who is a jew? - Judaica Savings
notes note on sources Although oral testimonies are subject to fallible human memories, they have nonetheless proven invaluable in explaining several documents collected for this study. Documents never before seen by historians, found in people’s closets, basements, and desk drawers, created a much fuller and complex history, especially when their owners supplied the background and history of the documents as well. These sources helped re-create the unique and tragic history of the Mischlinge, which is still so little understood over half a century later. The thousands of pages of documents and oral testimonies (on 8 mm video and VHS video) in this study are now part of the permanent collection at the Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv in Freiburg, Germany, as the Bryan Mark Rigg Collection. Although interviews need to be treated with some skepticism, they have repeatedly shown that oral history often enriches rather than contradicts historical documents. All too often, history is written without the human element, that is, without knowing what these people thought, felt, and believed. Oral history helps reconstruct many of these people’s thoughts, feelings, and beliefs through their diaries, letters, interviews, and photographs. In this way, a healthy combination of hard documents or primary sources and secondary sources and testimonies expands our sense of this history. Often one reads about men and women but feels no human connection with them. The interviews were done to try to bridge this gap and to provide readers with the means to enter these men’s and women’s thoughts and feelings to understand them better and to deepen readers’ knowledge of this history. introduction 1. Some loose translations of Mischlinge are “half-breeds,” “hybrids (Zwischenrasse),” or “partial Jews.” 2. Wehrmacht was the German word for the German armed forces from 1935 to 1945. 3. See chapter 3 on German-Jewish assimilation. 4. Since Austria was united with Germany under Hitler’s rule, discussion of German-Jewish assimilation here often includes Austrian-Jewish assimilation. 5. See chapter 9, “What Did Mischlinge Know about the Holocaust?” The term “Holocaust” only came into general use in the 1960s as the full scope and impact of Nazi Jewish policy became clear. “Holocaust” is used throughout this section to mean the Nazi genocidal policy. 6. To read about the sources used in this book, see “Note on Sources.” chapter 1: who is a jew? 1. Asher Maoz, “Who Is a Convert?” International Association of Jewish Lawyers and Jurists, 15 (December 1997): 11. 2. B.C.E. (before the common era) is used where B.C. was used in the past. C.E. (common era) is used for A.D. Karen Armstrong, A History of God: A Four- [ 275 ]
[ 326 ] notes to pages 109-111 292.
[ 328 ] notes to pages 116-119 chap
[ 330 ] notes to pages 121-125 36.
[ 332 ] notes to pages 128-131 84.
[ 334 ] notes to pages 133-134 119.
[ 336 ] notes to pages 137-142 159.
[ 338 ] notes to pages 145-148 207.
[ 340 ] notes to pages 152-154 p. 2
[ 342 ] notes to pages 160-161 Cahn
[ 344 ] notes to pages 163-165 56.
[ 346 ] notes to pages 169-170 105.
[ 348 ] notes to pages 173-174 15.
[ 350 ] notes to pages 176-177 of O
[ 352 ] notes to pages 179-181 86.
[ 354 ] notes to pages 182-183 Joac
[ 356 ] notes to pages 184-187 defe
[ 358 ] notes to pages 192-196 195.
[ 360 ] notes to pages 201-202 13.
[ 362 ] notes to pages 205-207 55.
[ 364 ] notes to pages 208-213 Stal
[ 366 ] notes to pages 217-220 138.
[ 368 ] notes to pages 223-226 the
[ 370 ] notes to pages 230-232 238.
[ 372 ] notes to pages 237-239 293.
[ 374 ] notes to pages 243-249 343.
[ 376 ] notes to pages 254-258 48.
[ 378 ] notes to pages 259-264 94.
[ 380 ] notes to pages 267-270 6. R
ibliography primary written sources
Munich’s Legal Records—Munich,
Rolf von Gierke, 29.11.1997 Hansott
ibliography [ 389 ] Arendt, Hannah.
ibliography [ 391 ] Burrin, Philipp
ibliography [ 393 ] Fraenkel, Heinr
ibliography [ 395 ] Hermann, Carl H
ibliography [ 397 ] Knigge, Ursula
ibliography [ 399 ] Mendelssohn, Mo
ibliography [ 401 ] Pätzold, Kurt,
ibliography [ 403 ] ———. “I
index Abel, Leona Margarethe. See F
Ballin, Albert, 71, 307 Baltic Germ
British Commander-in-Chief, Far Eas
207, 208, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215,
Frank, Hans, 168, 173, 348 Frank, L
HaŸner, Sebastian, 52 Hahn, Genera
oath to, 86-87 obsession with Jews,
number of J. who served in/died in
Lefévre, Herbert, 26 Leftin, Joach
Mischlinge (partial Jews), 98 appli
OKL (Oberkommando der LuftwaŸe; Lu
Rehoboth bastards, 20, 284 Reichena
Schmidt, Rudolf, 39, 139-140 Schmoe
35th Infantry Division, 307 Thorner
Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), 70,