New Stakeholders of Urban Change: A Question of Culture and Attitude?

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ISBN 978-3-86859-487-4


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Perspectives in Metropolitan Research IV<br />

Published with the kind support <strong>of</strong> the ZEIT-Stiftung Ebelin und Gerd Bucerius<br />

Advisory Board Members<br />

Annette Bögle (Pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> design <strong>and</strong> analysis <strong>of</strong> structures, HCU)<br />

Ingrid Breckner (Pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> urban <strong>and</strong> regional sociology, HCU)<br />

Gernot Grabher (Pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> urban <strong>and</strong> regional economic studies, HCU)<br />

Jochen Schiewe (Pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> geoinformatics <strong>and</strong> geovisualization, HCU)<br />

Klaus Sill (Pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> drafting <strong>and</strong> building theory, HCU)<br />

Gesa Ziemer (Pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> cultural theory <strong>and</strong> practice, HCU)<br />

The series “Perspectives in Metropolitan Research” is edited by the Vice President<br />

for Research at HafenCity University, Gesa Ziemer<br />

HafenCity Universität Hamburg<br />

Referat für Forschung<br />

Überseeallee 16<br />

20457 Hamburg<br />


Contents<br />

In the City Where I Live<br />

Maria Tetzlaff<br />

6<br />

Introduction<br />

<strong>New</strong> <strong>Stakeholders</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Change</strong>:<br />

A <strong>Question</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Attitude</strong>?<br />

Hilke Marit Berger/Gesa Ziemer<br />

11<br />

Working Together: How to<br />

Organize Governance<br />

Transitional Geographies: On Locality, Copresence, <strong>and</strong><br />

Conflicting Fields in Open Workshops<br />

Bastian Lange/Valentin Domann<br />

23<br />

Digital Governmentality:<br />

Citizen Power, Digital <strong>Culture</strong>, <strong>and</strong> City Development<br />

Ramón Reichert<br />

36<br />

Co-Designing Cities:<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Gardening Projects <strong>and</strong> the Conflict between<br />

Self-Determination <strong>and</strong> Administrative Restrictions<br />

Andrea Baier/Christa Müller<br />

47<br />

Foto Series I<br />

Transforming a Leftover into Public Space: A Photographic<br />

Interview with Laura Sobral about the Largo da Batata in São Paulo<br />

Martin Kohler<br />

60<br />

From Dialog to Doing<br />

A Walk along the Pr<strong>of</strong>essional Periphery<br />

Frauke Burgdorff<br />


Why Is Taking Action Beautiful?<br />

Explorations for Actionology<br />

Barbara Holub<br />

80<br />

Renegotiating Art <strong>and</strong> Civic Engagement: The Festival 7hoch2<br />

as a H<strong>and</strong>s-On Platform for Co-Creating <strong>Urban</strong> Life<br />

S<strong>and</strong>ra Chatterjee/Siglinde Lang<br />

94<br />

Foto Series II<br />

Today There Is More Space Than I Saw Yesterday<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ru Pasca<br />

108<br />

<strong>New</strong> Actors <strong>and</strong> Institutions<br />

Working in between: Die Stadt von der <strong>and</strong>eren Seite sehen<br />

Where <strong>Urban</strong> Planning Meets Artistic Practice<br />

Isabel Finkenberger/Eva-Maria Baumeister<br />

119<br />

Performing Arts, Martial Discourse: Berlin’s Struggle in<br />

Becoming a Non-German City<br />

Tobi Müller<br />

130<br />

Embrace Your Illusions<br />

Holger Bergmann<br />

140<br />

Permanent Negotiation: Artistic Self-Organization between<br />

Self-Determination, Cultural Policy, <strong>and</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> Development<br />

Gabriel Flückiger/Rachel Mader/Peter Spillmann<br />


Preface <strong>of</strong> the<br />

ZEIT-Stiftung Ebelin<br />

und Gerd Bucerius<br />

Perspectives in Metropolitan Research<br />

Vol. IV: <strong>New</strong> <strong>Stakeholders</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Change</strong><br />

“Together we create the city <strong>of</strong> tomorrow, starting today!” — the motto <strong>of</strong> the City<br />

Makers Summit in May 2016 shared an impressive do-it-yourself (DIY) <strong>and</strong> do-itwith-others<br />

(DIWO) attitude. On the opening day <strong>of</strong> the summit, May 27, 2016, the<br />

conference room at the Pakhuis de Zwijger in Amsterdam was hopelessly overcrowded<br />

with 600 urban innovators from 150 European cities. Still, the organizers<br />

did not give up the idea <strong>of</strong> having everybody sitting at the same long table both for<br />

discussion sessions <strong>and</strong> meals. The City Makers came to the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s to meet,<br />

connect, learn, <strong>and</strong> act together. At the same time, the Dutch presidency <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Council <strong>of</strong> the European Union took on a new <strong>Urban</strong> Agenda for the EU. The goal<br />

was to strengthen the position <strong>of</strong> the urban stakeholders in the European integration<br />

— to make the City Makers more visible <strong>and</strong> influential.<br />

The fourth volume <strong>of</strong> “Perspectives in Metropolitan Research” results from the<br />

fascination for this new category <strong>of</strong> urban actors, their innovative work, as well as<br />

strong agency <strong>and</strong> informality. One can experience this fascination during such<br />

events as the City Makers Summit, but also while observing diverse forms <strong>of</strong> participation<br />

in the everyday life <strong>of</strong> our cities. The present edition studies cooperation<br />

8 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

<strong>and</strong> co-production in the cities, discusses differences between dialog <strong>and</strong> common<br />

action, <strong>and</strong> examines the performative character <strong>of</strong> the cultural institutions. Academic<br />

<strong>and</strong> artistic contributions reflect the transdisciplinary orientation <strong>of</strong> the<br />

journal initiated at the HafenCity Universität Hamburg.<br />

On behalf <strong>of</strong> the ZEIT-Stiftung, I would like to thank the editors <strong>of</strong> the volume —<br />

Hilke Marit Berger <strong>and</strong> Gesa Ziemer — for their very timely <strong>and</strong> engaged interest in<br />

urban participation <strong>and</strong> the inspiring exploration <strong>of</strong> academic <strong>and</strong> artistic perspectives<br />

on this rapidly changing social field. They help us to underst<strong>and</strong> better how<br />

the new groups <strong>of</strong> the City Makers enter into the urban l<strong>and</strong>scape <strong>and</strong> interact<br />

with cultural <strong>and</strong> social institutions.<br />

Hamburg, May 2017<br />

Anna H<strong>of</strong>mann<br />

Program Director Research <strong>and</strong> Scholarship<br />

ZEIT-Stiftung Ebelin und Gerd Bucerius<br />

<strong>New</strong> <strong>Stakeholders</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Change</strong><br />


10 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

<strong>New</strong> <strong>Stakeholders</strong><br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Change</strong>:<br />

A <strong>Question</strong> <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>Culture</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>Attitude</strong>?<br />

Hilke Marit Berger/Gesa Ziemer<br />

The publication series Perspectives in Metropolitan Research discusses current issues<br />

in metropolis research from interdisciplinary perspectives. One topic, which<br />

has been focused on more <strong>and</strong> more frequently in recent years by protagonists <strong>of</strong><br />

cultural science, artistic practice, various citizens’ initiatives, <strong>and</strong> urban developers<br />

can be described as follows: due to the increasing densification <strong>of</strong> cities, the main<br />

focus has shifted to the diverse city. However, citizens not only want to be involved<br />

in the discussion but also in the design <strong>of</strong> the city. In Europe's urban centres, topdown<br />

planning <strong>of</strong>ten meets with resistance. Citizens actively intervene — organised<br />

as representatives <strong>of</strong> art, the neighborhood, (political) activism, science, as initiatives,<br />

or in unorganised, spontaneous, informal ways. The topics are manifold,<br />

ranging from housing construction, transport planning, or accommodation for refugees<br />

to the design <strong>and</strong> utilisation <strong>of</strong> public spaces. Citizens want to play a role in<br />

shaping the city.<br />

Of course, civic participation is not a new phenomenon. No democratically organised<br />

municipality or city would carry out large building projects today without<br />

civic participation. Since the 1960s, there have been regulated processes, both in<br />

Germany <strong>and</strong> abroad, which incorporate citizens in the planning <strong>and</strong> realisation<br />

processes. There are also a series <strong>of</strong> nationwide <strong>and</strong> international research projects<br />

<strong>New</strong> <strong>Stakeholders</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Urban</strong> <strong>Change</strong><br />


Working<br />

Together: How<br />

to Organize<br />

Governance<br />

22 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

Transitional<br />

Geographies:<br />

On Locality,<br />

Copresence, <strong>and</strong><br />

Conflicting Fields in<br />

Open Workshops<br />

Bastian Lange/Valentin Domann<br />

Open workshops <strong>and</strong> transition processes<br />

Our contribution focuses on socio-spatial contexts <strong>of</strong> the protagonists <strong>of</strong> open<br />

workshops <strong>and</strong> the ways in which their practices take up positioning <strong>and</strong> location<br />

in urban contexts. During multiple crises in the financial sector, food production,<br />

climate change, the crisis <strong>of</strong> political legitimacy, participation, <strong>and</strong> natural resource<br />

destruction, as well as useless consumption, many protagonists have started to install<br />

so-called open workshops worldwide.<br />

Open workshops (e.g. screen printing, bicycle workshops, repair cafés, FabLabs,<br />

etc.) are becoming increasingly important <strong>and</strong> provide valuable impulses when<br />

hopes are placed on urban innovation processes (Lange et al. 2016): craftsmanship,<br />

repairing technologies, <strong>and</strong> DIY-attitudes, the original practice <strong>of</strong> open workshops —<br />

that means transforming old goods to practical <strong>and</strong> usable ones — predestined these<br />

as places <strong>of</strong> alternative consumption <strong>and</strong> production practices (Baier et al. 2016).<br />

Working Together: How to Organize Governance<br />


Working<br />

Digital<br />

Governmentality:<br />

Citizen Power,<br />

Digital <strong>Culture</strong>, <strong>and</strong><br />

Together: How<br />

to Organize<br />

Governance<br />

City Development<br />

Ramón Reichert<br />

The convergence <strong>of</strong> mobile media, wireless networks, digital data visualizations,<br />

<strong>and</strong> social web applications have led to a radical change in our experiences <strong>of</strong> urban<br />

settings. Today, more than ever, the city <strong>of</strong> the future is evolving at the interface<br />

<strong>of</strong> mobile media practices, digital infrastructures, <strong>and</strong> web-based networks. The<br />

formation <strong>of</strong> digital infrastructures <strong>and</strong> networks (Castells 2000, p. 15) thus creates<br />

a key foundation for the sustainable development <strong>of</strong> the informational city. As they<br />

create a media-induced space <strong>of</strong> social experience <strong>and</strong> connections, digital information<br />

<strong>and</strong> communication networks, satellite navigation systems <strong>and</strong> real-time<br />

connectivity <strong>and</strong> navigation are transforming the city. In view <strong>of</strong> this, a number <strong>of</strong><br />

social analyses have used mobile <strong>and</strong> platform-based network media as a guiding<br />

indicator for evaluating urban change. In this context, the Networked Readiness Index<br />

(NRI) is an established indicator for the statistic evaluation <strong>of</strong> the informational<br />

city. Using the index, a city’s digital networking can be measured empirically by<br />

means <strong>of</strong> these indicators: “number <strong>of</strong> internet users,” “number <strong>of</strong> broadb<strong>and</strong> connections,”<br />

<strong>and</strong> “number <strong>of</strong> mobile broadb<strong>and</strong> connections” (Baller et al. 2016).<br />

36 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

Cities investing in the development <strong>of</strong> digital infrastructures <strong>and</strong> services can<br />

expect an exhaustive reshaping <strong>of</strong> their political <strong>and</strong> administrative actions consistent<br />

with open government, <strong>and</strong> an improved regulation <strong>of</strong> the cooperation <strong>and</strong><br />

codetermination among social institutions, companies, <strong>and</strong> citizens. In terms <strong>of</strong> urban<br />

planning, these expectations <strong>of</strong> the informational city can be understood as an<br />

indicator <strong>of</strong> an extensive reorientation <strong>of</strong> urban ways <strong>of</strong> life. Against this background,<br />

the following questions are central to this study: what significance does<br />

the development <strong>of</strong> the informational city have in forming new kinds <strong>of</strong> social <strong>and</strong><br />

cultural interaction in a digital society? To what extent can the digitalization <strong>of</strong> the<br />

urban be understood as a societal gauge? In response to these questions, I would<br />

like to closely examine the infrastructures <strong>of</strong> media technology, <strong>and</strong> its potential<br />

applications, to map out its effects on all actors involved.<br />

Models <strong>of</strong> the informational city<br />

Discourses on the informational city <strong>of</strong>ten center on a mobile <strong>and</strong> platform-based<br />

urban culture to depict visions <strong>of</strong> the urban human <strong>of</strong> the future. This notion<br />

breaks with the vertically hierarchical model <strong>of</strong> urban machine bureaucracy (Best<br />

<strong>and</strong> Wade 2005). Superseding it is the web-like model <strong>of</strong> the power <strong>of</strong> the “market”<br />

as an organizational structure <strong>and</strong> its novel forms <strong>of</strong> participation (Lessig 2004,<br />

Benkler 2011). Network structures, communication practices, <strong>and</strong> project management<br />

signify the versatile linking <strong>of</strong> heterogeneous structures <strong>of</strong> knowledge, power,<br />

<strong>and</strong> subjectivity (Andrejevic 2011, pp. 278–87). The space <strong>of</strong> mobile <strong>and</strong> dynamic networking<br />

has nothing to do with a ‘natural,’ pre-existing geographic or physical ‘container.’<br />

Rather it regulates situational contexts, probable actions, <strong>and</strong> opportunities<br />

<strong>and</strong> is characterized by a specific entanglement <strong>of</strong> knowledge, power, <strong>and</strong> subject<br />

relations. This metaphor <strong>of</strong> the new digital urbanity ranks among the hegemonic<br />

metaphors <strong>of</strong> contemporary society (Vattimo 1997, pp. 3–5). It signifies a trend toward<br />

the dissolution <strong>of</strong> the boundaries <strong>of</strong> social belonging by illustrating the gradual<br />

breakdown <strong>of</strong> institutions <strong>and</strong> the emergence <strong>of</strong> hybrid structures. Dynamic<br />

networks with flexible structures form the new social morphology <strong>of</strong> city development:<br />

“Hypertext is the technology for the theory, the implementation <strong>of</strong> deconstruction<br />

<strong>and</strong> postmodern multiplicity with technological means” (Simanowski<br />

2000, p. 137).<br />

In the context <strong>of</strong> near-continuous smartphone or tablet usage, the city turns<br />

into a hypertextual space overladen with information. While the networking structures<br />

this facilitates exp<strong>and</strong> opportunities for experience, action, <strong>and</strong> interaction in<br />

urban usage; they remain susceptible to a solidification <strong>of</strong> technological media options.<br />

Thus, the central question is: to what extent are citizens being integrated into<br />

the digitally networked transformation <strong>of</strong> the city? Are citizens being addressed<br />

only as application users, or are they able to go beyond mere userhood to co-create<br />

the city? Will the city <strong>of</strong> the future turn into an interface that manages <strong>and</strong> regulates<br />

certain applications, or will its residents <strong>and</strong> visitors be given the chance to<br />

Working Together: How to Organize Governance<br />


ship with the surrounding city. They dem<strong>and</strong> real participation, which for them<br />

must involve a redistribution <strong>of</strong> creative power. They do not want to become site<br />

operators.<br />

Lack <strong>of</strong> recognition<br />

The case <strong>of</strong> Bremen makes the different positions clear. It shows, among other<br />

things, how inexperienced all parties still are in dealing with each other. From the<br />

perspective <strong>of</strong> the urban gardeners, in one instance the city wants to transfer too<br />

much responsibility to them, but in other instances it gives them too little freedom<br />

<strong>of</strong> action. The city authorities, operating according to the principles <strong>of</strong> rationality,<br />

are not in a position to simply recognize urban designers who, in their view, lack<br />

legitimacy. Often, they do not yet trust the “new kids on the block,” as can be seen<br />

from the temporary or short-term usage contracts that they issue them. This forces<br />

the projects to repeatedly submit new applications, which takes a lot <strong>of</strong> time <strong>and</strong><br />

effort.<br />

When it comes to areas in so-called “socially disadvantaged” parts <strong>of</strong> the city, by<br />

contrast, the cities themselves sometimes approach the garden activists — as in the<br />

case <strong>of</strong> the “Wesertor” garden project in Kassel. The garden is on a busy street, opposite<br />

a discount store with the obligatory parking lot in front <strong>of</strong> it. The people living<br />

in the area have low incomes <strong>and</strong> many problems, including issues with alcohol.<br />

The 2,000m 2 area only had one playground: “Noone wanted to go there. At best a<br />

couples <strong>of</strong> winos sometimes sat on the bench there.” (Interview, K. Winnemuth, Essbare<br />

Stadt Kassel e.V., Kassel, January 2017)<br />

This was the first time that the city itself had approached the Essbare Stadt Kassel<br />

association. The garden group took on the challenge <strong>of</strong> revitalizing a neglected,<br />

run-down area <strong>and</strong>, in so doing, revitalizing the neighborhood <strong>and</strong> thus transforming<br />

a (theoretical) common good into a (real) common.<br />

There was great joy when, during the first gardening season, it was announced<br />

that the gardening group was also eligible for funds from the Soziale Stadt (“Social<br />

City”) initiative for further raised beds <strong>and</strong> a tool shed. That the money did not actually<br />

materialize at first was seen by the gardeners as symptomatic <strong>of</strong> the city's<br />

dealings with engagement by civil society. From their perspective, this is what happens:<br />

first they submit a concept, then they rework it as requested, then it is held by<br />

the authorities for weeks before anything happens. Finally, the city hires a building<br />

company to carry out the remodeling work. The gardeners believe that they could<br />

easily have done the necessary work themselves. They are also annoyed that there<br />

is money available to hire a building company, but none to pay for their education<br />

work in the area, for example.<br />

In conclusion, Kassel resident Karsten Winnemuth notes that he has developed<br />

“a healthy basic suspicion” (ibid.) after many years <strong>of</strong> experience with city planners<br />

<strong>and</strong> administrators. But he also recognizes that good relationships have developed<br />

with certain bodies <strong>and</strong> specific people — <strong>and</strong> that it is worth sticking at it. In any<br />

54 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

case, he says, they have now found a way to work with the Parks<br />

Authority in the “StadtFruchtgeNuss” project: “Our approach now<br />

is always to present our projects to the Ortsbeiräte (local councils).<br />

They are always very enthusiastic <strong>and</strong> even make funding available<br />

— <strong>and</strong> then we coordinate with the Gartenamt (Parks Authority).”<br />

(ibid.)<br />

This vignette shows that the activists’ experimental approach<br />

is not confined to l<strong>and</strong> management, but that learning processes<br />

also occur when dealing with municipal governance, in this case,<br />

the interaction between local political <strong>and</strong> administrative bodies.<br />

The activists figure out that the municipality itself is not a monolithic<br />

bloc, but is divided into different departments <strong>and</strong> divisions,<br />

some <strong>of</strong> which act in opposite directions (a classic case is the conflict<br />

between business departments <strong>and</strong> environmental departments)<br />

or may compete with one another <strong>and</strong> in so doing block<br />

each other. Individual employees, as well as entire departments<br />

within the municipal administration, can, despite their goodwill,<br />

get caught in the crossfire <strong>and</strong> fail to realize their declared goals. It<br />

also happens that individuals within the administration underst<strong>and</strong><br />

the projects <strong>and</strong> want to follow their rationale, but their<br />

employment regulations do not permit them to do so.<br />

Figures 3 <strong>and</strong> 4: Essbare Stadt (Kassel)<br />

© Christa Müller, © Daniel Münderlein<br />

Processes <strong>of</strong> negotiation<br />

The activists in Cologne also found that municipal decision-making<br />

processes should be regarded as “polycentric events” that do<br />

not follow a single, logical system. The community gardeners from<br />

the NeuL<strong>and</strong> project got involved in the citizen participation procedure<br />

for the design <strong>of</strong> a new area <strong>of</strong> the city, including a park<br />

Working Together: How to Organize Governance<br />


into Public Spa<br />

Transforming a Leftover<br />

into Public Space:<br />

A Photographic<br />

Interview with<br />

Laura Sobral about the<br />

Largo da Batata in<br />

São Paulo<br />

Martin Kohler<br />

Transforming<br />

60 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

When I first visited São Paulo, it seemed to me to be a city full <strong>of</strong><br />

wonders <strong>and</strong> horror. I came from Europe full <strong>of</strong> pictures <strong>and</strong> stories<br />

<strong>of</strong> the crime-ridden Brazilian cities <strong>and</strong> the city I found was a<br />

monstrosity. But not so much a monster <strong>of</strong> violence <strong>and</strong> inequality;<br />

more a monstrous creature <strong>of</strong> high-rise buildings <strong>and</strong> huge<br />

streams <strong>of</strong> cars <strong>and</strong> buses. Cafés, museums, apartments, <strong>of</strong>fice<br />

spaces, <strong>and</strong> bars — it was an archipelago <strong>of</strong> secluded isl<strong>and</strong>s, connected<br />

by cars. Public transport was something no respectable<br />

person would use, unless they had to. Confusing bus lines, chaotic<br />

transit stops, <strong>and</strong> generally slow stop-<strong>and</strong>-go traffic made it a notso-perfect<br />

mode <strong>of</strong> transportation, only walking <strong>and</strong> cycling were<br />

worse in comparison. This was basically due to the pitiful state <strong>of</strong><br />

the streets <strong>and</strong> places. This city has been built for cars, not for anything<br />

else. What was meant as public space was in fact very <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

unclaimed, leftover pieces <strong>of</strong> l<strong>and</strong> which were unusued, creating<br />

opportunities to claim <strong>and</strong> privatize those spaces.<br />

One especially infamous place among these leftover spaces<br />

was the Largo da Batata, a place I found in the middle <strong>of</strong> a journey<br />

from Rio to the apartment <strong>of</strong> a yet unknown friend in Vila Madalena.<br />

Arranged by a mutual friend, he had <strong>of</strong>fered me a place to<br />

sleep for a few nights. Walking around, getting lost in the middle<br />

<strong>of</strong> the night, the city led me down to the river, where I walked by<br />

an old cemetery <strong>and</strong> through streets full <strong>of</strong> brothels <strong>and</strong> hookers,<br />

until I was spilled out by the city into this large clearing in the urban<br />

jungle. On one side, the old houses I had just been passing<br />

through, on the other, a row <strong>of</strong> glittering large new <strong>of</strong>fice buildings,<br />

in the middle: nothing. Even the buses seemed to avoid the<br />

a Leftover<br />

ce<br />

place, roaring around only at the edges. If noise <strong>and</strong> uncomfortable<br />

chaos is your thing, this place nailed it. To me, it made me end<br />

the journey <strong>and</strong> take a cab.<br />

In the meantime, I learned that Largo da Batata, the gr<strong>and</strong><br />

empty opening at the end <strong>of</strong> Faria Lima, a bustling shopping<br />

<strong>and</strong> business avenue, means “Square <strong>of</strong> the potato.” On the<br />

flood plains <strong>of</strong> the Pinheiros River, the new migrants from the<br />

Northeast <strong>of</strong> Brazil arrived for work <strong>and</strong> city life in the rapidly<br />

urbanizing city <strong>of</strong> São Paulo <strong>and</strong> populated the area. At this<br />

spot, an informal market sprang up. A place that brought together<br />

<strong>and</strong> made visible the goods, life, <strong>and</strong> food <strong>of</strong> the newcomers.<br />

During dictatorship, the place was cleaned <strong>and</strong> cleared,<br />

leaving a huge open space, covered in concrete with a sole function<br />

remaining: coordinating the traffic flows <strong>of</strong> bus lines, a<br />

point to change buses.<br />

Transforming a Leftover into Public Space<br />


68 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

For me, these impromptu interventions look very much like<br />

something I call “Berlin-style.” Does that term make sense to<br />

you? Would you describe it differently?<br />

It makes sense, I think that is a strong influence on these kinds <strong>of</strong> actions all around the world.<br />

Transforming a Leftover into Public Space 69

From Dialog<br />

to Doing

A Walk along<br />

the Pr<strong>of</strong>essional<br />

Periphery<br />

Frauke Burgdorff<br />

The new always comes from the borders <strong>and</strong> not the centre. “The<br />

centre is petrified … Thinking that comes from the periphery is<br />

dynamic.” 1 When I first read this on the book cover <strong>of</strong> a biography<br />

<strong>of</strong> Hannah Arendt, this statement by Agnes Heller on Hannah Arendt<br />

made me, a philosophically otherwise relatively clueless urban<br />

planner, curious.<br />

Through studying some writings on <strong>and</strong> by Hannah Arendt, I<br />

learned she is still politically relevant, beyond her specific intellectual<br />

culture. Her statements on the “rule by nobody,” the role <strong>of</strong><br />

power in the polis, <strong>and</strong> the essence <strong>of</strong> the political are in a way<br />

fundamental for our democracy <strong>and</strong> also for l<strong>and</strong>-use planning,<br />

so I want to take the risk here <strong>of</strong> relating her thoughts to my pr<strong>of</strong>ession.<br />

To all those who accuse me <strong>of</strong> dabbling by doing so, I want<br />

to declare loudly <strong>and</strong> decidedly at the start: “Yes, I am a lay-person!”<br />

My stance on philosophy is like that <strong>of</strong> Zadie Smith’s father<br />

on art criticism in viewing the Venus <strong>of</strong> Urbino. I describe her<br />

beautiful body without being acquainted with the categories that<br />

enable me to evaluate the painting itself. 2<br />

So, take a walk with me through a select trove <strong>of</strong> quotations<br />

from Hannah Arendt. And take a look with me at the finds I discovered<br />

for myself, with twenty years <strong>of</strong> reflective practice at my back.<br />

1 “Hannah Arendt: Das Wissen um die<br />

Fehlbarkeit.” Derst<strong>and</strong>ard.at. Accessed<br />

April 27, 2017. http://derst<strong>and</strong>ard.<br />

at/2263721/Nachlese-Hannah-Arendt-<br />

Das-Wissen-um-die-Fehlbarkeit<br />

2 Zadie Smith, “Meine Zeit als junge<br />

Frau ist vorbei”, FAZ. Accessed April<br />

27, 2017. http://plus.faz.net/evr-editions/2017-02-11/42744/319071.html.<br />

From Dialog to Doing<br />


From Dialog<br />

Renegotiating<br />

Art <strong>and</strong> Civic<br />

Engagement: The<br />

Festival 7hoch2 as<br />

a H<strong>and</strong>s-On Platform<br />

for Co-Creating<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Life<br />

to Doing<br />

S<strong>and</strong>ra Chatterjee/Siglinde Lang<br />

“7hoch2 is not a typical festival or cultural project. It aims to initiate processes at the<br />

intersection <strong>of</strong> art, cultural participation, <strong>and</strong> the concrete concerns <strong>of</strong> citizens, to<br />

generate impulses for (modes <strong>of</strong>) participatory urban development.”<br />

How can people’s desires to actively shape their immediate <strong>and</strong> everyday surroundings<br />

be articulated? How can such civil potential be transformed into impulse(s) for<br />

urban development? How far can artistic processes contribute to converting urban<br />

spaces into arenas <strong>of</strong> cultural negotiation <strong>and</strong> civic action? <strong>Question</strong>s such as these<br />

were starting points for 7hoch2 — Festival für zivile Auftragskunst, 1 which tried to<br />

explore new kinds <strong>of</strong> intersections <strong>and</strong> relationships between citizens(hip), artistic<br />

practices, <strong>and</strong> civil engagement. By creating a discursive <strong>and</strong> h<strong>and</strong>s-on platform<br />

94 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

where concrete civil concerns <strong>and</strong> artistic practices meet in shared<br />

<strong>and</strong> dialogic processes, the initiative aimed to generate impulses<br />

for locally specific transformations <strong>and</strong> activate the city space as a<br />

living environment.<br />

We underst<strong>and</strong> citizens — in this case the people living in a particular<br />

urban space — as experts, who can contribute specific knowledges<br />

to shaping their urban living environments. Often, they<br />

know exactly where there are deficits, where change is necessary,<br />

where there is unexplored potential <strong>and</strong> what kind <strong>of</strong> renewal<br />

they want to see in <strong>and</strong> for “their” cities or neighborhoods. However,<br />

incentives to become active <strong>and</strong> the necessary tools to intervene<br />

in their immediate environments are frequently lacking.<br />

7hoch2 was intended to provide a public platform to explore<br />

civic potential for urban processes <strong>of</strong> transformation <strong>and</strong> aimed to<br />

multiply academic, civic, <strong>and</strong> artistic expertise. Based on our notions<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>and</strong> questions about citizenship, art making, <strong>and</strong> modes<br />

<strong>of</strong> participation, we designed a process in which photographs <strong>of</strong><br />

places exhibiting a potential for change were submitted by people<br />

living in Salzburg. Seven places were selected to be temporarily<br />

transformed through artistic interventions. In collaborative<br />

constellations consisting <strong>of</strong> an artist, engaged citizens inspired to<br />

participate by their local, thematic, or artistic interests <strong>and</strong> — if<br />

possible — the person who submitted the photograph(s) <strong>of</strong> a chosen<br />

place, artistic approaches in response to the submitted impulses<br />

<strong>of</strong> change were developed <strong>and</strong> realized.<br />

Conceptual starting points: urban, cultural <strong>and</strong> artistic citizenship<br />

7hoch2 was inspired by recent debates on citizenship in the context<br />

<strong>of</strong> cultural <strong>and</strong> artistic co-production alongside our theoretical<br />

<strong>and</strong> practical pursuits. 2<br />

Exp<strong>and</strong>ing upon Marshall’s concept <strong>of</strong> citizenship, 3 the notion<br />

<strong>of</strong> cultural citizenship articulates cultural practices as civil rights<br />

<strong>and</strong> as means for citizens to partake in society’s symbolic resources<br />

(Klaus <strong>and</strong> Lünenborg 2004): cultural citizenship emphasizes culture<br />

as dynamic <strong>and</strong> negotiable, “the status <strong>of</strong> culture as discursively<br />

constructed” (Delanty 2002, p. 64) <strong>and</strong> highlights the potential<br />

effects <strong>of</strong> civic participation on power relationships. Thus,<br />

cultural citizenship is defined as a discursive process that comprises<br />

“a set <strong>of</strong> strategies <strong>and</strong> practices to invoke processes <strong>of</strong> empowerment<br />

in order to subversively listen <strong>and</strong> to speak up in the public<br />

sphere” 4 (Klaus <strong>and</strong> Lünenborg 2012, p. 201) <strong>and</strong>, as Leehyun Lim<br />

emphasizes, “locates the substantial meaning <strong>of</strong> citizenship in the<br />

1 ‘7hoch2//Festival für zivile Auftragskunst’<br />

was one <strong>of</strong> ten projects awarded<br />

core funding by Zukunftslabor Salzburg<br />

20.16 (“Starke Unterstützung für innovative<br />

Ideen aus Salzburg.” Zukunftslabor<br />

Salzburg. Accessed May 20, 2017.<br />

https://zukunftslabor-salzburg2016.<br />

at/). It was conducted between October<br />

2016 <strong>and</strong> May 2017. 7hoch2 literally<br />

means 72. i.e. seven to the power <strong>of</strong> two.<br />

Festival für zivile Auftragskunst roughly<br />

translates as ‘festival for art commissioned<br />

by the public (civil society).’ For<br />

the remainder <strong>of</strong> the article we will be<br />

using the German short title 7hoch2.<br />

2 The festival was initiated <strong>and</strong> curated<br />

by the authors who have both been<br />

straddling theory <strong>and</strong> practice in<br />

their work, S<strong>and</strong>ra primarily in terms<br />

<strong>of</strong> artistic (choreographic) practice<br />

<strong>and</strong> scholarship, <strong>and</strong> Siglinde in<br />

terms <strong>of</strong> participatory arts management,<br />

curation, <strong>and</strong> scholarship.<br />

3 Marshall sees citizenship as a<br />

set <strong>of</strong> civic dem<strong>and</strong>s in the context<br />

<strong>of</strong> legal, political, <strong>and</strong> social<br />

rights (Marshall 1965/1992).<br />

4 According to Klaus <strong>and</strong> Lünenborg’s<br />

underst<strong>and</strong>ing <strong>of</strong> cultural citizenship<br />

(Klaus <strong>and</strong> Lünenborg 2012, p. 208)<br />

these rights as practices are: Right<br />

to information (as access to, but also<br />

transparency <strong>of</strong>, data, facts, information,<br />

in order to arrive at a collaborative<br />

decision-making base); Right to<br />

experience (as space in which diverse<br />

ways <strong>of</strong> living <strong>and</strong> identity concepts<br />

are or can be expressed); Right to<br />

knowledge (as introduction <strong>of</strong> prior<br />

knowledge <strong>and</strong> claims to competence,<br />

necessary for making independent interpretations);<br />

<strong>and</strong> Right to participation<br />

(as an active <strong>and</strong> open forum for<br />

the expression <strong>of</strong> opinion <strong>and</strong> interpretations)<br />

(see also Lang 2017, p. 141).<br />

From Dialog to Doing<br />


Figure 2: Pictures <strong>of</strong> the collaborative<br />

interventions based on the concepts<br />

<strong>of</strong> the artists: top row Romana Hagyo,<br />

Christopher Woschitz alias ChrisCross,<br />

middle row Cornelia Böhnisch,<br />

Julia Schwarzbach, Elisabeth Schmir,<br />

bottom row Stefan Heitzinger,<br />

Dorit Ehlers. © Festival 7hoch2 <strong>and</strong><br />

Johannes Pichler<br />

104 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

From Dialog to Doing<br />


I've got the chock <strong>and</strong> the board. Please tell me if you need them.<br />

With love, Martin.<br />

The fun is over! Please use the toilets in the East <strong>and</strong> the middle West. Thanks!<br />

Please knock at the door, <strong>and</strong> enter only if you hear a “Yes, come in.”<br />

Thanks.<br />

114 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

I couldn't carry it out alone. Please don't throw it away. I will take it out first in September.<br />

All the best, Christian<br />

I borrowed the white board for the party in the<br />

basement. I will bring it back on Tuesday.<br />

Greetings, BOB<br />

Today There Is More Space Than I Saw Yesterday 115

<strong>New</strong> Actors<br />

Performing Arts,<br />

Martial Discourse:<br />

Berlin’s Struggle<br />

<strong>and</strong> Institutions<br />

in Becoming a<br />

Non-German City<br />

Tobi Müller<br />

This essay is about an artistic director who became a symptom <strong>of</strong> Berlin’s urban<br />

change. It is a story that plays out in the open, but also beneath the surface <strong>of</strong> the<br />

idea <strong>of</strong> what a city is. It is a story about the Belgian museum man Chris Dercon who<br />

became a byword for urban change. Up until spring <strong>of</strong> 2017, Dercon was one <strong>of</strong> the<br />

artistic directors <strong>of</strong> Tate Modern in London. In 2015, it was announced that he had<br />

been appointed to the top job at one <strong>of</strong> Germany’s most renowned municipal theaters,<br />

the Volksbühne at Rosa-Luxemburg-Platz in Berlin. This personnel matter was<br />

the target <strong>of</strong> much protest — against the man, to be sure, but also against the role<br />

the arts play in the process <strong>of</strong> change in a city. When we talk about Dercon, we talk<br />

about the spectre <strong>of</strong> neoliberalism. Or about its influence on the minds <strong>of</strong> the predominantly<br />

white, male <strong>and</strong> Eurocentric artistic elite that operates in Berlin. This<br />

text will place Dercon’s transition — from the so-called fine to the performing arts,<br />

from projects to repertory, from London to Berlin — within the frame <strong>of</strong> larger questions<br />

that many inner cities are facing. What city do we want to live in, what role do<br />

the arts play in the process, <strong>and</strong> who the hell are we anyway?<br />

Chris Dercon is in his late fifties, sports a well-groomed beard <strong>and</strong>, from the look<br />

<strong>of</strong> his hair, probably visits a hairdresser’s once a month. And he likes scarves. Some<br />

130 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

<strong>of</strong> the ones he wears look like silk, but not all <strong>of</strong> them appear to be<br />

expensive. You have to know a little something about textiles in<br />

order to spot the quality. Dercon was born in Fl<strong>and</strong>ers, the<br />

Dutch-speaking part <strong>of</strong> Belgium, in an area famed for its woven<br />

fabrics <strong>and</strong> cloth. It runs in the family too; his mother was a cutter.<br />

We have an appointment in London where he is curating his last<br />

show as one <strong>of</strong> the directors <strong>of</strong> Tate Modern. It is a solo exhibition<br />

<strong>of</strong> work by Wolfgang Tillmans, the German photographer. Dercon<br />

is waiting to board a plane to Kolkata when I call him to set the<br />

time <strong>of</strong> our interview at the Tate. Two weeks later, we meet at the<br />

staff entrance. My Swiss genes mean that I cannot help being ten<br />

minutes early. But Dercon is already there to meet me.<br />

Everything in this last paragraph would be unlikely to apply to<br />

a German theater boss. The look, the heritage, the fine arts, <strong>and</strong><br />

definitely the fact that there is no gate-keeping secretary who politely<br />

asks me to wait outside. Possibly that will change soon. In<br />

September 2017 Chris Dercon will head up the Volksbühne in Berlin,<br />

a big venue at the heart <strong>of</strong> the well-funded German theater<br />

sector.<br />

One <strong>of</strong> Dercon’s favorite artists is Hélio Oiticica, a visual artist<br />

from Brazil, who combined the aesthetics <strong>of</strong> modernity with environmental<br />

art <strong>and</strong> with what would soon be called Tropicalia. Like<br />

so many non-American, non-European artists, Oiticica was not<br />

discovered by the global art world until very late, in his case after<br />

his untimely death in 1980 aged 42. His current fame is partly<br />

down to Chris Dercon. During our interview 1 in London he takes<br />

great pleasure in reminiscing about his colleagues back in the day<br />

who denounced him by saying his interest in Oiticica was fueled<br />

by “Brazilian women, carnival, <strong>and</strong> cocaine!”<br />

Tate Modern has played a vital role in rewriting art history for<br />

quite a while. This began well before 2011, when Dercon answered<br />

London’s call <strong>and</strong> went from director <strong>of</strong> Haus der Kunst in Munich<br />

to the large museum on the south bank <strong>of</strong> the Thames. At Tate<br />

Modern, many shows have let the attention w<strong>and</strong>er outside <strong>of</strong> Europe<br />

<strong>and</strong> negotiated a more diverse heritage in doing so, which<br />

also means: a less male heritage. (Re-)discovering South American<br />

art <strong>and</strong> re-evaluating female positions has become vital not only<br />

for museums <strong>and</strong> biennials, but also for the market. So even<br />

though Tate Modern may not have initiated this shift all by itself,<br />

the institution has been prominent in promoting the tendency<br />

towards diversity. <strong>Change</strong>s <strong>of</strong> this scale in the artistic field have<br />

knock-on effects in social ideas involved in city planning. The Lon-<br />

1 Interview, C. Dercon, Director <strong>of</strong> Tate<br />

Modern, London, February 2017.<br />

<strong>New</strong> Actors <strong>and</strong> Institutions<br />


SchlimmCity © Björn Stork<br />

Why is the field between vacancy <strong>and</strong> renewed leases,<br />

gentrification <strong>and</strong> socio-spatial boundaries so important?<br />

What we can see in a project such as SchlimmCity is the current<br />

attempt within the performing <strong>and</strong> visual arts to set themselves<br />

against a notion <strong>of</strong> art that emphasizes the artwork <strong>and</strong> the individual<br />

creator, <strong>and</strong> to espouse one that emphasizes the diversity<br />

<strong>and</strong> process orientation <strong>of</strong> creating. This occurs sometimes more,<br />

sometimes less, explicitly with reference to artists such as those<br />

involved in the Fluxus movement, Situationists International, or<br />

the further elaboration <strong>of</strong> social sculpture in the tradition <strong>of</strong> Joseph<br />

Beuys. Many artists’ forms <strong>of</strong> expression have changed in<br />

this way in years gone by. The central motif <strong>of</strong> these developments<br />

can, with utmost caution, be described as a “turn towards the<br />

real.” This is substantiated as follows: while culture used to be understood<br />

as a structured symbolic relationship to be read <strong>and</strong> investigated,<br />

the assumption today is that culture is generated in<br />

the execution <strong>of</strong> collective action <strong>and</strong> can accordingly only be researched<br />

in action. <strong>Culture</strong> is like a large-scale performance in<br />

which the utterances generated, consciously or unconsciously,<br />

create a reality. Digital transformations elaborate upon these performances<br />

in virtual reality, engendering a transformation in<br />

144 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

viewers’ perspectives that poses new challenges to our cultural institutions. The<br />

role <strong>of</strong> the spectator/visitor in theaters <strong>and</strong> museums is all too <strong>of</strong>ten an anachronism<br />

in a context <strong>of</strong> immediate feedback <strong>and</strong> global availability. Artists <strong>and</strong> cultural<br />

institutions are acting upon these changes in the form <strong>of</strong> urban actions, performative<br />

installations, live art, <strong>and</strong> participatory projects. With their art, over decades,<br />

they have allowed the nature <strong>of</strong> their work to evolve, so it becomes more about art<br />

as the experience <strong>of</strong> a space, <strong>and</strong> less about art as a viewable object. Along with the<br />

expansion <strong>of</strong> art into virtual spaces, one could describe this trend as immersive art.<br />

To recap, the following three aspects are important for my thinking:<br />

1. the visibility <strong>of</strong> diversity as the basis <strong>of</strong> negotiation processes <strong>and</strong> the<br />

basis <strong>of</strong> democracy<br />

2. artistic experimental arrangements as test runs for city <strong>and</strong> community<br />

developments<br />

3. continual aesthetic development, aiming at art being truly/genuinely<br />

contemporary<br />

With such an artistic practice, my concern is to create aesthetic formats that include<br />

socio-political, architectural, <strong>and</strong> socio-spatial fields <strong>of</strong> action. Under my artistic leadership,<br />

the city games (e.g. SchlimmCity, Ruhrzilla, <strong>and</strong> 54. Stadt (54th City)) created<br />

events that provided space <strong>and</strong> regional attention for current formats <strong>and</strong> their contemporary<br />

aesthetic, <strong>and</strong> incidentally created intercity collaborations across genres.<br />

Formats, artistic strategies, marketing, <strong>and</strong> art are hardly distinct. They create a<br />

temporary collective sphere in which users — artists, visitors, employees, local actors,<br />

<strong>and</strong> inhabitants — experience <strong>and</strong> shape a collective performance. Everyone<br />

performs their own actions, <strong>and</strong> these (<strong>of</strong>ten unconscious) actions create reality.<br />

<strong>Urban</strong> dwellers in central Europe always underst<strong>and</strong> their lives as a conscious staging<br />

process, in which everything is, to a certain extent, “constructed”. This includes<br />

the architectural spaces <strong>of</strong> the city around us, the style <strong>of</strong> décor in our apartments,<br />

our “eventized” leisure time <strong>and</strong> even our bodies, which we alter with aesthetic surgery.<br />

In this vein, reality is always understood as a performance, as a conscious embodiment.<br />

The border between reality <strong>and</strong> fiction blurs, <strong>and</strong> art as experience gradually<br />

supersedes art as artwork. What Guy Debord <strong>and</strong> the Situationists anticipated<br />

in 1967 as a “society <strong>of</strong> the spectacle” is today a reality. It defines the citizen or resident<br />

<strong>of</strong> such a society as a spectator for whom the entirety <strong>of</strong> public <strong>and</strong> political<br />

life becomes a spectacle. This is how illusory space <strong>and</strong> public urban space become<br />

more <strong>and</strong> more intertwined.<br />

The performative artistic practice described reacts to this by approximating<br />

performance art in its technique <strong>and</strong> modes <strong>of</strong> representation. The theater scholar,<br />

Hans-Thies Lehmann, describes this convergence <strong>of</strong> theater <strong>and</strong> performance as<br />

the “incursion <strong>of</strong> the real into theatrical fiction” (Lehmann 1999, p. 176). The desire to<br />

<strong>New</strong> Actors <strong>and</strong> Institutions<br />


<strong>New</strong> Actors<br />

Permanent<br />

Negotiation: Artistic<br />

Self-Organization<br />

<strong>and</strong> Institutions<br />

between<br />

Self-Determination,<br />

Cultural Policy, <strong>and</strong><br />

<strong>Urban</strong> Development<br />

Gabriel Flückiger/Rachel Mader/Peter Spillmann<br />

In the spring <strong>of</strong> 1988, Basel’s electorate voted to reject a proposal for a new culture<br />

<strong>and</strong> ecology center, the Kultur- und Naturpark St. Johann, thus bringing the interim<br />

use <strong>of</strong> the Alte Stadtgärtnerei (Old City Nursery) to a bitter end. For almost two<br />

years, this urban community project had stood in for both the youth movement<br />

<strong>and</strong> the short-lived Autonome Jugend Zentrum (AJZ, Autonomous Youth Center). It<br />

was a place that brought together a wide variety <strong>of</strong> protagonists <strong>and</strong> biographies —<br />

from “political activists <strong>and</strong> esoterics to junkies <strong>and</strong> unhinged artists” (Kocher 2012,<br />

p. 280) — in a strictly non-commercial <strong>and</strong> democratic, grassroots environment.<br />

Modern-day commentators have rightly referred to it as a “viable alternative to a<br />

society <strong>of</strong> consumption <strong>and</strong> growth” (ibid.). As owners <strong>of</strong> the site, the municipal<br />

148 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

authorities had endorsed the experiment, though this was never<br />

conceived as anything other than a temporary arrangement. The<br />

Basel Building Department had agreed a fixed-term contract with<br />

the Alte Stadtgärtnerei interest group, an association <strong>of</strong> artists<br />

<strong>and</strong> musicians, granting them use <strong>of</strong> the l<strong>and</strong> until the end <strong>of</strong><br />

1987. 1 Having obtained more than 5,000 signatures, their proposal<br />

for the Kultur- und Naturpark St. Johann had been put to a referendum<br />

as an alternative to the city’s plans for a representative<br />

municipal park. 2 The idea was to preserve at least some <strong>of</strong> the dynamism<br />

<strong>and</strong> openness that had characterized the interim use <strong>of</strong><br />

the site. Although a continuation <strong>of</strong> the project in the same form<br />

looked unlikely — its organizational structures were minimal;<br />

there was a general assembly but no steering group, statutes, or<br />

regulations (Koechlin 1988) — the initiatives <strong>of</strong> the various groups<br />

active on the site did have the support <strong>of</strong> green <strong>and</strong> leftwing politicians.<br />

In a contribution to the partisan paper <strong>of</strong> Basel’s Green<br />

Alternatives, Martin Schaffner said it was “grotesque to want to<br />

build a traditional l<strong>and</strong>scape garden in St. Johann.” Instead, he advocated<br />

more minimal, cautious interventions that would take<br />

the various existing interests into account, since there was “no intact<br />

living space” anywhere else in Basel (Schaffner 1987, p. 1).<br />

The referendum defeat deprived the Stadtgärtner (‘city gardeners’)<br />

<strong>of</strong> any legal basis they might have had. Having been occupied<br />

for months (See figure 1.), the site was <strong>of</strong>ficially cleared by police early<br />

in the morning <strong>of</strong> June 21, 1988. 3 There were riots in Basel for the<br />

next few days. These resulted in injuries, damages running to<br />

six-figure sums, <strong>and</strong> the police promising to “promptly stamp out<br />

1 The interim use <strong>of</strong> the Alte Stadtgärtnerei<br />

site <strong>of</strong>ficially began with the project<br />

“Begegnung bildender Kunst mit<br />

neuer Musik” (Visual Art Meets Modern<br />

Music) in June 1986. More than 30<br />

artists <strong>and</strong> musicians from Basel <strong>and</strong><br />

elsewhere in Switzerl<strong>and</strong> participated.<br />

The interest group consisted predominantly<br />

<strong>of</strong> these cultural workers.<br />

2 These plans went back to a Gr<strong>and</strong><br />

Council decision <strong>of</strong> April 10, 1980.<br />

3 For the police clearance in particular,<br />

see Geerk 1988.<br />

Figure 1: Call for squatting Alte<br />

Stadtgärtnerei, leaflet, 1988,<br />

© Schweizerisches Sozialarchiv<br />

Figure 2: Call for squatting Cinema<br />

Union, leaflet, 1988, © Schweizerisches<br />

Sozialarchiv<br />

<strong>New</strong> Actors <strong>and</strong> Institutions<br />


Figure 4: Werkraum floorplan<br />

Schlotterbeck, 1991/92, first published<br />

in: D. Häni et al., ed. Werkraum<br />

Schlotterbeck, Basel.<br />

Markus Ritter was able to secure a three-year contract for temporary<br />

use <strong>of</strong> the site.<br />

In retrospect, all parties on both sides <strong>of</strong> this negotiation describe<br />

the initial position as one <strong>of</strong> considerable distance <strong>and</strong> mutual<br />

skepticism. The artists’ definitive project concept <strong>and</strong> concrete<br />

support structures were only developed in the course <strong>of</strong> the<br />

negotiation process <strong>and</strong> in parallel with the owner’s changing attitude<br />

<strong>and</strong> willingness to enter into the experiment. The Werkraum<br />

Schlotterbeck served primarily as a workshop for art <strong>and</strong><br />

craft production, but it was also an events venue <strong>and</strong> soon became<br />

a showcase for interim use (see figure 4). But at the same<br />

time, the fact that a group <strong>of</strong> cultural workers had approached a<br />

bank <strong>and</strong> were relying on a broad base <strong>of</strong> support — they had actively<br />

sought to involve people from art institutions <strong>and</strong> the municipal<br />

departments <strong>of</strong> culture <strong>and</strong> building — led to some discontent<br />

<strong>and</strong> division among the former Stadtgärtner.<br />

Nonetheless, this project seemed to st<strong>and</strong> a better chance <strong>of</strong><br />

winning a majority, not least because <strong>of</strong> its organization, which<br />

was far clearer than that <strong>of</strong> the Alte Stadtgärtnerei <strong>and</strong> had various<br />

personal responsibilities <strong>and</strong> a fully elaborated business<br />

model. As Rol<strong>and</strong> Wüthrich put it: “Suddenly they were saying<br />

154 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

these ‘artists <strong>and</strong> anarchists can actually keep contracts too!’” 15<br />

Another definite aim <strong>of</strong> the Schlotterbeck project was the longterm<br />

continuation <strong>of</strong> such collaborations. Jakob Tschopp, president<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Schlotterbeck supporters’ association, encouraged<br />

public <strong>and</strong> private sponsors <strong>and</strong> members <strong>of</strong> the public to support<br />

future work spaces <strong>and</strong> cultural centers as if they were “established<br />

institutions <strong>of</strong> high culture.” The 1980s were in the past<br />

<strong>and</strong> alternative artists were no longer conducting “their experiments<br />

in isolation from established society” (Tschopp 1991). <strong>Attitude</strong>s<br />

that favored cross-pollination <strong>and</strong> learning from one another<br />

had now moved center stage.<br />

15 Wüthrich cited in Spehr 2015.<br />

On the need for constant negotiation<br />

So, the calls to provide space for alternative culture were no longer<br />

exclusively focused on the question <strong>of</strong> inclusiveness in the art system.<br />

Artistic discourse in Schlotterbeck circles opposed materialized<br />

concepts <strong>of</strong> work with the notion <strong>of</strong> “work on the subject” —<br />

art was to be a catalyst for the development <strong>of</strong> individual capacities<br />

with the aim <strong>of</strong> finding creative solutions together. 16 The focus<br />

<strong>of</strong> artistic practice shifted toward social, structural, <strong>and</strong> organizational<br />

engagement through project participation, an approach<br />

that would become paradigmatic for many initiatives in the<br />

1990s. 17 Even during the three-year interim use <strong>of</strong> the site, the<br />

Schlotterbeck supporters’ association was already talking to investors<br />

<strong>and</strong> architects about successor projects. Starting with the<br />

Warteck project, which still exists even now, these discussions created<br />

a ripple effect <strong>of</strong> subsequent interim uses (Frobenius, Bell,<br />

the NT-Areal).<br />

Municipal interest in cultural interim uses such as these was<br />

not always based entirely on economic considerations. On the contrary,<br />

when faced with growing interregional competition, local authorities<br />

increasingly recognized how important a diverse cultural<br />

scene was for the atmosphere <strong>of</strong> a city. A strong cultural image<br />

could be a potentially game-changing advantage when it came to<br />

attracting new businesses <strong>and</strong> their employees to the area. Or as<br />

one commentator has said <strong>of</strong> the empty industrial buildings that<br />

were used by cultural workers in Zurich-West in the early 1990s: “Attractive<br />

apartments soon started to appear on the site, <strong>and</strong> they<br />

weren’t exactly cheap” (Wehrli-Schindler 2002, p. 6).<br />

This sort <strong>of</strong> enhancement <strong>of</strong> entire urban districts was problematized<br />

under the concept <strong>of</strong> gentrification, which criticized the<br />

bias toward wealthier residents. This new debate on gentrifica-<br />

16 On this see also Markus Ritter’s<br />

remarks on engagement at Schlotterbeck<br />

<strong>and</strong> its proximity to Joseph<br />

Beuys’s concept <strong>of</strong> art, Ritter 1993.<br />

17 It is not for no reason that the<br />

Werkraum Schlotterbeck is now cited<br />

as the beginning <strong>of</strong> a self-fulfilling<br />

“creative economy” <strong>and</strong> a culture <strong>of</strong><br />

start-ups in Basel; see Ritter 2013.<br />

<strong>New</strong> Actors <strong>and</strong> Institutions<br />


Contributors<br />

160 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

Authors<br />

Andrea Baier is a senior researcher at the research foundation<br />

anstiftung. She studied sociology in Bielefeld <strong>and</strong> taught<br />

at Oberstufen-Kolleg/University <strong>of</strong> Bielefeld. She<br />

undertook research in Indonesia <strong>and</strong> Germany. Her current<br />

research interests: subsistence theory, gender studies, <strong>and</strong><br />

sustainability studies.<br />

Eva-Maria Baumeister works as a director <strong>and</strong> curator. She<br />

studied theater direction in Amsterdam <strong>and</strong> at the<br />

Folkwang-Universität. As a director she worked at several<br />

theaters, inculding the Schauspielhaus Bochum <strong>and</strong> the<br />

Schauspiel Graz. In 2006 she founded the Kaltstart-Festival<br />

in Hamburg <strong>and</strong> in 2013/14 led the “Junges Theater in<br />

Göttingen.” Since 2015 she is artistic director <strong>of</strong> Die Stadt<br />

von der <strong>and</strong>eren Seite sehen at the Schauspiel Köln. www.<br />

evamariabaumeister.de<br />

Hilke Marit Berger is a research assistant at HafenCity<br />

University in Hamburg, with a focus on cultural theory,<br />

urban studies, <strong>and</strong> public art. She developed, coordinated,<br />

<strong>and</strong> worked for several artistic <strong>and</strong> scientific projects for<br />

festivals, theaters, <strong>and</strong> universities in Berlin, Leipzig, <strong>and</strong><br />

Hamburg. With her dissertation: H<strong>and</strong>lung statt<br />

Verh<strong>and</strong>lung. Kunst als gemeinsame Stadtgestaltung she<br />

was a member <strong>of</strong> the post-graduate program: Assemblies<br />

<strong>and</strong> participation: urban publics <strong>and</strong> performances.<br />

Holger Bergmann, managing <strong>and</strong> artistic director, lives in<br />

Berlin. He was a founding member <strong>and</strong> from 2002 until<br />

2014 the artistic director <strong>of</strong> the theatrical production<br />

venue Ringlokschuppen Ruhr.He also worked on his own<br />

productions at independent theaters <strong>and</strong> many projects<br />

with artists <strong>and</strong> artist collectives from independent<br />

theater, frequently in collaboration with municipal<br />

theaters or international festivals. He was a curator <strong>and</strong><br />

Capital <strong>of</strong> <strong>Culture</strong> representative for the city <strong>of</strong> Mülheim.<br />

He holds teaching assignments at a number <strong>of</strong><br />

universities <strong>and</strong> works as a cultural policy consultant. He<br />

developed urban space projects such as SchlimmCity <strong>and</strong><br />

54. Stadt. Since 2015, he has curated the <strong>Urban</strong>e Künste<br />

Ruhr <strong>and</strong> have been artistic director <strong>of</strong> the theater festival<br />

Favoriten 2016. In January 2016, Holger Bergmann was<br />

appointed managing director <strong>of</strong> the Fonds Darstellende<br />

Künste in Berlin.<br />

Frauke Burgdorff is an experienced urban planner with<br />

expertise in alternative project development, neighborhood<br />

development, <strong>and</strong> process design. She worked as an urban<br />

planner in Antwerp, as a futurologist in Gelsenkirchen, as<br />

the head <strong>of</strong> a building culture initiative in Northrhine-Westfalia,<br />

as Executive Board Member <strong>of</strong> Montag Stiftung<br />

<strong>Urban</strong>e Räume, <strong>and</strong> founded her own agency for<br />

cooperative urban development — Burgdorff Stadt — in 2017.<br />

As such she is designing integrated urban development<br />

processes <strong>and</strong> public participation <strong>and</strong> is moderating<br />

complex development processes <strong>and</strong> events. She always<br />

seeks inspiration in adjacent disciplines such as the arts,<br />

education, <strong>and</strong> organizational development.<br />

S<strong>and</strong>ra Chatterjee is a choreographer <strong>and</strong> scholar, who teaches,<br />

researches, performs, <strong>and</strong> organizes art/cultural projects<br />

at the intersection <strong>of</strong> theory <strong>and</strong> practice <strong>and</strong> with a focus<br />

on gender, postcolonial, <strong>and</strong> migration studies. She is a<br />

founding member <strong>of</strong> the Post Natyam Collective, a<br />

multinational, internet-based coalition working in live<br />

performance, video, <strong>and</strong> scholarship.<br />

Valentin Domann has studied geography <strong>and</strong> regional studies<br />

at Humboldt University Berlin <strong>and</strong> University <strong>of</strong> California,<br />

Irvine. His pr<strong>of</strong>essional interest is urban sociology with a<br />

focus on cultural political economy as well as issues <strong>of</strong><br />

gender-equity, urban diversity, <strong>and</strong> anti-discrimination<br />

policies.<br />

Isabel Finkenberger is an architect <strong>and</strong> urban planner. After<br />

stops in Hamburg, Berlin, London, Stuttgart, <strong>and</strong> Sydney<br />

she now has her own <strong>of</strong>fice Studio if+. Office for urban<br />

development <strong>and</strong> spatial transformation in Cologne,<br />

working on the interface between planning, curating,<br />

research <strong>and</strong> teaching. Since 2015 she is artistic director <strong>of</strong><br />

the biennial pilot project Die Stadt von der <strong>and</strong>eren Seite<br />

sehen at the Schauspiel Köln. www.studioifplus.org<br />

Gabriel Flückiger is an art researcher <strong>and</strong> artist. He studied art<br />

history, social anthropology, <strong>and</strong> fine arts in Bern <strong>and</strong><br />

Zurich. He is a research assistant at the Lucerne University<br />

<strong>of</strong> Applied Sciences <strong>and</strong> Arts <strong>and</strong> was a guest lecturer at<br />

both Zurich University <strong>of</strong> the Arts <strong>and</strong> at the School <strong>of</strong><br />

Visual Arts, Berne/Bienne.<br />

Contributors<br />


Barbara Holub/transparadiso, is an artist <strong>and</strong> architect, lives in<br />

Vienna. In 1999 she founded transparadiso with Paul<br />

Rajakovics as a transdisciplinary practice promoting “direct<br />

urbanism.” 2004 Schindler Award, Los Angeles; 2007<br />

Otto-Wagner-Städtebaupreis (<strong>Urban</strong>-Developement-Award)<br />

for “Stadtwerk Lehen/Salzburg.” Barbara<br />

Holub has been president <strong>of</strong> the “Secession Wien”<br />

(2006–2007); Visiting pr<strong>of</strong>essor at the University <strong>of</strong> Illinois/<br />

Chicago. She teaches at the University <strong>of</strong> Applied Arts<br />

Vienna. www.transparadiso.com, www.barbaraholub.com<br />

Siglinde Lang is a Senior Scientist at the focus area “Wissenschaft<br />

& Kunst/Humanities & Art” (University Salzburg/<br />

Mozarteum, Austria) <strong>and</strong> works as curator, arts manager,<br />

<strong>and</strong> lecturer. Recent studies <strong>and</strong> publications include<br />

Participatory Arts Management, Artists as Entrepreneurs,<br />

<strong>and</strong> Arts in rural areas. Lang is co-editor <strong>of</strong> the E-Journal<br />

www.p-art-icipate.net.<br />

Bastian Lange, Dr. phil., studied geography, ethnology <strong>and</strong><br />

urban development in Marburg <strong>and</strong> Edmonton <strong>and</strong><br />

obtained his doctorate at the Johann-Wolfgang Goethe<br />

University, Frankfurt am Main, at the Institute for<br />

Geography in 2006. He has since been Guest Pr<strong>of</strong>essor at<br />

the Humboldt University in Berlin between 2011 <strong>and</strong> 2012.<br />

In 2017, he is finalizing his habilitation at University <strong>of</strong><br />

Leipzig.<br />

Rachel Mader is an art researcher; she has been director <strong>of</strong> the<br />

research focus Kunst, Design & Öffentlichkeit (Art, Design &<br />

the Public Sphere) at Lucerne University <strong>of</strong> Applied<br />

Sciences <strong>and</strong> Arts since September 2012 <strong>and</strong> directed Die<br />

Organisation zeitgenössischer Kunst. Strukturieren,<br />

Produzieren und Erzählen (Organizing Contemporary Art:<br />

Structure, Production, <strong>and</strong> Narrative) at Zurich University<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Arts from 2009 to 2014.<br />

Christa Müller is a sociologist <strong>and</strong> committed to research on<br />

postmaterial lifestyles <strong>and</strong> on sustainable concepts <strong>of</strong><br />

prosperity. She was awarded a PhD in sociology by the<br />

University <strong>of</strong> Bielefeld <strong>and</strong> received the Research Award<br />

for Ecological Economics. She has undertaken fieldwork in<br />

Costa Rica, Mexico, <strong>and</strong> Germany. Currently she is director<br />

<strong>of</strong> the research foundation anstiftung in Munich.<br />

Tobi Müller is a freelance writer in Berlin. Born in Switzerl<strong>and</strong>,<br />

he was a critic <strong>and</strong> an editor at daily newspapers in Zürich<br />

<strong>and</strong> wrote about theater, pop music, <strong>and</strong> cultural politics.<br />

In Berlin he started to work freelance for print <strong>and</strong> radio,<br />

also presenting many panels <strong>and</strong> curating conferences,<br />

e.g. on surveillance in Munich, January 2017. He has<br />

written various semi-documentary plays with his brother<br />

<strong>and</strong> realized a film.<br />

Ramón Reichert, 2009–2013 Pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> <strong>New</strong> Media Studies<br />

<strong>and</strong> Digital Media <strong>Culture</strong> at the Department <strong>of</strong> Theatre,<br />

Film <strong>and</strong> Media Studies at the University <strong>of</strong> Vienna. He is<br />

the head <strong>of</strong> the post-graduate master’s course Data<br />

Studies at the Danube University Krems. Since 2014, he<br />

has been an co-editor <strong>of</strong> the journal “Digital <strong>Culture</strong> &<br />

Society” (a peer-reviewed journal). Currently he is a senior<br />

lecturer <strong>of</strong> Media Studies at the universities <strong>of</strong> Fribourg<br />

<strong>and</strong> St. Gallen (Switzerl<strong>and</strong>). Since 2017, he is an European<br />

Project Researcher for the Erasmus+project “Visual/video<br />

literacies.”<br />

Peter Spillmann is an artist, cultural producer, <strong>and</strong> curator. He<br />

teaches <strong>and</strong> conducts research at Lucerne University <strong>of</strong><br />

Applied Sciences <strong>and</strong> Arts, where he has directed the MA<br />

Fine Arts research focus Art in Public Spheres since 2010.<br />

Projects: “Viet Nam Diskurs” exhibition <strong>and</strong> events program<br />

at the Tensta Konsthall in Stockholm, 2016; mapping.<br />

postkolonial.net, education <strong>and</strong> communication project in<br />

collaboration with [muc] münchen postkolonial, 2013.<br />

Gesa Ziemer is vice president research <strong>and</strong> pr<strong>of</strong>essor <strong>of</strong> cultural<br />

theory at HafenCity University in Hamburg. She is director<br />

<strong>of</strong> the City Sience Lab, a cooperation with the Media Lab at<br />

MIT in Cambridge <strong>and</strong> member <strong>of</strong> the accreditation<br />

committee <strong>of</strong> the German Science <strong>and</strong> Humanities<br />

Council. Her research focus is: digitalization <strong>of</strong> the city,<br />

citizen participation, <strong>and</strong> collaboration.<br />

162 Perspectives in Metropolitan Research

Photographers <strong>and</strong> Illustrator<br />

Martin Kohler is a photographer <strong>and</strong> urbanist. He studied<br />

l<strong>and</strong>scape architecture <strong>and</strong> environmental planning at<br />

the University <strong>of</strong> Hannover <strong>and</strong> at the Southern Australia<br />

University, Adelaide. He has taught urban photography at<br />

HafenCity University, Hamburg, since 2003 <strong>and</strong> has founded<br />

<strong>and</strong> curated several art projects in public spaces such<br />

as the Hafensafari (2009). He has deployed photography<br />

as a research method in various projects including a series<br />

<strong>of</strong> “urban transects” in London, Seoul, Istanbul, <strong>and</strong> the<br />

Ruhr area.<br />

Alex<strong>and</strong>ru Pasca studied photography at the Bauhaus-University<br />

in Weimar. Since then, he realized different projects<br />

all over the world, most <strong>of</strong> the time around Europe. He<br />

underst<strong>and</strong>s photography as a personal tool, to deal with<br />

complexity <strong>and</strong> to communicate the different layers <strong>of</strong> it.<br />

He is also working as a photo editor at Stern magazine. He<br />

lives <strong>and</strong> works in Hamburg <strong>and</strong> Berlin.<br />

Maria Tetzlaff is an illustrator <strong>and</strong> comics artist. She studied illustration<br />

in Hamburg at the University <strong>of</strong> Applied Science,<br />

Department Design where she graduated with a Bachelor<br />

<strong>of</strong> Arts in 2016. She is currently working on her art projects<br />

as an “artist in residence” in Canada/British Columbia.<br />

http://www.mariatetzlaff.net/<br />

Contributors<br />


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