11.09.2017 Views

SOLErgonomyHandbook

Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.

SOL Ergonomy<br />

Handbook


2 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Contents<br />

SOL Ergonomy Handbook ......................................................................3<br />

Good posture and lifting ........................................................................5<br />

Cleaning towel and mop wiper for surfaces as tools ..............6<br />

Mop wiper (for surfaces) for horizontal<br />

and vertical surfaces as a tool .............................................................8<br />

Mop wiper as a tool ..................................................................................10<br />

Furniture mop as a tool ..........................................................................12<br />

Scrubber drier as a tool ...........................................................................13<br />

Vacuum cleaner as a tool ......................................................................14<br />

Cleaning a toilet seat ...............................................................................15<br />

Making beds .................................................................................................16<br />

Emptying waste bins ...............................................................................18<br />

Lifting technique ........................................................................................20<br />

Lifting a heavy load ...................................................................................21<br />

Street broom, rubbish grabbers, rubbish deposit,<br />

rake and blower as tools ........................................................................22<br />

Guarding and security operations by car and on foot ............25<br />

Guard’s surveillance work .....................................................................26<br />

Lifting heavy loads in a laundry ..........................................................28<br />

Lifting light loads in a laundry ............................................................29<br />

Lifting rolled up rugs ................................................................................30<br />

Lifting laundry bags ..................................................................................32<br />

Lifting loads above shoulder level .....................................................33<br />

Vertical steaming and ironing ............................................................34<br />

Rolling of textiles .......................................................................................36<br />

Editorial Board<br />

Irma Repo Terveystalo, Tiina Lehtola-Ruuska and<br />

Merja Oljakka SOL Palvelut and Raisa Örn SOL Pesulapalvelut.<br />

In the photographs:<br />

Tiina Lehtola-Ruuska, Raisa Örn and Miklas Suokas.<br />

www.sol.fi


3<br />

SOL Ergonomy Handbook<br />

THE PURPOSE of the SOL Life wellbeing at work<br />

programme is to ensure the occupational safety,<br />

work fitness and well-being at work of every SOL<br />

employee. At SOL, we want to provide comprehensive<br />

orientation for our personnel.<br />

Ergonomic and safe working is an important<br />

part of a successful orientation in order to ensure<br />

that the employees know how to use the tools,<br />

machines, detergents and auxiliary equipment in<br />

an appropriate and safe way.<br />

Ergonomics and correct ergonomic methods<br />

help us prevent sickness absences that are often<br />

caused by strain injuries of the musculoskeletal<br />

system or insufficient recovery.<br />

SOL Ergonomy Handbook gives you great tips<br />

in occupational safety, work fitness and wellbeing<br />

at work.<br />

The handbook views ergonomic actions first<br />

and foremost as preventative occupational<br />

health and safety work. Machines, devices and<br />

equipment that are as highly suitable as possible<br />

for human use reduce the risk of accidents and<br />

health hazards at work when the employee uses<br />

them properly. The central themes of ergonomics<br />

include correct work positions and movements,<br />

lifting and carrying technique, grips on tools and<br />

movements promoting the body’s recovery.<br />

body’s recovery more efficient during the working<br />

day.<br />

Work movements and ways of working are<br />

learnt on the job. Similar work movement may<br />

be repeated thousands of times during one day.<br />

That is why learning the correct work movements,<br />

work positions and ways of using tools is<br />

crucial.<br />

Successful orientation and learning the work<br />

movements is important especially in the beginning<br />

of your career, but also during it. It takes<br />

time to get rid of old ways of working and habits.<br />

Purpose and objective of the handbook<br />

The purpose of this handbook is to give you instructions<br />

for your work. When you comply with<br />

these instructions, you can reduce the stress on<br />

your body and make recovery more efficient.<br />

The objective is that you train and learn how to<br />

use the guided ways of working and make your<br />

Take care of<br />

your recovery<br />

and you will<br />

cope better.<br />

www.sol.fi


4 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Learn one new way of working at a time, take<br />

time to train and learn new things.<br />

Recovery and well-being<br />

Take care of your recovery and you will cope<br />

better. Have breaks, eat and sleep sufficiently.<br />

Find a sport you like and exercise.<br />

For instance, if you walk a lot in your work,<br />

make your recovery more efficient by swimming.<br />

If you sit for many hours, go for a walk. If you feel<br />

like your muscular strength is not sufficient, do<br />

exercises at home or at the gym to improve your<br />

muscular strength.<br />

Good physical fitness, including stamina<br />

or the fitness of your cardiovascular system,<br />

muscular endurance, mobility, balance and<br />

coordination, create the foundation for a healthy<br />

body. Unfortunately physical well-being cannot<br />

be stored, which means it has to be maintained<br />

continuously.<br />

Occupational health services will provide you<br />

with exercises suitable just for you and your<br />

profession.<br />

Set the pace for your working day<br />

Set the pace for your working day and exercise<br />

during your breaks. You can do them in the lift or<br />

when changing work tasks, for instance.<br />

Brisk and light exercises invigorate muscle<br />

groups that have been strained by work. More<br />

efficient circulation in tissues takes blood rich in<br />

oxygen to muscles, replenishes muscles’ energy<br />

reserves and removes waste products at the<br />

same time. This means your recovery will be<br />

more efficient.<br />

In addition to good circulation, also regular<br />

meals and snacks promote the recovery, creation<br />

and strengthening of tissues. Eat at regular intervals<br />

of around 3 hours. You need regular energy<br />

intake in your work to have the energy to do it.<br />

Make sure you sleep enough. Most people<br />

should get 7–8 hours of sleep every night.<br />

Rest is a significant factor for the well-being<br />

of your mind and your body. When resting, your<br />

body recovers and seeks a new balance after the<br />

day’s strain.. •<br />

Most people<br />

should get<br />

7–8 hours of<br />

sleep every<br />

night.<br />

www.sol.fi


5<br />

Good posture<br />

= body’s central position<br />

Neck<br />

Lifting technique = keep your back<br />

straight, bend forward from the hips<br />

Shoulder<br />

Body<br />

leans<br />

forward<br />

Maintain a<br />

natural curve in<br />

your lower back<br />

Hip bends<br />

Elbow<br />

Thoracic spine<br />

Curve in your<br />

lower back<br />

Knee<br />

bends<br />

Forearm<br />

Hip<br />

Golfer’s lifting technique = extend<br />

one leg back<br />

Maintain a<br />

natural curve in<br />

your lower back<br />

Knee<br />

Extend<br />

one leg<br />

back<br />

Ankle<br />

www.sol.fi


6 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Cleaning towel and<br />

mop wiper for surfaces<br />

as tools<br />

The strength for using cleaning towels and mop wipers (for<br />

surfaces) comes from your legs. Avoid reaching and wide<br />

movements of the shoulder joint! Avoid a working position in<br />

which your arm is far away from your body!<br />

Recommended way of working:<br />

• increase the reach of your arm by getting close to the object<br />

• brace your other hand against the surface, the edge of the sink,<br />

toilet seat’s water tank or wall<br />

• keep your wrists in a central position,<br />

neck and back in good posture<br />

• wipe the surface with both your left and right hand<br />

• use a mop wiper (for surfaces) always when it is possible<br />

www.sol.fi


7<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• good posture<br />

• lift your shoulders up and back – relax, repeat 5–10 times<br />

• circulation in deltoid muscles becomes more efficient<br />

www.sol.fi


8 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Mop wiper (for surfaces)<br />

for horizontal and vertical<br />

surfaces as a tool<br />

The strength for the movements comes from your legs. Your arms<br />

and hands guide the movements of the mop. The work movement<br />

runs from top down. It’s easy to reach an object with a mop wiper,<br />

which means that your shoulder joints and shoulders are under<br />

less strain than when wiping with a towel.<br />

Recommended way of working:<br />

• maintain good posture<br />

• use the strength in your legs to move the tool<br />

• at lower levels, work with your side to the vertical surface<br />

and in upper levels, face the surface<br />

• keep your wrists, neck and back in a central position<br />

www.sol.fi


9<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• good posture i<br />

• press your hands towards the floor – you will feel<br />

a stretch in your pectoral muscles<br />

Take time for<br />

the exercising<br />

and learn one<br />

new way of<br />

working at<br />

a time.<br />

www.sol.fi


10 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Mop wiper as a tool<br />

The strength for the mop’s movements comes from your<br />

legs. Your arms and hands guide the movements of the mop.<br />

The upper hand holds the mop lightly. Vary your mopping<br />

movements: this way you can divide the strain more evenly<br />

on your entire body. Pushing the mop is the lightest way of<br />

working.<br />

Recommended way of working:<br />

• keep your back straight and do the movements of the mop<br />

using the strength in your legs – by walking<br />

• keep your arms and hands close to your body, the lower hand<br />

guides the mop together with the legs and the upper hand<br />

gently follows the mop’s movements<br />

• keep your eyes forward<br />

• sit down when it is possible, you can mop<br />

under surfaces when sitting down<br />

• use a small scrubbing towel for stain removal<br />

– scrub with your foot<br />

www.sol.fi


11<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• hand and little finger are against the wall<br />

– you can feel the stretch in your biceps<br />

• place the mop’s shaft behind your back and pull your lower hand slightly<br />

upwards – you can feel the stretch in your shoulder, repeat 5 times<br />

www.sol.fi


12 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Furniture mop<br />

as a tool<br />

It’s easy to reach objects with a furniture<br />

mop, which means that your arms, neck<br />

and shoulders are under less strain than<br />

when wiping with a towel.<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• good posture<br />

• extend your entire body when looking up<br />

• use the strength in your legs<br />

to move the tool<br />

• keep your arms and hands close<br />

to your body<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• hand and little finger are against the wall<br />

– you can feel the stretch in your biceps<br />

• place the mop’s shaft behind your back and pull your lower hand slightly<br />

upwards – you can feel the stretch in your shoulder, repeat 5 times<br />

www.sol.fi


13<br />

Scrubber drier<br />

as a tool<br />

The strength for steering and pushing the<br />

cleaning machine comes from your legs.<br />

Hold the steering handles in a light grip.<br />

Make sure that the machine works as it<br />

should and that the wheels and steering<br />

equipment are in order!<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• good posture – walk with your back<br />

straight<br />

• adjust the steering handles so that your<br />

shoulders are relaxedt<br />

• keep your eyes forward, avoid tilting<br />

your head to the side<br />

• turn the machine by using the strength<br />

in your legs<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• lean to the wall and extend your leg back – you can feel<br />

a stretch in your calf<br />

• shake your arms until they’re relaxed<br />

Set the pace for<br />

your working<br />

day and exercise<br />

during your<br />

breaks. .<br />

www.sol.fi


14 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Vacuum cleaner<br />

as a tool<br />

The strength for the vacuuming movements<br />

comes from your legs. Avoid a strong tearing<br />

movement backwards with your arm! Use the<br />

adjustable shaft. Ensure that the nozzle is intact<br />

and that it slides on the floor with as little<br />

friction as possible!<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• keep your back straight and vacuum by combining<br />

the movement in your arms, hands and legs<br />

• there is a small backward movement in the<br />

shoulder and your arms and hands are close to<br />

your body<br />

• keep your eyes forward, avoid continuous<br />

extreme stooped position in your neck<br />

• use the golfer’s technique when vacuuming<br />

from underneath surfaces<br />

• decrease the strain on your back<br />

– brace your hand against surfaces<br />

www.sol.fi


15<br />

Cleaning a toilet seat<br />

Work downwards from up. Use a toilet brush<br />

with a long stem.<br />

Lower yourself using your legs: squat down or<br />

use the golfer’s technique. Support your back’s<br />

position straight – bend only at the hips and<br />

knees<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• brace your other hand against the surface,<br />

the edge of the sink, the water tank or wall<br />

• keep your wrists in a central position, neck<br />

and back in good posture<br />

• wipe the surface with both your left<br />

and right hand<br />

• use the golfer’s technique – your back will<br />

remain in a good position<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• put your fists against the small of<br />

your back as support<br />

• bend your back calmly backwards,<br />

repeat 3–10 times<br />

www.sol.fi


16 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Making beds<br />

When making beds, burden your legs. Keep your back straight.<br />

In reaching work phases, you the golfer’s lifting technique.<br />

Learn the golfer’s technique with both legs. Plan the work<br />

order so that working around the bed is smooth. Place the<br />

supplies so that you can put on the pillow cases sitting down.<br />

This gives a moment of rest and recovery to your back and legs.<br />

The recommended way of working<br />

with the undersheet<br />

• use your legs, keep your back straight<br />

• in tight spaces, use the wall for support<br />

• in phases that require reaching, use the golfer’s technique<br />

www.sol.fi


17<br />

Recommended way of working<br />

when handling the duvet cover:<br />

• use your legs, keep your back straight<br />

• roll the duvet inside the duvet cover<br />

• keep your arms below shoulder level<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• put your fists against the small of your back as support<br />

• bend your back calmly backwards, repeat 3–10 times<br />

• sit down, rest one hand on your thigh and extend your<br />

spine – twist your thoracic spine and lift your arm to the side,<br />

repeat 5–10 times<br />

www.sol.fi


18 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Emptying waste bins<br />

Use the lifting technique or the golfer’s technique!<br />

The golfer’s lifting technique is a good way of saving your<br />

back, when you have to bend down repeatedly.<br />

Learn the golfer’s technique with both legs.<br />

Plan your work so that you can avoid lifting things<br />

repeatedly.<br />

Recommended way of working::<br />

• keep your back straight<br />

• squat down, use the golfer’s lifting technique<br />

or sit down<br />

www.sol.fi


19<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• put your fists against the small of your back as support<br />

• bend your back calmly backwards, repeat 3–10 times<br />

• stretch the muscles in your fingers and wrists<br />

Learn<br />

the golfer’s<br />

technique<br />

with both<br />

legs.<br />

www.sol.fi


20 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Lifting technique<br />

The strength for moving a load comes<br />

from your legs and core<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• plan where you will lift and<br />

place the load<br />

• go close to the load and plant your feet<br />

firmly, keeping them apart<br />

• keep your back straight (keep a natural<br />

curve in your lower back) and perform<br />

the lifting/lowering with your legs<br />

• move with the load only when you are up<br />

• with a light load, use the golfer’s technique,<br />

extend one leg back<br />

www.sol.fi


21<br />

Lifting a heavy load<br />

The strength for the lifting comes from<br />

your legs and core<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• plan the lift<br />

• go close to the load<br />

• take a firm position with your feet<br />

• bend your body forward from your hips,<br />

keep your back straight<br />

• do the lifting with your legs<br />

• moving the load up or down or horizontally<br />

is done with your legs<br />

• move a heavy load with another person<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• put your fists against the small of your<br />

back as support<br />

• bend your back calmly backwards,<br />

repeat 3–10 times<br />

www.sol.fi


22 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Street broom, rubbish<br />

grabbers, rubbish deposit,<br />

rake and blower as tools<br />

Choose tools that are the correct height for you. The shaft of<br />

the rubbish deposit must be long enough for you to work with a<br />

straight back.<br />

Recommended way of working:<br />

• work with your arms and hands close to your body<br />

• take a few steps and get close to the object<br />

• take turns sweeping with your right and left hand<br />

• leaning forwards starts from your hip joints<br />

• pick the rubbish to the deposit with the grabbers – keep<br />

your arm and hand close to your body<br />

• take a few steps and get close to the object<br />

• when you use a blower, turn your side towards the area to be<br />

cleaned and support your arms on your body – this way your<br />

arms will have a good support<br />

• leaning forwards starts from your hip joints<br />

www.sol.fi


23<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• lean your arm against a wall, turn your body – you can feel the stretch in your pectoral muscles<br />

• bending your wrists, extending and flexing them<br />

• you can feel the stretches in your forearms and fingers<br />

• put the shaft of the broom on your shoulders, keep your knees a little bent and hips facing<br />

forward, turn your thoracic spine, keep your feet legs and hips in place, the rotational motion<br />

will relax your back<br />

• take a wide underhand grip of the shaft of the broom and take your arms straight behind your<br />

head or shoulders<br />

• do the same exercise with an overhand grip<br />

• repeat the motion 5 times<br />

• you can feel the stretch widely in your arms and it will increase the mobility of your shoulders<br />

Brisk exercise<br />

during breaks<br />

recover your<br />

muscles during<br />

the working day.<br />

www.sol.fi


24 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Recovering exercise::<br />

• take a hold of the broom’s shaft<br />

• twist your arm (right arm in the figure) from in front of your chest down next to your body<br />

– the grip on the broom’s shaft remains throughout the motion<br />

• the other hand’s grip on the shaft is gentle (left hand in the figure) and the broom’s shaft slides<br />

and twists against the hand<br />

• you can feel the stretch in the forearm and wrist<br />

• take a hold of the broom’s shaft<br />

• the upper hand (right in the figure)<br />

pulls the upper hand down<br />

• you can feel the stretch in the<br />

shoulder of the lower hand<br />

www.sol.fi


25<br />

Guarding and<br />

security operations<br />

by car and on foot<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• place your hands on the wheel and the<br />

upper edge of the door for support – this<br />

decreases the strain on the support leg and<br />

prevents slipping<br />

• the knee and foot of the support leg are<br />

pointed in the same direction – this will<br />

reduce any twisting motion in the knee<br />

• adjust the car seat – support the curve in<br />

your lower back well<br />

• carry the briefcase close to your body – keep<br />

your wrist in the central position<br />

• tsupport the position of your back well –<br />

avoid the body tilting to the side of the<br />

briefcase<br />

www.sol.fi


26 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Guard’s<br />

surveillance work<br />

Recommended way of working:<br />

• work in the office (control room) both standing up<br />

and sitting down<br />

• adjust the back support to the natural curve of your<br />

lower back and tilt the backrest backwards a little bit<br />

• use the neckrest<br />

• sit/stand close by – use the desk for supporting your hands<br />

• keep your weight on your both legs when standing up<br />

• when standing up, a flexible rug increases the work of<br />

the muscles in your legs<br />

www.sol.fi


27<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• put your fists against the small of your back as support<br />

• bend your back calmly backwards, repeat 3–10 times<br />

• lean to the wall and extend your leg back or support the ball of your foot against a tyre<br />

– you can feel a stretch in your calf<br />

Eat every three hours.<br />

You need a regular<br />

energy boost<br />

in your work.<br />

www.sol.fi


28 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

LIFTING TECHNIQUE IN A LAUNDRY:<br />

Lifting heavy loads<br />

in a laundry<br />

The strength for moving a load comes from<br />

your legs and core.<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• plan where you will lift and place the load<br />

• go close to the load and plant your feet<br />

firmly, keeping them apart<br />

• keep your back straight (keep a natural<br />

curve in your lower back) – perform the<br />

lifting/lowering with your legs<br />

• move with the load only when you are up<br />

www.sol.fi


29<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• put your fists against the small of your<br />

back as support<br />

• bend your back calmly backwards,<br />

repeat 3–10 times<br />

Lifting light loads<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• when moving a light load, use the golfer’s<br />

technique – extend one leg back<br />

www.sol.fi


30 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Lifting rolled up rugs<br />

The strength for moving a load comes from your legs and core.<br />

Move rolled up rugs close to the rug shelf. This decreases the time<br />

of carrying the load.<br />

Recommended way of working:<br />

• plant your feet firmly on the ground, keeping them apart<br />

• take the rolled up rug close to your body<br />

• lift and turn the rolled up rug against the side of the roller cage<br />

• keep your back straight (keep a natural curve in your lower back)<br />

• carry the rolled up rug with two hands close to your body<br />

• move with the rolled up rug only when you are up<br />

www.sol.fi


31<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• put your fists against the small of your back as support<br />

• bend your back calmly backwards, repeat 3–10 times<br />

Practising and<br />

training is definitely<br />

worth the effort.<br />

You can repeat one<br />

movement several<br />

times during<br />

a working day.<br />

www.sol.fi


32 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Lifting laundry bags<br />

The strength for moving a load comes from your legs<br />

and core<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• plan where you will lift and place the load<br />

• plant your feet firmly on the ground,<br />

keeping them apart<br />

• brace your other hand against<br />

the side of the roller cage<br />

• pull the bag close to you or the edge of<br />

the roller cage<br />

• lift the bag so that it is close to your body<br />

• keep your back straight<br />

(keep a natural curve in your lower back)<br />

• carry the bag with two hands close to your body<br />

• move with the load only when you are up<br />

www.sol.fi


33<br />

Lifting loads<br />

above shoulder level<br />

The strength for the lifting comes from your<br />

legs and core.<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• take a firm walking position with your feet<br />

• take the objects and coat hangers with<br />

two hands and find a good support from<br />

your body<br />

• lift with two hands<br />

• keep your brachiums close to your body<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• hand and little finger are against the wall – you can feel the stretch in your bicep<br />

• good posture<br />

• take your shoulders up and back – relax, repeat 5–10 times<br />

• circulation in deltoid muscles becomes more efficient<br />

www.sol.fi


34 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Vertical steaming<br />

and ironing<br />

Steam as much as you can on the ironing board<br />

and in the cupboard. This puts less strain on<br />

your arms and shoulders.<br />

Recommended way of working:<br />

• adjust working height<br />

• brachium is below the horizontal level<br />

and wrist is straight<br />

• keep your arms and hands close to your body<br />

• when steaming the lower parts of a coat,<br />

squat down<br />

• steam as much as you can on the ironing<br />

board and in the cupboard – this puts less<br />

strain on your arms and shoulders<br />

Move and transport objects<br />

in cages with wheels.<br />

www.sol.fi


35<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• hand and little finger are against the wall<br />

– you can feel the stretch in your biceps<br />

• lstretch the muscles in your fingers and wrists<br />

www.sol.fi


36 SOL ERGONOMY HANDBOOK<br />

Rolling of textiles<br />

It’s recommended to sit down when doing this<br />

phase of work – your legs will have some time<br />

to recover.<br />

Recommended way<br />

of working:<br />

• sit on the edge of the seat – this improves<br />

your reach<br />

• keep your arms and hands close to your<br />

body and your shoulders relaxed<br />

• fold long textiles standing up<br />

www.sol.fi


37<br />

Recovering exercise:<br />

• good posture<br />

• take your shoulders up and back – relax, repeat 5–10 times<br />

• circulation in deltoid muscles becomes more efficient<br />

www.sol.fi

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!