and were very pleased to be supported

by two of its valued UK customers

in the form of castings from Harrison

Castings Ltd, Leicester, and a mold

package from Granger & Worrall Ltd,

Shropshire. The mold package attracted

attention from a continual stream of

passing visitors. It was pleasing to welcome

many UK existing and potential

customers to the stand and obviously

shows a keen upturn in the UK market.

FTL were also pleased to receive

many visitors from its most successful

markets in Turkey and Russia and received

orders at the exhibition from

both countries.

FTL are proud of their long association

with the Turkish Foundry Industry

through their Turkish Business Development

Manager and Engineer,

Burak Cagli, who represented FTL on

the stand and the Turkish sector of the

foundry industry. Also their Russian

Agent Rodonit, Yuri Muravyev and

Phil Webb FTL’s Russian Business Development

Manager and Engineer.

Over the last year FTL have forged

strong alliance with their Indian Agent

SREE Sakthi Equipments Company and

another first for FTL was an order placed

at GIFA for a No Bake Mixer from a new

Indian customer which they hope will

be the start of a long and successful partnership.

GIFA this year has given FTL the opportunity

to revisit and expand into

new areas with a strong interest from

South East Asian market.

FTL would like to thank all agents and

visitors Worldwide for visiting their stand

and look forward to the next GIFA Exhibition

in 2019!

www.ftl-foundry.co.uk

Stand of FTL Foundry Equipment Ltd.at this years GIFA (Photo: FTL)

50 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


FOLLOW-UP

Approx. 2,000 visitors visited the Laempe Mössner Sinto GmbH booth at the GIFA (Photos: Laempe & Moessner)

LAEMPE & MOESSNER

Core shop solutions from the

world leader

The GIFA becomes more international:

The organizers confirm a particularly

high demand from Asia for

European metallurgy and foundry

technology to meet the current demands

of the industry for energy and

resource savings. The company Laempe

Mössner Sinto, a global leader in

the field of core shop technology, can

confirm this trend: “Among the nearly

2,000 visitors at our 500 m 2 booth

were many decision-makers from the

Far East, who could convince themselves

of the strong innovative ideas

which pervade our entire product

portfolio“, said CEO Andreas Mössner,

who used the GIFA also for reporting

the new partnership his company

have entered: The listed Sinto Group

from Japan, the world’s largest manufacturer

of foundry equipment, has acquired

a minority stake of 40 % in the

family business. The company is now

operating under Laempe Mössner Sinto

GmbH. The partnership with the

globally operating Sinto Group allows

direct access to production sites worldwide

and new sales opportunities in

various markets, particularly in Japan

and emerging economies.

“The first big appearence under a

different brand name at the main trade

fair was a great success,” said Mössner.

“The trade visitors from all over the

world have recognized and encouraged

us in our ongoing internationalization

efforts.”

The booth of Laempe Mössner Sinto

on the product side was under the

Motto of saving resources and efficient

production. Among other exhibits

presented was a lab machine up to

high-performance core shooters and

other inovations, on the one hand to

satisfy the increasing demands for tool

weights and precision guidance, on

the other hand also allow easier operation

and an optimized control technology.

These included the “L1” as a

multi-process lab machine, an „LL20“

with an extensive facelift consisting of

improved carriage and table guides, as

well as table and side part transducer

measuring system. The core shooter

„LFB 25“ with facelift (rotatable top

part for optimum cleaning and maintenance

of the core box, integrated

high performance gas generator LGi,

measuring sand level in the fixed

shoot head) and the fast, energy saving,

high performance core shooter

„LHL 30“ shown in combined Coldbox

and Inorganic configuration. Also

on show was the mixer „LVM 5“ with

the new sand-, additive and binder

dosing systems and „LVM 15“, the new

high capacity mixer for all binder sand

processes, the „LGi“ gas generator

with energy optimized heater and

high precision catalyst dosing, and the

„LDA“, the Data analysing-Tool from

Laempe with the new Diagnostic-Software.

“The show has clearly demonstrated

that industry 4.0 also in the foundry is

the major issue,” says Laempe CEO Andreas

Mössner. “It is about highly reproducible,

documentable processes

and in the light-alloy foundry the

main topic is the inorganic binder process.”

www.laempe.com/en/home/

The LHL30 was the largest exhibit from Laempe Mössner Sinto at the GIFA:

This core shooter belongs to the fastest and most heavy duty series of core

shooters in the world.

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 51


FOLLOW-UP

LAMA AUTOMATION

Introduction of the new generation

of die casting technology

At this year’s GIFA, the largest foundry

exhibition in the world, held in Düsseldorf

from 16 to 20 June, Lama Automation,

part of the Titus Group,

Uxbridge/United Kingdom, launched

LamaCaster, a new generation of die

casting technology which opens doors

to new segments and strengthens

competencies for production of custom

precision components.

GIFA is a premier foundry event held

every four years which always attracts

a large number of foundry professionals

from around the world. The biggest

interest on the Lama Automation

stand was raised by the new generation

of LamaCaster H65 hydraulic die casting

machines - an effective solution for

production of high precision zinc components.

It assures high quality of surface

with minimal porosity, consistent

quality over high volumes and the lifetime

of the product, flexibility and

cost-effectiveness. The new generation

of machines extends the pool of opportunities

for the company and opens

the door into new market niches where

complex castings requiring excellent

surface finishes are present.

The exhibition is a good indicator of

trends in the industry of precision zinc

die-castings in Europe and confirmed

the strong requirement for flexibility

of services as well as energy and environmental

efficiency. ‘Good response

from the exhibition confirms the relevance

of Lama Automation’ specific

advantages, mainly stemming from

the ‘Totally Integrated Engineering’

approach, under which the company

carries out both product and process

engineering as well as the development

and manufacturing of die casting

machines and tools plus casting service

for precision components. We believe

that our approach is an appropriate

response to trends in the die casting

industry dictating closer integration

within value chains to follow the growing

expectations of clients for active

participation in the continuous improvement

of products and processes,’

explained Edi Ujcic, Director of Lama

Automation.

Lama Automation continues to invest

in the brand and presence in European

markets. The Company is going to

be present at MOTEK 2015, that will be

held in Stuttgart/Germany from 5 to 8

October 2015 and at EUROGUSS Nürnberg/Germany,

which will be held next

year between 12 and 14 January 2016.

www.titusplus.com

FILL MACHINE ENGINEERING

The Fill exhibition stand was a hot spot at GIFA 2015. Visitors from all over the

world sought information about the world market leader’s innovations (Photo: Fill)

Masters of the Foundry World

– Upper Austria scores highly

at GIFA

From core production and casting

right up to the machined and tested

cast part: Under the banner “Masters

of the Foundry World,” Fill Machine

Engineering, Gurten/Austria,

presented its superheroes at the GIFA

trade fair in Düsseldorf from 16 to 20

June 2015. The focus here is energy efficiency,

cost-effectiveness and process

reliability. The Austrian machine

engineering experts develop and supply

fully automated production lines

for aluminum, gravity, low-pressure,

and back-pressure die-casting, as well

as iron casting. Visitors from all over

the world sought information about

the world market leader’s innovations

on the Fill exhibition stand. The stand

evening with live music, on 17 June,

attracted a flood of visitors.

Downsizing, weight and exhaust gas

reduction, CO 2

emissions - these are the

major issues in modern casting technology.

Fill Machine Engineering optimizes

processes and develops new technologies

that deliver convincing results.

“Smart solutions interlinked to make an

overall process guarantee our customers

the highest levels of cost-effectiveness

and process stability combined with

maximum energy efficiency. Customers,

partners, and friends saw this for

themselves on our exhibition stand at

GIFA 2015,” explains Thomas Rathner,

Manager of the Fill Casting Technology

Competence Center and CEO of the

company’s subsidiary, Fill China. Another

reason to be pleased were the 200

Fill swingmasters sold. This high-performance

machine sets the benchmark

in modern decoring.

In the form of the megamaster 1500,

Fill presented a world first in Düssel-

52 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


FOLLOW-UP

dorf. For years now, foundries have

been seeking a cost-effective alternative

for the production of large-volume

and heavy castings. This has now been

provided with the megamaster 1500.

Alongside a high-quality decoring result,

this innovation provides massive

cost savings. Both in the decoring process

itself and in downstream systems.

Depending on the casting, a reduction

in decoring time of up to 20 h is achievable.

The extremely positive feedback

from international customers exceeded

all expectations.

The absolute highlight on Fill’s exhibition

stand was the Fill Foundry

World, which demonstrated a complete

production system live in action.

All the key process steps in a foundry

were portrayed by Fill’s superheroes:

The robocast duplex dual casting robot,

used in conjunction with an industrial

robot, ensures maximum

cost-effectiveness with its two casting

axes. The revolutionary, efficient, and

dynamic tilt casting process of the tiltcaster

c significantly increases quality

and productivity in the production of

very sophisticated design elements in

lightweight engine construction. Casting

poor from turbulence with the

highest levels of productivity are the

hallmarks of the low pressure caster.

The swingmaster 315 r decoring machine

is the recognized performance

benchmark for most difficult decoring

tasks and supplies the optimal solution

for a targeted sand removal process

thanks to its combination of swing and

rotation principles. Peerless in the automated

decoring of heavy and

large-volume castings with a total

weight of up to 1,500 kg, the megamaster

1500 scores highly with an extremely

robust design and maximum

efficiency. While the speedliner 920 m

high-performance bandsaw opens up

new dimensions in sawing technology

with its progressive sawing concept,

the key success criteria of the syncromill

c21 machining center are dynamics,

process reliability, and efficiency.

This concentrated performance showcase

was a real visitor magnet and attracted

enormous interest.


ULTRASEAL

Transforming impregnation

technology

At GIFA 2015 Ultraseal International,

Coventry, UK, unveiled a two-stage

impregnation machine complete with

sealant recycling that will save on costs,

be more environmentally-friendly and

require less floor space. The entire Ultraseal

family exhibited at GIFA 2015. It is

dedicated to adding value, reducing

costs and improving the quality of cast

metal parts for the automotive and other

industries. Gary Lloyd, Managing Director

of Ultraseal International, said:

“The R-FL-Duplex+ two-stage process

is the latest exciting development in

Ultraseal’s quest to eliminate the presence

of porosity in manufacturers’ castings.

“We are dedicated to continuous

improvement, as our satisfied customers

around the world know, and we aim

to work in partnership with them as an

extension of their supply chain.” At the

GIFA stand of the company die casters

could convince themselves how to save

up to 85 % of the whole life running

costs of a diecasting process while enhancing

the quality of their castings by

using Lubrolene WFR die release agents.

Ultraseal is the exclusive European partner

for Lubrolene series of water-free die

release agents, including the electrostatically-sprayed

WFR-EC that provides

A two-stage impregnation machine complete with sealant recycling

(Photo: Ultraseal)

significantly better coverage of complex

die molds. The final member of the

Ultra seal family is Sterr & Eder Industrieservice

GmbH, a renowned German

job processing shop based in Velden,

near Munich, that has been part of the

Group since 2013. It is famed for the superb

workmanship of its skilled fettlers

and its range of post-casting services,

including shot-blasting, impregnation,

trueing and bending, X-ray analysis and

crack detection.

www.ultraseal.co.uk

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 53


NEWS

VETTER



Especially the handling of heavy and

large-sized molding boxes is one of

the most challenging tasks for many

foundries. At the GIFA 2015, Vetter

Krantechnik Company from Siegen/

Germany present its proven solution:

the Rotomax Load Turning Device

– designed especially for rotation

of molding boxes. Devices featuring a

capacity from 1 to 200 t in standard as

well as special design are included in

the company’s product range.

The functional principle of Rotomax

Load Turning Devices is quite simple.

Similar to a conventional lifting beam,

the device is attached to an overhead

crane. The chains at the load turning

device are attached to the outer trunnions

of the molding boxes. The crane

then lifts the whole unit and the molding

box is rotated safely in the chains.

The operator can now stop the rotating

motion at any position.

The lateral distance of the chains is

adjustable so that molding boxes of

different sizes can be fastened. For this

purpose, the manufacturer offers a

manual adjustment feature at certain

positions. Motor-driven continuous

adjustment by means of a spindle is

available as an option. Individual

molding box distances can be saved

and applied conveniently at the push

of a button.

Thanks to parallel traversing of the

drive units, the operator is able to balance

out any imbalance. This is why

the Rotomax Load Turning Device

and the molding box are always balanced.

The spectacular operation is controlled

by a single operator via radio

remote control from a safe distance.

The great risk of accidents connected

with the rotation of molding boxes is

thereby reduced significantly.

www.vetter-krane.de

With the Rotomax Load Turning Device

molding boxes are rotated safely

(Photo: Vetter Krantechnik)

KÜTTNER

-


Küttner has built over 300 cupolas

worldwide in capacities ranging from

7 to 100 t/h; offering the appropriate

design for specific metallurgical and

process requirements.

Karo, the process model developed

over decades by Küttner, is tailored exclusively

to the special requirements of

the cupola process.

As a result of its repeated proven applications

and continuing improvements,

it has developed into an important

tool used by Küttner for the

specification and evaluation of cupola

melt centers.

With this modeling software, necessary

decisions can safely be made,

and their impacts to the process can

be forecasted. The program serves

not only for the development of a

new furnace, by following its requirements;

but also as a recalculation

tool of an existing system, based on

measured operating data. The calculation

model is based on the heat and

mass balance.

Karo2015 is a fundamentally overworked

version of the former program

version, using state-of-the-art

programming languages and possibilities

of data handling and processing.

Karo is provided on a central

Küttner-Server in its newest version

for installation via Push-Mechanism.

For every process engineer a personal

seat license is installed on the Server.

Modules and functions:

» Input of master data and parameters

» Management of elements and compounds

» Management of Material/Charging

Data

» Furnace module

» Comparison and simulation of different

projects

The Küttner database contains all

prevalent properties of gases, elements,

and compounds. For special simulation

purposes, these properties can be

modified and adapted.

In the newest version of Karo, the

temperature characteristics of compounds

are incorporated to account for

the respective properties.

Those temperature dependent values

are, e.g., enthalpy, density, specific

heat, thermal conductivity, dynamic

viscosity, and kinematic viscosity.

The furnace model is structured so

that it can be used for the production

of several qualities of cast iron (based

on returns and scrap), as well as pig

iron (based on steel mill wastes and

scrap).

The model also allows for the simulation

of different energy sources; taking

into account alternative coke qualities,

or the injection of gaseous or

solid fuels with, or without, oxygen.

Due to the perpetual changes of the

availability, and linked material prop-

54 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


erties of the raw materials, regular

analysis of the furnace process is necessary

to achieve a sustainable operation.

Only by this regular analysis, can the

highest demands of corporate governance

be reached – to adjust internal

procedures and to keep the availability

on a high level for continuous reduction

of production cost.

To achieve these goals sustainably is

extremely difficult, given the enormous

pressure on foundries in terms of

cost, quality and flexibility.

In Industry 4.0, progressively

more business and engineering processes

are structured dynamically.

Changes like different raw materials

have to be treated in a reasonable

way..

Karo2015 is a process model that has

weathered the tests of analyzing and

simulation of cupola furnaces, and can

be used profitably in foundry operations.

Küttner has been using this

model for various engineering and

consultant processes for over 3 decades.

www.kuettner.com

FILL

-


The founding of a new company was

celebrated in Shanghai with traditional

tiger dance, fireworks and lucky tape.

Officially the subsidiary of mechanical

engineering company Fill in China was

opened in May. China and the Innviertel

region, where the Austrian company

comes from, love symbols and rituals

in equal measure. “They just do things

a little differently here,” states Andreas

Fill, CEO and proprietor of Fill Machine

Engineering. Two people in tiger costumes

dance and “spew” lucky scrolls.

A lucky tape is severed. The fireworks

are always a must. The louder they are,

the more successful the future will be.

With their new overseas subsidiary in

Shanghai, the Upper Austrian machine

engineering experts can deal with the

emerging Chinese market even more

rigorously. Fill machines and systems

are already being used successfully at

more than 20 locations in China. With

over 19 million vehicles (cars and commercial

vehicles) produced per annum,

works

and lucky tape for the new company from Upper Austria (Photo: Fill)

China is the world’s largest automotive

market. Quality and expertise from Fill

are held in high esteem by Chinese car

manufacturers. The aerospace industry

is booming as well. “The founding of

Fill China with our own sales, service,

and installation team places us even

closer to the customer and will allow us

to further expand our position in this

important market,” Andreas Fill emphasized

at the opening ceremony. Fill

China will be headed on site by General

Manager Frank Landgraf. Thomas Rathner

is responsible for Fill China as CEO

of the subsidiary from the headquarters

in Upper Austria.


EUROPEAN ALUMINIUM CONGRESS 2015



The official programme for the European

Aluminium Congress 2015

(EAC) is set. The Gesamtverband der

Aluminiumindustrie e.V., Düsseldorf/Germany

(GDA) is holding the

congress on 23 and 24 November

2015 in Düsseldorf on the subject of

“Aluminium – Building the Future”.

The EAC 2015 is organized within the

“D-A-CH, Allianz für Aluminium” in

cooperation with the Swiss aluminium

association “alu.ch” and the Austrian

Non-Ferrous Metals Federation.

Effective immediately, it is possible to

register for the congress at the online

portal at www.aluminium-congress.

com.

Over two days the EAC congress “Aluminium

– Building the Future” will

look at the key factors for the future

success of the entire aluminium added

value chain.

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 55


NEWS

On the first day of the congress,

high-ranking representatives from the

aluminium industry, the customer industries

and a representative from the

EU Commission will discuss future

challenges for the material and the

branch in two rounds of discussions.

The second day of the congress will

be devoted in four sessions to the subject

areas of material development,

recycling and resource efficiency, future

markets and processing technologies.

Notable speakers from international

companies will speak at all

sessions of the congress and present

examples from actual practice.

The EAC 2015 will enhance awareness

for the future. Anyone who makes

decisions for today, tomorrow and the

time after that should understand the

mega-trends of the future, and should

know the opportunities and risks these

trends involve. Thanks to its properties,

the wide range ways of working and

using it, and its excellent recyclability,

aluminium is the material of the future

The European Aluminium Congress 2013 was well attended. All presentations

at the current congress in Düsseldorf are held in English (Photo: GDA).

that can and will replace conventional

materials more and more.

The congress will be held in English

and all presentations will be simultaneously

translated into German. An exhibition

by branch companies will accompany

the congress, offering more detailed

information on the various subject areas.

The registration fee for the congress

is 950 Euro plus VAT. An early-registration

discount of 100 Euro is available

for those who register by 1 October

2015. Anyone who registers by then

will pay a registration fee of EUR 850

plus VAT.

www.aluminium-congress.com

KSPG AG



The Plain Bearings business unit of

KSPG Automotive India Private Ltd. is

setting up new shops for the production

of raw materials used in the manufacture

of plain bearings in Supa, India.

The first cut of the spade to launch

the construction works was performed

back in the spring of this year by Sascha

Putz, President BU Bearings und Ratan

Mohapatra, Managing Director of KSPG

India, in the company of senior executives

and Works Council members.

The new plant premises are scheduled

for completion by the end of 2015.

They are located on a site measuring

around 40,000 m 2 in the Indian town of

Supa. The Company had acquired the

site specifically for this purpose. Supa is

around 75 km to the east of Pune. The

lease for the previous production site in

Ahmednagar expires in 2016.

“The new building is an important

step in our efforts to strengthen our

3-D view of the planned production plant in Supa, India (Photo: KSPG)

activities in the Indian market and a

commitment to the future of our company,”

says Putz. The new facilities will

be chiefly used for producing the upstream

materials that go into the plain

bearings. The previous production in

Ahmednagar will be split: the equipment

for making the engine bearing

shells will be transferred to KSPG’s location

in Takwe near Pune, where a

large share of the production facilities

is already located. Supa will be the

home of upstream materials production

and include the sintering equipment

for making the bronze materials

as well as the casting and roll/cladding

plant for manufacturing the aluminum-based

materials.

KSPG Automotive India Private Ltd.

currently has two plain bearing production

locations, in Takwe and Ahmednagar.

The product range of the Indian

company comprizes engine bearing

shells, bushes and thrust washers for

56 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


cars and trucks, for agricultural machinery

and rail vehicles. Among the customers

are Maruti Suzuki, Mahindra &

Mahindra, Tata Motors, Honda, Cummins

and Kirloskar Oil Engines.

The Company also supplies the aftermarket.

Besides the plain bearings

for I.C. engines, the product lineup

includes slide elements for other assemblies

such as transmissions and

brakes. The Takwe plant of KSPG also

manufactures oil, coolant and vacuum

pumps plus EGR valves.

www.kspg.com

INDUCTOTHERM



When one of the largest pipe manufacturers

in Europe decided to upgrade its

melting facilities to improve its energy

efficiency it turned to Inductotherm,

one of the world-leading companies in

induction melting technology.

With a current casting capacity of

200,000 t a year, Turkish foundry Samsun

Makina Sanayi Inc (SMS) is a leading

foundry in the global pipe-manufacturing

sector. When looking to expand production

and more than double capacity with

a new facility, one of the main considerations

was to achieve high quality components

in the most energy efficient manner.

The answer is the installation of four 9

MW VIP Power Trak systems from Inductotherm

Europe Ltd, Droitwich, UK.

The order includes four 16 t heavy

steel shell furnaces plus an 80 t channel

furnace, power supplies, coils and control

desks. The equipment is bound for

the new SMS site at Adana’s organised

industrial zone - the third foundry in

the group, which will produce ductile

iron pipes in the diameter range of

DN80 to DN2600 with an annual capacity

of 300,000 t. The site will be in operation

from the third quarter of 2015.

Speaking about the order Steve Hill,

Managing Director of Inductotherm Europe

Ltd said: “This is the most efficient

melting technology design we have ever

produced which we have been able to

achieve thanks to the long-standing

technological experience and skillset of

our designers and engineers and the use

of complex electronics. SMS wanted a

very tight kW/h performance and we

were determined to meet their expectations.

The result is a melting system that

is two to three per cent more efficient

than has ever been done before and we

are very proud of that.”

Inductotherm Europe Ltd has a reputation

for working with the customer

Competence in

Shot Blast Technology

We offer a complete service in surface preparation technology,

not just as machine designers and manufacturers.

Our emphasis is on providing reliable service on:

• Wear and Spare Parts

• Repair and (remote) maintenance

• Inspection and process advice

• Machine upgrades and performance

enhancement

• Upgraded used machines

AGTOS

Gesellschaft für technische Oberflächensysteme mbH

Gutenbergstraße 14 · D-48282 Emsdetten

Tel. +49(0)2572 96026-0 · info@agtos.de

www.agtos.com

151-11/13-4c-GB

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 57


NEWS

to push boundaries and is committed

to supplying a reliable quality brand.

It was this confidence in the company’s

abilities and expertise that led to

them working with SMS to develop a

first-rate melting facility which will

help the foundry meet its energy targets.

SMS has adopted an environmental

responsibility that encompasses a

reduced energy usage commitment,

which was paramount during its discussions

with Inductotherm about the

new facility.

“This technology has been market-driven,”

Steve Hill said. “The strict

requirements from SMS have pushed

us down the route to make even greater

savings for our customers and this is

something we are pleased to do. Together

we have accomplished a new

step forward for the industry.”

www.inductotherm.co.uk

VOXELJET



Lots of reasons to celebrate at voxeljet

AG, Friedberg/Germany: the innovative

company, which has made a name

for itself around the world as a manufacturer

of industrial 3-D printing systems

and a service provider for the on-demand

production of molds and models,

received the Bavarian Founder’s Prize

2015 (Bayerischer Gründerpreis) in the

Up-and-Coming category for its outstanding

performance.

Dr. Ingo Ederer and Rudolf Franz, members

of voxeljet’s executive board, were on

hand to receive the prize at the festive

award ceremony at the Nuernberg Convention

Center on 21 May 2015: “Receiving

the Bavarian Founder’s Prize is another

important milestone in voxeljet’s history.

This award honors exceptionally successful

companies that have contributed to the

performance of Bavaria as a business location.

The fact that the jury has considered

us for this category is a great honor for the

entire voxeljet team. We view this award

not just as an acknowledgment of our activities

to date, but also as a highly motivating

incentive to continue turning our vision

into reality,” says Franz.

With the development of industrial

high-performance 3-D printing systems,

voxeljet has been able to bring the

advantages of digital production, which

does away with the time- and cost-intensive

construction of molds and systems,

to many industry sectors. 3-D

printing delivers significant time and

cost advantages for conventional users

from the automotive and engineering

industries and an increasing number of

new users in architecture, life sciences,

the film and entertainment industry

Rudolf Franz, COO of voxeljet, and Roland Schmautz, Vice President Sparkassenverband

Bayern (from left to right) at the press conference for the award

ceremony (Photo: voxeljet)

and many more. As a result of the triumphant

success of the 3-D technology,

the company, which was started in

Augsburg in 1999 with four employees

and is now listed on the stock exchange,

has become a global player with more

than 200 employees and branch offices

and representations around the globe.

The expansive and successfully implemented

corporate strategy is probably

one of the reasons why voxeljet received

the award in the Up-and-Coming category.

The Bavarian Founder’s Prize has

been awarded to Bavarian entrepreneurs

and initiatives for the six categories

Concept, StartUp, Up-and-Coming,

Succession, Special Prize and Lifetime

Achievement since 1997.

www.voxeljet.de/en

58 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


KELLER HCW

-

-


Until recently, foundries and steel mills

employed measuring immersion thermometers

to detect liquid metal temperature.

With this method, a probe

is immersed into the molten metal

bath and must be replaced after every

measurement. Not only do the running

costs of these consumables contribute

to a plant’s operating expenses

– the immersion technique has other

drawbacks as well. The accuracy of the

data can vary greatly because the temperature

is subject to the depth and location

of the immersion. Beside that

with an immersion thermometer it’s

not possible to detect the temperature

at the crucial moment in the casting

process: just as the mold is being filled.

As an alternative, Keller MSR ITS, Ibbenbüren/Germany,

engineered the

portable infrared thermometer Cella-

Cast for detecting liquid metal temperature

without contact or mechanical

wear. The system captures the molten

pour stream just as the mold is being

filled. It is able to monitor the temperature

for each pour and thus for each cast

object. Production of further casts can

be stopped when the minimum admissible

casting temperature is reached.

This avoids scrap and unnecessary costs.

CellaCast is unique in that it features a

special CSD (Clean Surface Detection) filter

function. The instrument recognizes

the metal surface free of slag or oxide. It

only factors in the infrared radiation captured

from these pure areas to produce a

highly accurate temperature reading even

in a safety distance of several meters.

Another technological innovation of

CellaCast is the rectangular measurement

Portable infrared thermometer CellaCast for detecting liquid metal

temperature without contact or mechanical wear (Photo: Keller)

area. Capturing the molten pour within

the rectangular area greatly facilitates targeting

from a distance. This also ensures

that the molten stream is captured every

time even when its position varies, such

as when the angle of the pour changes.

The wide field of view makes it easy

to focus on the target object. A SLI

function (signal level indicator) in the

form of a traffic light integrated in the

viewfinder. When targeting on the

measuring object, it indicates the user,

if the signal strength is sufficient for a

reliable measurement and the right

measuring distance.

CellaCast features an intelligent ATD

function (Automatic Temperature Detection).

The pyrometer starts reading

the temperature as soon as it targets a

hot melt. A traffic light display in the

visor helps to find the optimum measuring

distance. After a few seconds, an

audible alarm indicates the end of the

measurement and the temperature is

displayed when it was correctly determined.

The CellaCast PT 183 measures temperatures

from 650 °C to 2,400 °C

which covers the entire range of applications

involving ferrous and

non-ferrous melts at foundries and

steel mills.

www.keller-msr.de


AGTOS Ges. für technische Oberflächensysteme mbH 57

voestalpine Böhler Welding GmbH 11, 13, 15 ,17

Giesserei-Verlag GmbH 62

GTP Schäfer GmbH 19

Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke GmbH 64

Laempe Mössner Sinto GmbH 2

Nürnberg Messe GmbH 21

Regloplas AG 27

RUMP STRAHLANLAGEN GmbH & Co.KG 31

VETTER Krantechnik GmbH 39

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 59


BROCHURES

Foundry service

20 pages, English

A comprehensive brochure describing the range of activities of the company Foundry


Activities include repair of induction coils, innovative insulation technologies, inspec-


Information: www.foundry-service.de

Metal impregnation

Information folder, English

Various fact sheets providing detailed information about impregnation services



tight, improves surfaces for painting and coating, avoids blooming after galvanizing


Information: www.maldaner.de

Multi-stage vacuum process

14 pages, English

A product brochure explaining in great detail the Vacu2 multi-stage vacuum process

-



Information: www.pfeiffer-vacuum.com

Binder products

16 pages, English

This brochure provides a comprehensive overview of binder products offered by


-


Information: www.shenquan.com

60 Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015


Solutions for aluminium die casting

8 pages, English

A brochure summarizing the products offered by Drache for aluminium foundries,


-



Information: www.drache-gmbh.de

Foundry tools

4 pages, English

-



Information: www.dwl-wolf.de

Element analyzer for metals

4 pages, English



designed for the elemental analysis of C, S, O, N and H in metals such as steel, cast


Information: www.elementar.de

High-end automation

20 pages, English



handling, hydraulic compact actuators, controls and guiding technology for electro-


Information: www.elexis.de

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 61


PREVIEW / IMPRINT

Preview of the next issue

Publication date: 4 December

Selection of topics:

An ae employee at work in the department

for casting machining. The order

book of the die casting company is well


Special: North America

R. Piterek: Manufacturing modern technologies with innovative lightweight construction

After a downturn of several years, a sustainable new beginning lies ahead of the ae group with its headquarters in Gerstungen,

-


K. Eman: Laying track for growth


expansion while using as much of its existing space and equipment as possible

E. Pardo: Effective solutions for marine bronze castings

Bronze castings for marine applications are high-integrity components and subject to strict quality control and assurance procedures.

To ensure sound castings, strict procedures for manufacturing and preparing the mold, pouring the molten metal and


Imprint

Pub lish er:

Ger man Foundry As so ci a tion

Ed i tor in Chief :

Michael Franken M.A.

Ed i tor:

Robert Piterek M.A.

Ed i to ri al As sist ant:

Ruth Fran gen berg-Wol ter

P.O. Box 10 51 44

D-40042 Düsseldorf

Tele phone: (+49-2 11) 68 71-358

Tele fax: (+49-2 11) 68 71-365

E-mail: re dak tion@bdguss.de

Pub lished by:

Giesserei-Verlag GmbH

P.O. Box 10 25 32

D-40016 Düsseldorf, Ger ma ny

Tele phone: (+49-2 11) 69936-200

Tele fax: (+49-2 11) 69936-225

E-Mail: cpt@stah lei sen.de

Man ag ing Di rec tor:

Jürgen Beckers, Arnt Hannewald

Ad ver tis ing Man ag er:

Sig rid Klinge

Circulation:

Ga briele Wald

Pro duc tion Man ag er:

Burkhard Starkulla

Layout:

Peter Büchele

Ad ver tis ing rate card No. 2 from 1.1.201

Pub li ca tion: Quar ter ly

An nu al sub scrip tion rate (incl. post age)

Home: 110,– incl. 7 % VAT; Mem ber States

in the EC: Sub scrib ers with VAT-No. and

Third Countries: 110,–; Sub scrib ers without

VAT-No.: 110,– plus 7 % VAT; Sin gle

copy 33,–.

Min i mum sub scrip tion pe ri od 12 months.

Ter mi na tion of sub scrip tions can only be

made from 31st De cem ber and no tice of ter -

mi na tion must be re ceived by the Pub lish ers

by 15th No vem ber.

Oth er wise, the sub scrip tion is au to mat i cal ly

re newed and pay able for a fur ther 12

months.

© 201 Gies se rei-Ver lag GmbH. Düsseldorf

Print ed by:

Kraft Druck GmbH

Industriestr. 5-9

76275 Ettlingen, Ger ma ny

Printed on paper bleached totally chlorine-free

All rights, in clud ing those of trans la tion

into for eign lan guag es and stor age in data

banks, reserved.

Photomechanical reproduction (photocopy,

mi cro copy) of this tech ni cal pub li ca tion or

parts of it is not al lowed with out spe cial per -

mis sion.

The reproduction in this journal of registered

trademarks does not war rant the as -

sump tion, even with out any spe cial marking,

that such names are to be con sid ered

free under the trade-mark law and may be

used by any one.

Cer tifi ca tion of cir cu la tion by the

Ger man Aud it Bu reau of Cir cu la tion

ISSN 0935-7262

Casting Plant & Technology 3/2015 63

More magazines by this user