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Pharmacology for Nurses

Pharmacology for

  • Page 6 and 7: Pharmacology for Nurses
  • Page 8 and 9: Boston Columbus Indianapolis New Yo
  • Page 10 and 11: Vice President of Sales & Marketing
  • Page 12 and 13: Unless otherwise indicated herein,
  • Page 14 and 15: LC Classification not assigned 615
  • Page 16 and 17: Health Professions at Pasco-Hernand
  • Page 18 and 19: Thank You Our heartfelt thanks go o
  • Page 20 and 21: Marcus W. Campbell, PharmD, BC-ADM
  • Page 22 and 23: Assistant Professor George Mason Un
  • Page 24 and 25: Nursing Program Director Keiser Uni
  • Page 26 and 27: interdisciplinary teamwork are cons
  • Page 28 and 29: The pathophysiologic approach clear
  • Page 30 and 31: PharmFacts contain statistics and f
  • Page 32 and 33: One of the strongest components of
  • Page 35 and 36: Acknowledgments When authoring a te
  • Page 37 and 38: 2 Drug Approval and Regulation 10 2
  • Page 39 and 40: 4.6 Excretion of Medications 44 4.7
  • Page 41 and 42: 8.2 Pharmacotherapy of the Pregnant
  • Page 43 and 44: 11.5 Viruses 118 11.6 Toxic Chemica
  • Page 45 and 46: 14.9 Use of Barbiturates as Sedativ
  • Page 47 and 48: 17.3 Pharmacologic Management of Ps
  • Page 49 and 50: Nursing Practice Application Pharma
  • Page 51 and 52: 22.7 Cannabinoids 318 Marijuana 318
  • Page 53 and 54:

    25 Drugs for Fluid Balance, Electro

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    27.2 Cardiovascular Changes in Hear

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    30 Drugs for Dysrhythmias 443 30.1

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    32.3 Pharmacotherapy With Colony-St

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    35.5 Acquired Resistance 538 35.6 S

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    37.2 Replication of HIV 590 37.3 Ge

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    Unit 6 The Respiratory System 639 3

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    41.6 Pharmacotherapy With Proton Pu

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    43.8 Pharmacotherapy With Minerals

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    45.5 Pharmacotherapy for Type 2 Dia

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    Vitamin D Therapy 828 Bisphosphonat

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    50.3 General Principles of Glaucoma

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    Core Concepts in Pharmacology Chapt

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    9. Outline the major differences be

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    1.1 History of Pharmacology The sto

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    The current practice of pharmacolog

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    acteria. The fields of anatomy and

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    treating diseases and alleviating h

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    Although most modern drugs are synt

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    Usefulness Drug Classification Infl

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    predict the actions and adverse eff

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    enzodiazepines. Although chemical g

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    Noradryl, Nordryl, Nytol, Tusstat,

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    health care provider is required, t

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    other hand, argue that generic subs

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    To address issues of bioavailabilit

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    More recent concerns involve groups

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    1.7 Drugs are available by prescrip

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    Sznitman, S. R., & Zolotov, Y. (201

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    7. Discuss why drugs are sometimes

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    U.S. Pharmacopoeia-National Formula

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    Figure 2.2 A historical time line o

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    It would be ideal if all of the pot

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    2.3 Phases of Approval for Therapeu

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    Figure 2.3 A new drug development t

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    effects in a larger population. Som

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    2.4 Changes to the Drug Approval Pr

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    Clinical Question: How can nurses a

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    account for about 34% of all prescr

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    2.5 Nurses, the Drug Approval Proce

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    2.6 Controlled Substances, Drug Sch

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    allowed. They have little or no the

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    practitioners, and others with pres

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    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

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    Critical Thinking Questions 1. How

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    prescription-drug-market-tops-billi

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    OECD. (2015). OECD health statistic

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    8. Compare and contrast the advanta

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    How the medication is to be adminis

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    Anaphylaxis is a severe type of all

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    3.2 The Rights of Drug Administrati

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    3.3 Patient Compliance and Successf

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    imperative to remember that a respo

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    3.4 Drug Orders and Time Schedules

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    Commission “Do Not Use List” at

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    Agency policies dictate that drug o

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    agencies are accredited by The Join

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    Routes of Drug Administration The t

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    Tablets and capsules are the most c

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    drugs. Medications given by this ro

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    2. If the medication is solid, crus

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    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs

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    drug action (see chapter 22 ). Addi

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    Figure 3.2 Transdermal patch admini

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    Ophthalmic drugs are available in t

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    5. Instill the prescribed number of

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    4. Lubricate the gloved forefinger

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    Figure 3.6 Vaginal drug administrat

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    3.8 Parenteral Drug Administration

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    Subcutaneous doses are small in vol

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    2. Choose the site, avoiding areas

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    a. Verify the order and compatibili

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    Figure 3.8 Subcutaneous drug admini

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    medications, such as antibiotics or

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    Figure 3.11 An infusion pump is use

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    3.5 Systems of measurement used in

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    5. Which of the following medicatio

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    References Berman, A., Snyder, S.,

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    MedicationErrors/default.htm U.S. F

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    Medications are given to achieve a

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    While moving toward target cells an

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    Small water-soluble agents such as

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    Figure 4.1 The four processes of ph

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    Figure 4.2 Effect of pH on drug abs

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    4.4 Distribution of Medications Dis

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    Figure 4.3 Plasma protein binding a

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    cross the fetal-placental barrier a

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    activity unless they are first meta

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    Based on Pharmacology: Connections

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    There are many factors that can aff

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    Glandular activity is another elimi

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    kidneys. Recirculation and eliminat

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    Figure 4.5 Single-dose drug adminis

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    Evaluate whether medications given

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    The most common description of a dr

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    the first dose is a loading dose co

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    4.5 Metabolism is a process that ch

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    4. The drug must be given by a non-

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    References Pretorius, R. W., Gatari

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    Linares, O. A., Fudin, J., Daly-Lin

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    9. Explain the relationship between

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    Notice the wide range in doses that

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    population. In other words, many pa

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    Figure 5.2 Therapeutic index: (a) d

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    Figure 5.3 Dose-response relationsh

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    5.4 Potency and Efficacy Within a p

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    5.5 Cellular Receptors and Drug Act

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    A drug attaches to its receptor in

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    metabolism. Examples of agents that

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    nervous system. If the dose is high

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    or actual variants of the human gen

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    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

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    3. A nursing student reads in a pha

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    Selected Bibliography Blumenthal, D

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    Unit 2 Pharmacology and the Nurse-P

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    Chapter 6 The Nursing Process in Ph

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    6.1 Overview of the Nursing Process

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    history, the nurse must assess key

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    Figure 6.1 The five overlapping pha

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    How were these treated in the past?

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    exist, and are they adequate to pro

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    Relatively few controlled studies h

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    nonadherence, although that is not

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    Impaired Gas Exchange Risk for Inju

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    administration and monitoring of th

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    6.5 Implementing Specific Nursing A

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    portions of education given over ti

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    culture (e.g., male nurse or health

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    teaching these patients. Parents or

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    evaluates the effectiveness of teac

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    6.4 Goals and outcomes, which are d

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    3. Whether the patient is old enoug

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    Reference Herdman, T. H., & Kamitsu

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    8. Explain strategies used by healt

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    7.1 Defining Medication Errors Acco

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    7.2 Factors Contributing to Medicat

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    Taking medications in incorrect dos

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    7.3 The Impact of Medication Errors

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    7.4 Reporting and Documenting Medic

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    Limited health literacy may have pr

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    In addition to documenting in the p

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    7.5 Strategies for Reducing Medicat

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    Record the medication on the MAR im

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    infliximab rituximab isotretinoin t

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    experience level of the nurse. An e

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    Because lack of medication reconcil

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    Ask questions. Health care provider

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    opens on a bedside computer. The nu

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    medication error incidence rate to

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    3. The nurse is teaching a postoper

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    Critical Thinking Questions 1. A nu

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    Raban, M. Z., & Westbrook, J. I. (2

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    Getz, K. A., Stergiopoulos, S., & K

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    7. Discuss the nursing and pharmaco

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    8.1 Pharmacotherapy Across the Life

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    Figure 8.1 Teaching women about the

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    enal systems of women. Some of thes

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    Preimplantation period. Weeks 1 to

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    A Adequate, well-controlled studies

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    Testing drugs in human subjects to

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    8.3 Pharmacotherapy of the Lactatin

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    When considering the potential effe

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    OTC herbal products and dietary sup

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    8.4 Pharmacotherapy of Infants Infa

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    is relatively well developed in inf

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    Medication Errors with Dosing Devic

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    providing the parent with any dosin

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    8.6 Pharmacotherapy of Preschoolers

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    e taken for medical evaluation beca

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    About 800,000 children are treated

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    Eating disorders commonly occur in

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    8.8 Pharmacotherapy of Young and Mi

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    health of lifestyle choices, such a

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    The taking of multiple drugs concur

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    manner. As long as small children a

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    decline in hepatic function reduces

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    Patients with hearing impairments b

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    8.5 Drug administration to toddlers

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    1. “My pharmacist puts my pills i

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    Critical Thinking Questions 1. A 22

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    administration errors. Archives of

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    Hutchison, L. C., & Sleeper, R. B.

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    Chapter 9 Individual Variations in

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    9.1 The Concept of Holistic Pharmac

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    the total patient is lost in this f

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    Medication Refusal for Religious or

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    fear that they will be viewed as we

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    Evidence-Based Practice: Promoting

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    with other medications, and what st

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    Beliefs about health and disease. C

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    on limited incomes. This is especia

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    Figure 9.2 A nurse communicates wit

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    The relationship between genetic ma

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    CYP2C19 Poorly metabolized in Asian

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    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

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    Review Questions 1. The patient inf

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    6. A patient undergoing treatment f

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    References Benjamin, R. M. (2012).

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    Sattler, E. L., & Lee, J. S. (2013)

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    Mendrek, A., & Stip, E. (2011). Sex

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    7. Discuss the role of the nurse in

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    Nurses have long respected the valu

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    10.2 Brief History of Herbal Therap

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    Ginseng Root Relieve stress, enhanc

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    as occurs in menopause, and prostat

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    noted that science has not yet dete

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    Lactones 6 Ginseng root Ginsenoside

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    10.4 Regulation of Herbal Products

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    Figure 10.3 L-carnitine is a popula

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    10.5 The Pharmacologic Actions and

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    Migraine prophylaxis Butterbur Naus

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    Valerian Barbiturates, benzodiazepi

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    and chondroitin Lactobacillus acido

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    3. Advise patients who are taking m

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    marketing. More recent laws have be

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    3. The patient states that he has b

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    Critical Thinking Questions 1. A 44

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    Whitehouse, A. J. O. (2013). Comple

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    Kunle, O. F., Egharevba, H. O., & A

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    7. Provide examples of treatments t

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    Emergency Preparedness 11.1 The Nat

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    yellow fever Ebola Zaire ebolavirus

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    It is estimated that 7 to 8 million

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    Emergency preparedness is not a new

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    (melioidosis) Chlamydia psittaci (p

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    Diagnosis and treatment. The nurse

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    are additional considerations that

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    Agents Used in Bioterrorism Acts Bi

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    500 mg PO (by mouth), every 12 hour

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    In 2014, due to the threat of viral

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    Defense.The antiviral works by targ

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    Although chemical warfare agents ha

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    in aerosol) BLISTER/VESICANT AGENTS

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    environment for years. As demonstra

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    y callers to the Poison Control Cen

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    Other/unknown nondrug substances 3,

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    minutes of ingestion, and if airway

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    fomepizole Antizole Ethylene glycol

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    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

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    which body organ? 1. Brain 2. Thyro

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    See appendix C for answers and rati

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    Claver, M., Dobalian, A., Fickel, J

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    World Health Organization. (2015).

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    The Nervous System Chapter 12 Choli

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    Learning Outcomes After reading thi

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    12.1 Overview of the Nervous System

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    Functional divisions of the central

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    digest response. Digestive and urin

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    For example, erection of the penis

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    the ANS. The receptors are called n

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    Muscarinic receptors. These recepto

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    12.5 Classification and Naming of D

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    Cholinergic Drugs Parasympathomimet

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    physostigmine (Antilirium) Treatmen

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    Monitor blood pressure, pulse, and

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    pyridostigmine (Mestinon, Regonol)

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    Unfavorable effects of physostigmin

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    actions to predominate. Most therap

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    tropicamide (Mydiracyl, Tropicacyl)

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    Obtain baseline vital signs, bowel

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    adverse effects as well as therapeu

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    h or longer after dose may indicate

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    Follow appropriate administration t

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    Atropine may be used to treat hyper

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    poisoning are those of intense para

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    Mucous Membranes Risk for Injury, r

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    monitoring as appropriate (e.g., EC

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    When administering the medications,

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    12.4 Acetylcholine is the neurotran

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    4. A 22-year-old woman on the secon

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    further respiratory distress. Atrop

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    References Herdman, T. H., & Kamits

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    van Gestel, A. J., & Steier, J. (20

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    1. Compare and contrast the types o

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    adrenergic receptor; therefore they

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    Relaxation of the detrusor muscle P

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    Prevention of neurotransmitter stor

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    stimulates the chromaffin cells or

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    Table 13.3 Selected Adrenergic Drug

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    autonomic effects. A few drugs, suc

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    who had received prescriptions for

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    Adrenergic-Blocking Drugs Adrenergi

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    Actions and Uses Phenylephrine is a

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    Black Box Warning: Severe reactions

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    (BP) within normal range, nasal con

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    Infusion pumps allow precise dosing

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    Patient understanding of drug thera

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    atenolol (Tenormin) Beta Hypertensi

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    (see chapter 28 ). By slowing elect

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    Onset Peak Duration 2 h 2-4 h Less

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    For treatment of BPH, assess urinar

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    esulting in lowered BP. Orthostatic

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    lood sugar levels to the health car

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    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

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    Review Questions 1. Following admin

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    Patient-Focused Case Study Tyrone M

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    References Campbell, R. L., Manivan

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    Sacco, E., Bientinesi, R., Tienfort

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    Orexin Receptor Blocker page 174 Le

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    Anxiety Disorders According to the

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    point of phobia is not normal. Symp

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    The hypothalamus is an important ce

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    proceed, then those signals are fur

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    A model of anxiety in which stressf

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    The acts of sleeping and waking are

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    digest the food. Certain medication

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    Therapies Melatonin Melatonin is a

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    time is slowed. It is speculated th

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    14.6 Treating Anxiety and Insomnia

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    Patients who use OTC antihistamine

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    actually suppress the autonomic ner

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    sertraline (Zoloft) (see page 206 f

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    PO: 75-100 mg/day (max 300 mg/day)

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    Onset Peak Duration With once-daily

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    disorders, alcoholism, schizophreni

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    drugs, although they produce consid

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    Prototype Drug box) medical procedu

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    Therapeutic Class: Sedative-hypnoti

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    chamomile, or hops may have an addi

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    Barbiturates are capable of depress

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    Nonbenzodiazepine, Nonbarbiturate C

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    potential for intentional overdose.

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    Treatment of Overdose: Generalized

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    zaleplon (Sonata) zolpidem (Ambien,

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    Pharmacotherapy for Anxiety or Slee

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    effects of the drug. Nonbenzodiazep

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    and report immediately. The patient

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    prescribed and to not stop it abrup

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    Also in 2014, the FDA approved a br

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    14.6 Central nervous system (CNS) a

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    3. Flumazenil 4. Naloxone 4. A 17-y

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    Patient-Focused Case Study George O

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    References Bernert, R. A., Turvey,

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    Selected Bibliography American Slee

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    or renal impairment. Journal of Cli

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    Succinimides page 191 ethosuximide

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    Seizures A seizure or clinically de

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    Infectious diseases. Acute infectio

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    Seizures can have a significant imp

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    eadings and videotapes taken during

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    Crying at the beginning as air leav

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    generally well-tolerated and have p

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    The word epilepsy is derived from t

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    Antiseizure pharmacotherapy is dire

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    postherpetic neuralgia, fibromyalgi

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    drugs, gabapentin (Gralise, Horizan

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    phenobarbital (Luminal) primidone (

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    increased up to 150 mg/kg/day PO (a

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    Drugs That Suppress Sodium Influx S

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    IV: 10-15 mg/kg IV loading dose fol

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    Pharmacologic Class: Barbiturate; G

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    lavage or use of activated charcoal

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    therapeutic effects may take from 1

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    duration of action is greatly affec

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    similar to that of lidocaine (class

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    antituberculin drugs, and food supp

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    Administration Alerts Valproic acid

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    Drug Route and Adult Dose (max dose

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    Contraindications: Hypersensitivity

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    Successful administration of amino

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    and caregivers as needed. Assessmen

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    eport any developmental lags or con

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    Encourage appropriate lifestyle and

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    treatment orders. Infusion pumps wi

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    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

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    1. An 8-year-old boy is evaluated a

  • Page 799 and 800:

    Patient-Focused Case Study Joelle B

  • Page 801 and 802:

    References Chen, L. L. K., Baca, C.

  • Page 803 and 804:

    Selected Bibliography Asconapé, J.

  • Page 805 and 806:

    Sirikonda, N. S., Patten, W. D., Ph

  • Page 807 and 808:

    Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs page 2

  • Page 809 and 810:

    Depression Depression is an emotion

  • Page 811 and 812:

    Some women experience intense mood

  • Page 813 and 814:

    Depression and other mental illness

  • Page 815 and 816:

    Psychodynamic therapies focus on re

  • Page 817 and 818:

    Antidepressants Antidepressants are

  • Page 819 and 820:

    Depression is associated with an im

  • Page 821:

    experienced less frequently, and ca

  • Page 824 and 825:

    Atypical Antidepressants (Including

  • Page 826 and 827:

    tranylcypromine (Parnate) mg/day (g

  • Page 828 and 829:

    Contraindications: Concomitant use

  • Page 830 and 831:

    inhibit the reabsorption of seroton

  • Page 832 and 833:

    St. John’s wort may interact with

  • Page 834 and 835:

    margin, these drugs are reserved fo

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    Black Box Warning: Antidepressants

  • Page 838 and 839:

    agents interact with a large number

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    ecause the combinations can cause t

  • Page 842 and 843:

    Table 16.2 Foods Containing Tyramin

  • Page 844 and 845:

    Flight of ideas or subjective feeli

  • Page 846 and 847:

    Therefore, it is necessary to also

  • Page 848 and 849:

    mg/day in divided doses PO: 1-6 mg

  • Page 850 and 851:

    Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Di

  • Page 852 and 853:

    Retention, related to adverse drug

  • Page 854 and 855:

    Teach the patient to wear or carry

  • Page 856 and 857:

    Diuresis is indicated by output sig

  • Page 858 and 859:

    Lithium toxicity may result in card

  • Page 860 and 861:

    dizziness, paresthesias, palpitatio

  • Page 862 and 863:

    See Table 16.1 for a list of drugs

  • Page 864 and 865:

    causes have included contact with h

  • Page 866 and 867:

    Drugs for Attention Deficit/Hyperac

  • Page 868 and 869:

    Children older than age 6: PO: 5-10

  • Page 870 and 871:

    protein, a marker of inflammation t

  • Page 872 and 873:

    Adverse Effects In a non-ADHD patie

  • Page 874 and 875:

    headache, insomnia, upper abdominal

  • Page 876 and 877:

    excessive physical activity, tachyc

  • Page 878 and 879:

    extended-release formulations in th

  • Page 880 and 881:

    Use opportunities during administra

  • Page 882 and 883:

    antidepressants are the SSRIs, atyp

  • Page 884 and 885:

    3. To decrease drug dependence and

  • Page 886 and 887:

    with the children that she used to

  • Page 888 and 889:

    References Hailpern, S. M., Egan, B

  • Page 890 and 891:

    International Journal of Psychiatry

  • Page 892 and 893:

    Chapter 17 Drugs for Psychoses Drug

  • Page 894 and 895:

    institutionalized, often for their

  • Page 896 and 897:

    maybe even turning combative if con

  • Page 898 and 899:

    indifferent personality exhibited b

  • Page 900 and 901:

    hallucinations, and delusions, foll

  • Page 902 and 903:

    maintain normal social relationship

  • Page 904 and 905:

    potency drugs, whereas the second-g

  • Page 906 and 907:

    hyperglycemia and diabetes with lon

  • Page 908 and 909:

    Phenothiazines The phenothiazines a

  • Page 910 and 911:

    are common. Ejaculation disorders o

  • Page 912 and 913:

    patients with schizoaffective disor

  • Page 914 and 915:

    positive results may occur for amyl

  • Page 916 and 917:

    Sedation Usually diminishes with co

  • Page 918 and 919:

    17.5 Treating Psychoses With Nonphe

  • Page 920 and 921:

    Pharmacologic Class: D dopamine rec

  • Page 922 and 923:

    levodopa toxicity), lithium (increa

  • Page 924 and 925:

    aripiprazole (Abilify, extendedrele

  • Page 926 and 927:

    (Geodon) IM: 10 mg q2h (max: 40 mg/

  • Page 928 and 929:

    interpersonal relationships, and se

  • Page 930 and 931:

    Monitor patient compliance to the d

  • Page 932 and 933:

    Ensure adequate nutrition and fluid

  • Page 934 and 935:

    or changes in behavior or activity

  • Page 936 and 937:

    health care provider. Monitor for w

  • Page 938 and 939:

    such as AA or NA as appropriate. Mo

  • Page 940 and 941:

    calendar to track doses may be help

  • Page 942 and 943:

    lockade of dopamine type 2, seroton

  • Page 944 and 945:

    Lab Tests: Risperidone may cause in

  • Page 946 and 947:

    Anticholinergic adverse effects are

  • Page 948 and 949:

    17.5 The conventional nonphenothiaz

  • Page 950 and 951:

    5. A patient is treated for psychos

  • Page 952 and 953:

    References Chang, S. C., & Lu, M. L

  • Page 954 and 955:

    Selected Bibliography Abou-Setta, A

  • Page 956 and 957:

    Effectiveness Reviews, No. 39.). Re

  • Page 958 and 959:

    Acetaminophen page 251 ANTIMIGRAINE

  • Page 960 and 961:

    Acute or Chronic Pain The purpose o

  • Page 962 and 963:

    pain Phantom limb pain Pain occurri

  • Page 964 and 965:

    and recovery. Costs of health care,

  • Page 966 and 967:

    18.3 The Neural Mechanisms of Pain

  • Page 968 and 969:

    patient groups. The older adult may

  • Page 970 and 971:

    effects, and there are many periphe

  • Page 972 and 973:

    narcotic describes a much broader r

  • Page 974 and 975:

    Figure 18.2 Opioid receptors Opioid

  • Page 976 and 977:

    All opioids have the potential to c

  • Page 978 and 979:

    IM: 10 mg q4h oxymorphone (Opana) I

  • Page 980 and 981:

    analgesics work synergistically to

  • Page 982 and 983:

    symptomatic relief of serious acute

  • Page 984 and 985:

    Interactions Drug-Drug: Morphine in

  • Page 986 and 987:

    abused for its psychoactive effects

  • Page 988 and 989:

    Interactions Drug-Drug: Drug intera

  • Page 990 and 991:

    Implementation Interventions and (R

  • Page 992 and 993:

    Safety: Instruct the patient to cal

  • Page 994 and 995:

    inability to void, increasing bladd

  • Page 996 and 997:

    Patient self-administration of drug

  • Page 998 and 999:

    unclear as to which drug has been t

  • Page 1000 and 1001:

    Methadone maintenance allows patien

  • Page 1002 and 1003:

    Nonopioid Analgesics for Moderate P

  • Page 1004 and 1005:

    (max dose where indicated) NSAIDs:

  • Page 1006 and 1007:

    naproxen (Naprelan, Naprosyn) PO: 5

  • Page 1008 and 1009:

    Centrally acting drugs are drugs th

  • Page 1010 and 1011:

    Interactions Drug-Drug: Concurrent

  • Page 1012:

    Tension Headaches and Migraines Hea

  • Page 1015 and 1016:

    chocolate, and aspartame. By avoidi

  • Page 1017 and 1018:

    There are two primary goals for the

  • Page 1019 and 1020:

    almotriptan (Axert) PO: 6.25-12.5 m

  • Page 1021 and 1022:

    doses/24 h or five doses/wk ANTISEI

  • Page 1023 and 1024:

    mydriasis, dry mouth, urinary reten

  • Page 1025 and 1026:

    Administration Alerts Sumatriptan m

  • Page 1027 and 1028:

    from axon terminals innervating ske

  • Page 1029 and 1030:

    pain control. Pain relief begins wi

  • Page 1031 and 1032:

    for more than short-term use. (Ergo

  • Page 1033 and 1034:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1035 and 1036:

    2. They may allow lower doses of dr

  • Page 1037 and 1038:

    ate of morphine of 6 mg/h. As his n

  • Page 1039 and 1040:

    complementary and alternative medic

  • Page 1041 and 1042:

    Selected Bibliography Agius, A. M.,

  • Page 1043 and 1044:

    Silberstein, S. D. (2014). Migraine

  • Page 1045 and 1046:

    ADJUNCTS TO ANESTHESIA page 276 Neu

  • Page 1047 and 1048:

    Local Anesthesia Local anesthesia i

  • Page 1049 and 1050:

    Figure 19.1 Techniques for applying

  • Page 1051 and 1052:

    added to lidocaine (Xylocaine) for

  • Page 1053 and 1054:

    19.3 Classification of Local Anesth

  • Page 1055 and 1056:

    proparacaine (Alcaine, Ophthetic) t

  • Page 1057 and 1058:

    is used for basic procedures such a

  • Page 1059 and 1060:

    General Anesthesia General anesthes

  • Page 1061 and 1062:

    compounded with antacids, antibioti

  • Page 1063 and 1064:

    Herbal/Food: Unknown. Treatment of

  • Page 1065 and 1066:

    Assess vital signs, especially bloo

  • Page 1067 and 1068:

    Care Minimizing adverse effects: Co

  • Page 1069 and 1070:

    Assess areas of abrasion, burns, or

  • Page 1071 and 1072:

    Table 19.3 Stages of General Anesth

  • Page 1073 and 1074:

    Actions and Uses Propofol has becom

  • Page 1075 and 1076:

    Table 19.4 Examples of Intravenous

  • Page 1077 and 1078:

    19.6 Pharmacotherapy With Inhaled G

  • Page 1079 and 1080:

    anesthetic agents. Nitrous oxide is

  • Page 1081 and 1082:

    inhalation of nitrous oxide. proced

  • Page 1083 and 1084:

    may be used. Compared to other inha

  • Page 1085 and 1086:

    Nursing Practice Application Pharma

  • Page 1087 and 1088:

    Maintain operative sterility throug

  • Page 1089 and 1090:

    anesthetic. Early range-of-motion e

  • Page 1091 and 1092:

    * NANDA I © 2014

  • Page 1093 and 1094:

    patients require intubation and mec

  • Page 1095 and 1096:

    succinylcholine (Anectine, Quelicin

  • Page 1097 and 1098:

    Succinylcholine can cause complete

  • Page 1099 and 1100:

    Neuromuscular blocking agents are c

  • Page 1101 and 1102:

    19.5 IV anesthetics are used alone,

  • Page 1103 and 1104:

    5. A patient is admitted to the pos

  • Page 1105 and 1106:

    References Chan, M. T. V., Cheng. B

  • Page 1107 and 1108:

    Persson, J. (2013). Ketamine in pai

  • Page 1109 and 1110:

    indicates a prototype drug, each of

  • Page 1111 and 1112:

    20.1 Degenerative Diseases of the C

  • Page 1113 and 1114:

    7 to 10 million people worldwide ar

  • Page 1115 and 1116:

    Although PD is a progressive neurol

  • Page 1117 and 1118:

    Drugs for Parkinson’s Disease The

  • Page 1119 and 1120:

    as replacement therapy once dopamin

  • Page 1121 and 1122:

    entacapone (Comtan) rasagiline (Azi

  • Page 1123 and 1124:

    Other approaches to enhancing dopam

  • Page 1125 and 1126:

    Prototype Drug Levodopa,

  • Page 1127 and 1128:

    Less than 30 min 1-2 h Variable Adv

  • Page 1129 and 1130:

    levodopa and dopamine. Rasagiline a

  • Page 1131 and 1132:

    Anticholinergics such as atropine w

  • Page 1133 and 1134:

    Despite extensive, ongoing research

  • Page 1135 and 1136:

    If muscle weakness occurs, the dose

  • Page 1137 and 1138:

    Drugs for Alzheimer’s Disease Dru

  • Page 1139 and 1140:

    dose one patch 9.5 mg/24 h once dai

  • Page 1141 and 1142:

    Common side effects of donepezil ar

  • Page 1143 and 1144:

    Based on Core Concepts in Pharmacol

  • Page 1145 and 1146:

    Brain-imaging scans of older adults

  • Page 1147 and 1148:

    The etiology of MS is unknown. Many

  • Page 1149 and 1150:

    What is the main goal of pharmacoth

  • Page 1151 and 1152:

    Source: Compliments of the National

  • Page 1153 and 1154:

    polyethylene glycol is attached to

  • Page 1155 and 1156:

    substantially more toxic than the i

  • Page 1157 and 1158:

    appropriate. Assess for disturbance

  • Page 1159 and 1160:

    Monitor motor coordination and/or a

  • Page 1161 and 1162:

    equired to assess for the rationale

  • Page 1163 and 1164:

    counseling, or respite care. Patien

  • Page 1165 and 1166:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1167 and 1168:

    Parkinson’s Disease. What is the

  • Page 1169 and 1170:

    appointment with Isabel’s health

  • Page 1171 and 1172:

    National Center for Complementary a

  • Page 1173 and 1174:

    Drugs.com. (n.d.). Carbidopa and le

  • Page 1175 and 1176:

    www.healthline .com/health/multiple

  • Page 1177 and 1178:

    After reading this chapter, the stu

  • Page 1179 and 1180:

    Muscle Spasms Muscle spasms are inv

  • Page 1181 and 1182:

    Cerebral palsy is usually associate

  • Page 1183 and 1184:

    aclofen (Lioresal) carisoprodol (So

  • Page 1185 and 1186:

    and lorazepam (Ativan), have skelet

  • Page 1187 and 1188:

    interfering with general muscle fun

  • Page 1189 and 1190:

    Clonidine (Catapres) and tizanidine

  • Page 1191 and 1192:

    mobility influences the ability to

  • Page 1193 and 1194:

    neuropathic pain in several studies

  • Page 1195 and 1196:

    Pharmacotherapy Illustrated 21.1 Me

  • Page 1197 and 1198:

    Prototype Drug Dantrolene Sodium (D

  • Page 1199 and 1200:

    (OTC) cough preparations and antihi

  • Page 1201 and 1202:

    dampen sympathetic tone, resulting

  • Page 1203 and 1204:

    progressive hypermetabolic reaction

  • Page 1205 and 1206:

    * NANDA I © 2014 Implementation In

  • Page 1207 and 1208:

    headedness, rapid heart rate, palpi

  • Page 1209 and 1210:

    patient consult with the health car

  • Page 1211 and 1212:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1213 and 1214:

    4. Moderate levels of muscle weakne

  • Page 1215 and 1216:

    patient reports back to the office

  • Page 1217 and 1218:

    Mou, J., Paillard, F., Turnbull, B.

  • Page 1219 and 1220:

    Schneiderbanger, D., Johannsen, S.,

  • Page 1221 and 1222:

    Caffeine page 321 NICOTINE page 321

  • Page 1223 and 1224:

    22.1 Overview of Substance Use Diso

  • Page 1225 and 1226:

    22.2 Neurobiologic and Psychosocial

  • Page 1227 and 1228:

    22.3 Physical and Psychological Dep

  • Page 1229 and 1230:

    22.4 Withdrawal Syndrome Once a per

  • Page 1231 and 1232:

    students have reported using LSD. T

  • Page 1233 and 1234:

    formation of new social contacts wi

  • Page 1235 and 1236:

    tachycardia, Cheyne-Stokes respirat

  • Page 1237 and 1238:

    The terms immunity and resistance a

  • Page 1239 and 1240:

    days, and barbiturates, which are n

  • Page 1241 and 1242:

    ody activities and profound sedatio

  • Page 1243 and 1244:

    practical equivalent of one alcohol

  • Page 1245 and 1246:

    In addition to disulfiram, acampros

  • Page 1247 and 1248:

    22.7 Cannabinoids Cannabinoids are

  • Page 1249 and 1250:

    areas where there have been drives

  • Page 1251 and 1252:

    e terrifying and may include anxiet

  • Page 1253 and 1254:

    Figure 22.2 Mescaline, derived from

  • Page 1255 and 1256:

    Most CNS stimulants affect cardiova

  • Page 1257 and 1258:

    Cocaine is a Schedule II drug that

  • Page 1259 and 1260:

    22.10 Nicotine Nicotine is sometime

  • Page 1261 and 1262:

    22.11 The Nurse’s Role in Substan

  • Page 1263 and 1264:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1265 and 1266:

    afraid he will become addicted to t

  • Page 1267 and 1268:

    Psychological dependence is the ove

  • Page 1269 and 1270:

    Chan, Y. F., Huang, H., Bradley, K.

  • Page 1271 and 1272:

    Polysubstance use patterns in under

  • Page 1273 and 1274:

    McClure, E. A., Campbell, A. N., Pa

  • Page 1275:

    Unit 4 The Cardiovascular and Urina

  • Page 1278 and 1279:

    Chapter 23 Drugs for Lipid Disorder

  • Page 1280 and 1281:

    Research over the past 30 years has

  • Page 1282 and 1283:

    Approximately 31 million American a

  • Page 1285 and 1286:

    Figure 23.1 Composition of lipoprot

  • Page 1287 and 1288:

    lipoproteins. Table 23.1 gives the

  • Page 1289 and 1290:

    warranted when the LDL level reache

  • Page 1291 and 1292:

    cases, pharmacotherapy should be in

  • Page 1293 and 1294:

    HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Stati

  • Page 1295 and 1296:

    illustrates selected steps in chole

  • Page 1297 and 1298:

    fenofibrate (Lofibra, Tricor, other

  • Page 1299 and 1300:

    unknown. Macrolide antibiotics such

  • Page 1301 and 1302:

    are effective regardless of the tim

  • Page 1303 and 1304:

    therapy. A small percentage of pati

  • Page 1305 and 1306:

    Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid se

  • Page 1307 and 1308:

    Statins block an enzyme involved in

  • Page 1309 and 1310:

    Contraindications: This drug is con

  • Page 1311 and 1312:

    educing LDL levels. Gemfibrozil is

  • Page 1313 and 1314:

    prescribed for patients with diabet

  • Page 1315 and 1316:

    The most common adverse effects of

  • Page 1317 and 1318:

    fixed-dose combinations of ezetimib

  • Page 1319 and 1320:

    (Repatha) were approved in 2015. Th

  • Page 1321 and 1322:

    unexplained muscle tenderness accom

  • Page 1323 and 1324:

    also cause drug-specific adverse ef

  • Page 1325 and 1326:

    When administering the medication,

  • Page 1327 and 1328:

    23.5 Statins inhibit HMG-CoA reduct

  • Page 1329 and 1330:

    1. “I’m trying to reach my idea

  • Page 1331 and 1332:

    Cholesterol-to-HDL Ratio 6.6 Less t

  • Page 1333 and 1334:

    Selected Bibliography Anderson, T.

  • Page 1335 and 1336:

    Steinberger, J., & Kelly, A. S. (20

  • Page 1337 and 1338:

    Learning Outcomes After reading thi

  • Page 1339 and 1340:

    The Kidneys 24.1 Functions of the K

  • Page 1341 and 1342:

    eceive a kidney transplant. One of

  • Page 1343 and 1344:

    Renal Failure Renal failure is a de

  • Page 1345 and 1346:

    The best marker for estimating kidn

  • Page 1347 and 1348:

    Treatment of renal failure attempts

  • Page 1349 and 1350:

    Based on Pharmacology: Connections

  • Page 1351 and 1352:

    Diuretics Diuretics are drugs that

  • Page 1353 and 1354:

    Evidence-Based Practice: Diuretics

  • Page 1355 and 1356:

    Loop Diuretics 24.5 Pharmacotherapy

  • Page 1357 and 1358:

    particularly beneficial when cardia

  • Page 1359 and 1360:

    Treatment of Overdose: Overdose wil

  • Page 1361 and 1362:

    for HTN; 100 mg/day for edema) INTE

  • Page 1363 and 1364:

    Table 24.5 drugs act. . There are t

  • Page 1365 and 1366:

    Pregnancy category B. Pharmacokinet

  • Page 1367 and 1368:

    already been removed before the fil

  • Page 1369 and 1370:

    Adverse Effects + Spironolactone do

  • Page 1371 and 1372:

    an enzyme that affects acid-base ba

  • Page 1373 and 1374:

    Complementary and Alternative Thera

  • Page 1375 and 1376:

    Assessment throughout administratio

  • Page 1377 and 1378:

    care provider, and promptly notify

  • Page 1379 and 1380:

    Instruct the patient who is taking

  • Page 1381 and 1382:

    Observe for signs of infection. (So

  • Page 1383 and 1384:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1385 and 1386:

    1. Platelet count 2. White blood ce

  • Page 1387 and 1388:

    for medication refills before her n

  • Page 1389 and 1390:

    References Berry, S. D., Mittleman,

  • Page 1391 and 1392:

    Selected Bibliography Armstrong, A.

  • Page 1393 and 1394:

    Chapter 25 Drugs for Fluid Balance,

  • Page 1395 and 1396:

    congestive heart failure (CHF), or

  • Page 1397 and 1398:

    Figure 25.1 Major fluid compartment

  • Page 1399 and 1400:

    whereas hypotonic solutions have a

  • Page 1401 and 1402:

    Output The average adult has a wate

  • Page 1403 and 1404:

    Fluid Replacement Agents Net loss o

  • Page 1405 and 1406:

    Lactated Ringer’s Isotonic Plasma

  • Page 1407 and 1408:

    excessive expansion of the intravas

  • Page 1409 and 1410:

    Actions and Uses Dextran 40 is a po

  • Page 1411 and 1412:

    Treatment of Overdose: For patients

  • Page 1413 and 1414:

    Minerals are inorganic substances n

  • Page 1415 and 1416:

    Note: * For all electrolyte imbalan

  • Page 1418 and 1419:

    Figure 25.3 Renal regulation of sod

  • Page 1420 and 1421:

    serum sodium levels can be monitore

  • Page 1422 and 1423:

    and 0.22%, and both hypotonic and i

  • Page 1424 and 1425:

    children, should be encouraged to d

  • Page 1426 and 1427:

    + most common cause of K depletion,

  • Page 1428 and 1429:

    dextrose solution containing 10-20

  • Page 1430 and 1431:

    Figure 25.4 Acid-base imbalances Nu

  • Page 1432 and 1433:

    pink-tinged frothy sputum, decrease

  • Page 1434 and 1435:

    therapy may be needed to ensure the

  • Page 1436 and 1437:

    instruct the patient, family, or ca

  • Page 1438 and 1439:

    25.10 Pharmacotherapy of Alkalosis

  • Page 1440 and 1441:

    Sodium bicarbonate may also be used

  • Page 1442 and 1443:

    Lab Tests: Urinary and serum pH inc

  • Page 1444 and 1445:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1446 and 1447:

    1. A patient is receiving intraveno

  • Page 1448 and 1449:

    3. Contact dietary to change the pa

  • Page 1450 and 1451:

    Reference Herdman, T. H., & Kamitsu

  • Page 1452 and 1453:

    Huang, L. H. (2014). Dehydration. R

  • Page 1454 and 1455:

    Chapter 26 Drugs for Hypertension D

  • Page 1456 and 1457:

    8. For each of the drug classes lis

  • Page 1458 and 1459:

    26.1 Factors Responsible for Blood

  • Page 1460 and 1461:

    intravenous (IV) fluids increases b

  • Page 1462 and 1463:

    26.3 Etiology and Pathogenesis of H

  • Page 1464 and 1465:

    Figure 26.3

  • Page 1466 and 1467:

    High blood pressure over a prolonge

  • Page 1468 and 1469:

    The goal of antihypertensive therap

  • Page 1470:

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) Thi

  • Page 1473 and 1474:

    Vaseretic HCTZ and enalapril Zestor

  • Page 1475 and 1476:

    Tribenzor HCTZ with olmesartan and

  • Page 1477 and 1478:

    Diuretics 26.6 Treating Hypertensio

  • Page 1479 and 1480:

    350 for the Prototype Drug box) ind

  • Page 1481 and 1482:

    The loop diuretics cause greater di

  • Page 1483 and 1484:

    Figure 26.4 The renin-angiotensin-a

  • Page 1485 and 1486:

    the effects of angiotensin II and d

  • Page 1487 and 1488:

    enalapril (Vasotec) PO: 12.5-25 mg

  • Page 1489 and 1490:

    amlodipine (Amturnide). In 2012, th

  • Page 1491 and 1492:

    low doses, CCBs relax arterial smoo

  • Page 1493 and 1494:

    dizziness. ACE inhibitors can cause

  • Page 1495 and 1496:

    PO: (extended release): 17 mg once

  • Page 1497 and 1498:

    h (extended release tablet) min rel

  • Page 1499 and 1500:

    drug is added to the patient’s me

  • Page 1501 and 1502:

    acebutolol (Sectral) atenolol (Teno

  • Page 1503 and 1504:

    PO (extended release): 20-40 mg onc

  • Page 1505 and 1506:

    The most common adverse effects of

  • Page 1507 and 1508:

    cessation of beta-blocker therapy c

  • Page 1509 and 1510:

    drug. Patients with coronary artery

  • Page 1511 and 1512:

    (Apresoline) Therapeutic Class: Dru

  • Page 1513 and 1514:

    Drug-Drug: Administering hydralazin

  • Page 1515 and 1516:

    elated to adverse drug effects Defi

  • Page 1517 and 1518:

    to stand or walk until the sensatio

  • Page 1519 and 1520:

    cause this and may indicate that BP

  • Page 1521 and 1522:

    to report; and the anticipated leng

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    26.5 Pharmacotherapy of HTN often b

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    4. What health teaching should the

  • Page 1527 and 1528:

    2. A patient is having a hypertensi

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    loodpressure /facts.htm Colbert, B.

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    Chapter 27 Drugs for Heart Failure

  • Page 1533 and 1534:

    two decades, about 1 in 3 Americans

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    Maintaining blood glucose within no

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    The second important factor affecti

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    Figure 27.1 Pathophysiology of hear

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    The first two mechanisms provide sy

  • Page 1544:

    (reduce blood volume). The resultan

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    hydrochlorothiazide (a diuretic) ar

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    (BUN), serum bilirubin, serum alkal

  • Page 1551 and 1552:

    Dose (max dose where indicated) ACE

  • Page 1553 and 1554:

    BETA-ADRENERGIC BLOCKERS carvedilol

  • Page 1555 and 1556:

    sometimes combined with loop diuret

  • Page 1557 and 1558:

    development of safer and more effec

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    sympathetic nervous system, thus sl

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    Adverse Effects The most dangerous

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    Metoprolol is a selective beta -adr

  • Page 1565 and 1566:

    Interactions Drug-Drug: Concurrent

  • Page 1567 and 1568:

    Vasodilators 27.8 Treatment of Hear

  • Page 1569 and 1570:

    For adults with HF, there are well-

  • Page 1571 and 1572:

    Prototype Drug Milrinone (Primacor)

  • Page 1573 and 1574:

    vasopressor. Cardiac output is impr

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    Diagnose* Baseline assessment prior

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    equipment obtained. Collaboration:

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    medical identification jewelry indi

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    especially for pediatric patients.

  • Page 1583 and 1584:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1585 and 1586:

    2. The nurse reviews laboratory stu

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    pitting ankle edema and has some fi

  • Page 1589 and 1590:

    The Journal of the American Medical

  • Page 1591 and 1592:

    Silva, J. N. A., & Canter, C. E. (2

  • Page 1593 and 1594:

    indicates a prototype drug, each of

  • Page 1595 and 1596:

    28.1 Pathogenesis of Coronary Arter

  • Page 1597 and 1598:

    Figure 28.1 Atherosclerosis in the

  • Page 1599 and 1600:

    Angina pain is usually preceded by

  • Page 1601 and 1602:

    A combination of variables influenc

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    Evidence-Based Practice: Sleep Dura

  • Page 1605 and 1606:

    28.4 Pharmacologic Management of An

  • Page 1607 and 1608:

    Based on Pharmacology: Connections

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    Organic Nitrates After their medici

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    Transdermal: 1 patch daily (leave o

  • Page 1613 and 1614:

    (Ranexa) bid (max: 2000 mg/day) Pro

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    extended-release forms are for prop

  • Page 1617 and 1618:

    Herbal/Food: Use with hawthorn may

  • Page 1619 and 1620:

    Refer to Nursing Practice Applicati

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    severe hypotension, seizures, or dy

  • Page 1623 and 1624:

    Use hair-free areas of the torso to

  • Page 1625 and 1626:

    well as OTC medications with the pa

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    Prototype Drug Atenolol (Tenormin)

  • Page 1629 and 1630:

    Drug-Drug: Concurrent use with CCBs

  • Page 1631 and 1632:

    tolerate beta blockers. In patients

  • Page 1633 and 1634:

    quickly distinguish the cause of th

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    Actions and Uses Like other CCBs, d

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    Herbal/Food: St. John’s wort and

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    Thrombolytics In treating MI, throm

  • Page 1641 and 1642:

    Adjunct Drugs for Treatment of Acut

  • Page 1643:

    is administered to assist in the di

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    Actions and Uses Prepared through r

  • Page 1648 and 1649:

    Disease Ginseng is one of the oldes

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    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1652 and 1653:

    2. “Put one tablet under your ton

  • Page 1654 and 1655:

    Sharad Patel is a 43-year-old compu

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    Reviews, 12. Art. No.: CD007769. do

  • Page 1658 and 1659:

    Selected Bibliography Alaeddini, J.

  • Page 1660 and 1661:

    and Vascular Disease Research, 11,

  • Page 1662 and 1663:

    indicates a prototype drug, each of

  • Page 1664 and 1665:

    Shock 29.1 Characteristics of Shock

  • Page 1666 and 1667:

    Shock is often classified by naming

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    Figure 29.2 Physiological changes d

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    pressure. For anaphylaxis, an addit

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    Agent Examples Blood products Whole

  • Page 1675 and 1676:

    Vasoconstrictors/Vasopressors In so

  • Page 1677 and 1678:

    Pregnancy category C. Pharmacokinet

  • Page 1679 and 1680:

    always run via infusion pump and re

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    eneficial when the primary cause of

  • Page 1683 and 1684:

    Because of its profound effects on

  • Page 1685 and 1686:

    Note: Italics indicate common adver

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    Care Ensuring therapeutic effects:

  • Page 1689 and 1690:

    chest pain or tightening, or headac

  • Page 1691 and 1692:

    Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is a potent

  • Page 1693 and 1694:

    It is always preferable to prevent

  • Page 1695 and 1696:

    TSS appears to differ from other fo

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    decreases mortality. It is given by

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    deal with anaphylaxis by understand

  • Page 1701 and 1702:

    during open cardiac massage, or whe

  • Page 1703 and 1704:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1705 and 1706:

    2. The nurse evaluates the effectiv

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    84/40 mmHg, his heart rate is 108,

  • Page 1709 and 1710:

    Rostad, C. A., Phillipsborn, R. P.,

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    Han, J. & Martin, G. S. (2011). Doe

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    Learning Outcomes After reading thi

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    Dysrhythmias 30.1 Etiology and Clas

  • Page 1717 and 1718:

    immediate treatment Heart block Blo

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    Figure 30.1 Normal conduction pathw

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    without incident, ectopic foci in d

  • Page 1723 and 1724:

    Relationship of the electrocardiogr

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    Because most antidysrhythmic drugs

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    Figure 30.3 Ion channels in myocard

  • Page 1730 and 1731:

    Sodium Channel Blockers (Class I) T

  • Page 1732 and 1733:

    III: Potassium channel blockers exa

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    the Prototype Drug box) IV: 50-100

  • Page 1736 and 1737:

    CLASS IV: CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS

  • Page 1738 and 1739:

    Use the supine position during IV a

  • Page 1740 and 1741:

    Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists (Class

  • Page 1742 and 1743:

    enal and liver function studies; an

  • Page 1744 and 1745:

    Take BP lying, sitting, and standin

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    during periods of sun exposure. Pat

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    disorder (PTSD), chronic agitation,

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    additive bradycardia. Phenothiazine

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    Potassium Channel Blockers (Class I

  • Page 1754 and 1755:

    some patients; however, little is k

  • Page 1756 and 1757:

    Calcium Channel Blockers (Class IV)

  • Page 1758 and 1759:

    assessment of lung function is esse

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    CCBs are well tolerated by most pat

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    slow conduction through the AV node

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    automaticity of the SA node and slo

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    30.5 Changes in sodium and potassiu

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    D. Weakness E. Panic attacks 5. A p

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    hospitalist orders acebutolol (Sect

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    Sullivan, S. D., Orme, M. E., Morai

  • Page 1774 and 1775:

    alteplase (Activase) page 474 HEMOS

  • Page 1776 and 1777:

    31.1 The Process of Hemostasis Hemo

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    Figure 31.1 Basic steps in hemostas

  • Page 1780 and 1781:

    31.2 Removal of Blood Clots Hemosta

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    31.3 Alterations of Hemostasis To d

  • Page 1784 and 1785:

    Whereas thromboembolic disorders ar

  • Page 1786 and 1787:

    Modern claims for garlic uses have

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    31.4 Mechanisms of Coagulation Modi

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    31.5 Pharmacotherapy With Anticoagu

  • Page 1792 and 1793:

    FACTOR Xa INIBITORS apixaban (Eliqu

  • Page 1794 and 1795:

    The traditional drug of choice for

  • Page 1796 and 1797:

    skin, and never massage the site af

  • Page 1798 and 1799:

    heparin’s anticoagulant activity.

  • Page 1800 and 1801:

    apidly ensue. When the patient’s

  • Page 1802 and 1803:

    Indications for warfarin therapy in

  • Page 1804 and 1805:

    other prescription or over-the-coun

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    clopidogrel (Plavix) prasugrel (Eff

  • Page 1808 and 1809:

    OTC drugs, herbal preparations, and

  • Page 1810 and 1811:

    patients who are unable to perform

  • Page 1812 and 1813:

    hemorrhage. CBC, especially RBC, Hg

  • Page 1814 and 1815:

    the chance for bleeding. All OTC me

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    Skin is drawn up (“pinched”) an

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    procedures. These drugs should be d

  • Page 1820 and 1821:

    Pharmacokinetics (PO) Onset Peak Du

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    Patient Safety: The Importance of P

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    Signs of bleeding such as spontaneo

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    streptokinase (Kabikinase) IV: 250,

  • Page 1828 and 1829:

    Interventions and (Rationales) Pati

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    angina postinfusion. Maintain the p

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    and monitoring that will be used, a

  • Page 1834 and 1835:

    hemostatics comes from the drugs’

  • Page 1836 and 1837:

    large number of Factor VIII Table 3

  • Page 1838 and 1839:

    Because aminocaproic acid tends to

  • Page 1840 and 1841:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1842 and 1843:

    2. The patient receiving heparin th

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    treatment plan is to admit her into

  • Page 1846 and 1847:

    Selected Bibliography Angiolillo, D

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    Chapter 32 Drugs for Hematopoietic

  • Page 1850 and 1851:

    diseases affecting blood constituen

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    Figure 32.1 Hematopoiesis PharmFact

  • Page 1855 and 1856:

    epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit) (max

  • Page 1857 and 1858:

    Prototype Drug Epoetin Alfa (Epogen

  • Page 1859 and 1860:

    Contraindications: Contraindication

  • Page 1861 and 1862:

    Stimulating Drugs Assessment Potent

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    e significantly fatigued due to low

  • Page 1865 and 1866:

    Patient self-administration of drug

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    in competitive sports activities ma

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    3 occur. Leukocyte counts higher th

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    systems. CSF therapy shortens the l

  • Page 1873 and 1874:

    Obtain baseline weight and vital si

  • Page 1875 and 1876:

    dysrhythmias. Respiratory distress

  • Page 1877 and 1878:

    itchy blister-like vesicles on the

  • Page 1879 and 1880:

    may be stopped when neutrophil coun

  • Page 1881 and 1882:

    for rotating sites. Have the patien

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    Morphology Description Examples Mac

  • Page 1885 and 1886:

    and ferrous sulfate (Feosol, others

  • Page 1887 and 1888:

    for once-weekly (Nascobal) dosage.

  • Page 1889 and 1890:

    Vitamin B is an essential component

  • Page 1891 and 1892:

    Figure 32.2

  • Page 1893 and 1894:

    32.7 Pharmacotherapy With Iron Iron

  • Page 1895 and 1896:

    Ferrous sulfate is an iron suppleme

  • Page 1897 and 1898:

    Drug-Drug: Absorption is reduced wh

  • Page 1899 and 1900:

    Continue assessment for therapeutic

  • Page 1901 and 1902:

    Minimizing adverse effects: Continu

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    enhance iron absorption. Have the p

  • Page 1905 and 1906:

    Oprelvekin, the only drug in this c

  • Page 1907 and 1908:

    5. To best monitor for therapeutic

  • Page 1909 and 1910:

    References Dehenes, Y., Myrvold, L.

  • Page 1911 and 1912:

    National Institutes of Health, Offi

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    The Immune System Chapter 33 Drugs

  • Page 1916 and 1917:

    After reading this chapter, the stu

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    Inflammation may be classified as a

  • Page 1920 and 1921:

    angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)

  • Page 1922 and 1923:

    When released at an injury site, hi

  • Page 1924 and 1925:

    A few anti-inflammatory drug classe

  • Page 1926 and 1927:

    Increased risk of cardiovascular ev

  • Page 1928 and 1929:

    PO: 150-200 mg bid (max: 400 mg/day

  • Page 1930 and 1931:

    Figure 33.2 Inhibition of cyclooxyg

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    chickenpox due to the risk of Reye

  • Page 1934 and 1935:

    Interactions may occur between fish

  • Page 1936 and 1937:

    Pregnancy category C. Category chan

  • Page 1938 and 1939:

    FDA, the COX-2 inhibitors quickly b

  • Page 1940 and 1941:

    Medrol, others) prednisolone predni

  • Page 1942 and 1943:

    Because the appearance of these adv

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    different age groups, including spe

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    levels, patients with diabetes may

  • Page 1948 and 1949:

    Actions and Uses Acetaminophen redu

  • Page 1950 and 1951:

    serious allergic reactions with sym

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    associated with anemia. Patients wi

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    Neutropenic drugs. Drugs such as NS

  • Page 1956 and 1957:

    IMPLEMENTATION Interventions and (R

  • Page 1958 and 1959:

    Monitor for abdominal pain, black o

  • Page 1960 and 1961:

    Weight-bearing exercise stresses bo

  • Page 1962 and 1963:

    nursing care helps to optimize and

  • Page 1964 and 1965:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 1966 and 1967:

    2. The patient has been taking aspi

  • Page 1968 and 1969:

    He asks you about acetaminophen (Ty

  • Page 1970 and 1971:

    inflammatory disease. Pharmacology

  • Page 1972 and 1973:

    Chapter 34 Drugs for Immune System

  • Page 1974 and 1975:

    9. For each of the drug classes lis

  • Page 1976 and 1977:

    34.1 Innate (Nonspecific) Body Defe

  • Page 1978 and 1979:

    or 2 doses of the pneumococcal vacc

  • Page 1981 and 1982:

    Figure 34.1 Steps in the humoral an

  • Page 1983 and 1984:

    Figure 34.2 Functions of antibodies

  • Page 1985 and 1986:

    membrane or modified microbial prot

  • Page 1987 and 1988:

    Vaccines are not without adverse ef

  • Page 1989 and 1990:

    Pharmacotherapy Illustrated 34.1 Me

  • Page 1991 and 1992:

    T cells rapidly form clones after t

  • Page 1993 and 1994:

    pneumococcal, polyvalent (Pneumovax

  • Page 1995 and 1996:

    Immunostimulants Despite attempts o

  • Page 1997 and 1998:

    isexual activities, and for persons

  • Page 1999 and 2000:

    Herbal/Food: Unknown. Treatment of

  • Page 2001 and 2002:

    alfa-2b (Intron-A) IM/subcutaneous:

  • Page 2003 and 2004:

    alfa-2b (note that when used as med

  • Page 2005 and 2006:

    Peginterferon alfa-2b (PegIntron) h

  • Page 2007 and 2008:

    Complementary and Alternative Thera

  • Page 2009 and 2010:

    Assessment throughout administratio

  • Page 2011 and 2012:

    dizziness or falls. If dizziness oc

  • Page 2013 and 2014:

    Monitor for signs of opportunistic

  • Page 2015 and 2016:

    vials remain available for use up t

  • Page 2017 and 2018:

    Immunosuppressants Drugs used to in

  • Page 2019 and 2020:

    newer drugs suppress only specific

  • Page 2021 and 2022:

    once daily Leukopenia, infections,

  • Page 2023 and 2024:

    everolimus (Zortress) sirolimus (Ra

  • Page 2025 and 2026:

    cells. When prescribed for transpla

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    Treatment of Overdose: There is no

  • Page 2029 and 2030:

    inflammatory conditions and autoimm

  • Page 2031 and 2032:

    (Immunosuppressants may cause leuko

  • Page 2033 and 2034:

    ensure that the entire dose is take

  • Page 2035 and 2036:

    interferons that enhance the immune

  • Page 2037 and 2038:

    2. The patient is frightened by nee

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    Herdman, T. H., & Kamitsuru, S. (20

  • Page 2041 and 2042:

    Krogh, D. (2011). Biology: A guide

  • Page 2043 and 2044:

    ciprofloxacin (Cipro) page 551 SULF

  • Page 2045 and 2046:

    35.1 Pathogenicity and Virulence Mi

  • Page 2047 and 2048:

    against gram-positive bacteria, whe

  • Page 2049 and 2050:

    Haemophilus Pneumonia, meningitis i

  • Page 2051 and 2052:

    however, the terms antibacterial, a

  • Page 2053 and 2054:

    occasionally result in a bacterial

  • Page 2055 and 2056:

    leaves behind those microbes that p

  • Page 2057 and 2058:

    Acquired resistance It is important

  • Page 2059 and 2060:

    system, those who have experienced

  • Page 2061 and 2062:

    These normal microorganisms, or hos

  • Page 2063 and 2064:

    circulation. Excessive pus formatio

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    Antibacterial Drugs Antibacterial d

  • Page 2067 and 2068:

    cells do not contain cell walls; th

  • Page 2069 and 2070:

    PO: 125-250 mg qid (max: 7.2 g/day)

  • Page 2071 and 2072:

    as either a potassium or sodium sal

  • Page 2073 and 2074:

    Treatment of Overdose: There is no

  • Page 2075 and 2076:

    THIRD GENERATION cefdinir (Omnicef)

  • Page 2077 and 2078:

    the same class. Other less common a

  • Page 2079 and 2080:

    Pharmacokinetics Onset Peak Duratio

  • Page 2081 and 2082:

    They generally have a longer durati

  • Page 2083 and 2084:

    complicated UTIs. Zebexa combines c

  • Page 2085 and 2086:

    Macrolides Erythromycin (EryC, Eryt

  • Page 2087 and 2088:

    Drug-Drug: Milk products, iron supp

  • Page 2089 and 2090:

    Table 35.5 Macrolides Drug Route an

  • Page 2091 and 2092:

    Erythromycin is inactivated by stom

  • Page 2093 and 2094:

    Treatment of Overdose: There is no

  • Page 2095 and 2096:

    Pharmacokinetics Onset Peak Duratio

  • Page 2097 and 2098:

    Treatment of Overdose: There is no

  • Page 2099 and 2100:

    nalidixic acid (NegGram) PO: Acute

  • Page 2101 and 2102:

    Note: Italics indicate common adver

  • Page 2103 and 2104:

    Contraindications: Ciprofloxacin is

  • Page 2105 and 2106:

    SULFONAMIDES sulfadiazine sulfadoxi

  • Page 2107 and 2108:

    this class approved in 2014 as eard

  • Page 2109 and 2110:

    of the small bowel, and for acute e

  • Page 2111 and 2112:

    Herbal/Food: Potassium supplements

  • Page 2113 and 2114:

    The advantage of the urinary antise

  • Page 2115 and 2116:

    than the other carbapenems. It is a

  • Page 2117 and 2118:

    meropenem (Merrem) IV: 1-2 g tid PM

  • Page 2119 and 2120:

    nausea, Candida infections Seizures

  • Page 2121 and 2122:

    serotonin reuptake inhibitors becau

  • Page 2123 and 2124:

    Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is a

  • Page 2125 and 2126:

    There are two broad categories of a

  • Page 2127 and 2128:

    drugs) SECOND-LINE AGENTS amikacin

  • Page 2129 and 2130:

    espiratory depression, exfoliative

  • Page 2131 and 2132:

    and hands, convulsions, optic neuri

  • Page 2133 and 2134:

    gonorrhea. Recent uses include the

  • Page 2135 and 2136:

    IMPLEMENTATION Interventions and (R

  • Page 2137 and 2138:

    Continue to monitor for hepatic, re

  • Page 2139 and 2140:

    Monitor for signs and symptoms of n

  • Page 2141 and 2142:

    use an alternative form of birth co

  • Page 2143 and 2144:

    Nursing Practice Application Pharma

  • Page 2145 and 2146:

    of drug administration may be requi

  • Page 2147 and 2148:

    neuropathy. Lifespan: Be particular

  • Page 2149 and 2150:

    Patient understanding of drug thera

  • Page 2151 and 2152:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 2153 and 2154:

    35.13 The use of fluoroquinolones h

  • Page 2155 and 2156:

    5. A patient has been diagnosed wit

  • Page 2157 and 2158:

    Herdman, T. H., & Kamitsuru, S. (20

  • Page 2159 and 2160:

    www .cdc.gov/longtermcare/ Chang, C

  • Page 2161 and 2162:

    Chapter 36 Drugs for Fungal, Protoz

  • Page 2163 and 2164:

    7. Use the nursing process to care

  • Page 2165 and 2166:

    as athlete’s foot), fungal infect

  • Page 2167 and 2168:

    Microsporum species Ringworm of the

  • Page 2169 and 2170:

    36.3 Mechanism of Action of Antifun

  • Page 2171 and 2172:

    prolonged therapy with corticostero

  • Page 2173 and 2174:

    Pharmacokinetics (IV) Onset Peak Du

  • Page 2175 and 2176:

    amphotericin B ​- (Abelcet, AmBis

  • Page 2177 and 2178:

    Azoles The azole drugs consist of t

  • Page 2179 and 2180:

    are additional options for oral can

  • Page 2181 and 2182:

    Interactions Drug-Drug: Fluconazole

  • Page 2183 and 2184:

    e indicated. Extensive superficial

  • Page 2185 and 2186:

    nystatin: topical powder (Mycostati

  • Page 2187 and 2188:

    treat candidiasis of the intestine,

  • Page 2189 and 2190:

    herbal preparations, and alcohol us

  • Page 2191 and 2192:

    Continue to monitor periodic labora

  • Page 2193 and 2194:

    Diverse ​Patients: Because flucon

  • Page 2195 and 2196:

    swallow unless instructed to do so

  • Page 2197 and 2198:

    Antiprotozoan Drugs 36.7 Pharmacoth

  • Page 2199 and 2200:

    Note: Italics indicate common adver

  • Page 2201 and 2202:

    Prototype Drug Chloroquine (Aralen)

  • Page 2203 and 2204:

    etinal or visual field changes. It

  • Page 2205 and 2206:

    Figure 36.1 Life cycle of Plasmodiu

  • Page 2207 and 2208:

    America, and Asia. Although primari

  • Page 2209 and 2210:

    Therapeutic Class: Antiinfective, a

  • Page 2211 and 2212:

    Interactions Drug-Drug: Metronidazo

  • Page 2213 and 2214:

    Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity pentami

  • Page 2215 and 2216:

    Antihelminthic Drugs Drugs used to

  • Page 2217 and 2218:

    Acute allergic or inflammatory resp

  • Page 2219 and 2220:

    worms die, some abdominal pain, dis

  • Page 2221 and 2222:

    seizures; dysrhythmias; hypotension

  • Page 2223 and 2224:

    any drug treatment. (Anaphylactic r

  • Page 2225 and 2226:

    Monitor for signs and symptoms of b

  • Page 2227 and 2228:

    effects of many drugs. Take the dru

  • Page 2229 and 2230:

    continued for several months. Ampho

  • Page 2231 and 2232:

    (Deltasone). What is the purpose of

  • Page 2233 and 2234:

    2. What patient teaching will she n

  • Page 2235 and 2236:

    Centers for Disease Control and Pre

  • Page 2237 and 2238:

    Chapter 37 Drugs for Viral Infectio

  • Page 2239 and 2240:

    Viruses Viruses are tiny infectious

  • Page 2241 and 2242:

    PharmFacts Viral Infections Of the

  • Page 2243 and 2244:

    HIV-AIDS Acquired immune deficiency

  • Page 2245 and 2246:

    Unfortunately, the CD4 T-lymphocyte

  • Page 2247 and 2248:

    after diagnosis can reduce the numb

  • Page 2249 and 2250:

    treatment failure occurs. The goal

  • Page 2251 and 2252:

    and Adolescents, 2015). HIV drug re

  • Page 2253 and 2254:

    Drugs for Treating HIV-AIDS 37.4 Cl

  • Page 2255 and 2256:

    tenofovir (TDF, Viread) zidovudine

  • Page 2257 and 2258:

    PO: 500 mg/day taken with 200 mg of

  • Page 2259 and 2260:

    Structurally, it resembles thymidin

  • Page 2261 and 2262:

    cumulative immunosuppression. The f

  • Page 2263 and 2264:

    Pregnancy category C. Pharmacokinet

  • Page 2265 and 2266:

    lamivudine + zidovudine), Triumeq (

  • Page 2267 and 2268:

    pain. Hyperglycemia has been report

  • Page 2269 and 2270:

    Viral DNA synthesis requires buildi

  • Page 2271 and 2272:

    Drugs in the PI class block the vir

  • Page 2273 and 2274:

    Entry Inhibitors and Integrase Inhi

  • Page 2275 and 2276:

    Pharmacotherapy for HIV-AIDS Assess

  • Page 2277 and 2278:

    Ensuring therapeutic effects: Conti

  • Page 2279 and 2280:

    effects. Increasing fluid intake wi

  • Page 2281 and 2282:

    Periodic monitoring of complete blo

  • Page 2283 and 2284:

    Patient understanding of drug thera

  • Page 2285 and 2286:

    Clinical trials have confirmed that

  • Page 2287 and 2288:

    however, to demonstrate that PEP is

  • Page 2289 and 2290:

    Dose (max dose where indicated) acy

  • Page 2291 and 2292:

    Approved by the U.S. Food and Drug

  • Page 2293 and 2294:

    Following its initial entrance into

  • Page 2295 and 2296:

    Influenza Influenza is a viral infe

  • Page 2297 and 2298:

    (Flumadine) PO: 100 mg bid (max: 20

  • Page 2299 and 2300:

    Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is

  • Page 2301 and 2302:

    Therapy for acute HAV infection is

  • Page 2303 and 2304:

    Tenofovir disoproxil (Viread). Foll

  • Page 2305 and 2306:

    Entecavir (Baraclude). About 70% of

  • Page 2307 and 2308:

    several proteins (NS3, NS4, NS5A, N

  • Page 2309 and 2310:

    Minimizing adverse effects: Continu

  • Page 2311 and 2312:

    platelets. Periodic monitoring of C

  • Page 2313 and 2314:

    When administering medications, ins

  • Page 2315 and 2316:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 2317 and 2318:

    1. A patient is started on efaviren

  • Page 2319 and 2320:

    3. Decrease the amount of fluids ta

  • Page 2321 and 2322:

    Cohen, M. S., Chen, Y. Q., McCauley

  • Page 2323 and 2324:

    Ambrosioni, J., Nicolas, D., Sued,

  • Page 2325 and 2326:

    doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2012.07.009

  • Page 2327 and 2328:

    Vinca Alkaloids page 625 vincristin

  • Page 2329 and 2330:

    the medical treatment of cancer oft

  • Page 2331 and 2332:

    Figure 38.1 Invasion and metastasis

  • Page 2333 and 2334:

    The highest 5-year survival rates a

  • Page 2335 and 2336:

    inhibit the formation of tumors. If

  • Page 2337 and 2338:

    Therapies Acupuncture Acupuncture i

  • Page 2339 and 2340:

    for tumors of blood cells or when i

  • Page 2341 and 2342:

    Figure 38.2 Antineoplastic agents a

  • Page 2343:

    To cure a patient, it is believed t

  • Page 2346 and 2347:

    Combination Chemotherapy In most ca

  • Page 2348 and 2349:

    effects are dose limiting and the o

  • Page 2350 and 2351:

    38.8 Classification of Antineoplast

  • Page 2352 and 2353:

    Because blood cells are particularl

  • Page 2354 and 2355:

    Contraindications: Cyclophosphamide

  • Page 2356 and 2357:

    Mechanism of action of the alkylati

  • Page 2358 and 2359:

    OTHER ALKYLATING AGENTS busulfan (M

  • Page 2360 and 2361:

    Antimetabolites Antimetabolites are

  • Page 2362 and 2363:

    pemetrexed (Alimta) pralatrexate (F

  • Page 2364 and 2365:

    and 5, repeated every 21 days IV: 4

  • Page 2366 and 2367:

    Black Box Warning: Methotrexate car

  • Page 2368 and 2369:

    leucovorin is administered followin

  • Page 2370 and 2371:

    Antitumor Antibiotics Antitumor ant

  • Page 2372 and 2373:

    idarubicin (Idamycin) mitomycin (Mu

  • Page 2374 and 2375:

    Adverse Effects Doxorubicin has man

  • Page 2376 and 2377:

    As with many other antineoplastics,

  • Page 2378 and 2379:

    The vinca alkaloids , vincristine (

  • Page 2380 and 2381:

    paclitaxel (Abraxane, Taxol) IV: 13

  • Page 2382 and 2383:

    prescribed in ​combination with o

  • Page 2384 and 2385:

    Treatment of Overdose: Overdose wit

  • Page 2386 and 2387:

    the student should refer to other c

  • Page 2388 and 2389:

    enanthate (Delatestryl) (see page 8

  • Page 2390 and 2391:

    aloxifene (Evista) (see page 831 fo

  • Page 2392 and 2393:

    Estrogen Antagonists (Antiestrogens

  • Page 2394 and 2395:

    cramping, or neuropathic pain that

  • Page 2396 and 2397:

    common. Tamoxifen causes initial

  • Page 2398 and 2399:

    Biologic Response Modifiers and Tar

  • Page 2400 and 2401:

    ortezomib multiple myeloma and ofat

  • Page 2402 and 2403:

    Research into the mechanisms of can

  • Page 2404 and 2405:

    used for advanced adrenocortical ca

  • Page 2406 and 2407:

    where indicated) altretamine (Hexal

  • Page 2408 and 2409:

    panobinostat (Farydak) PO: 20 mg on

  • Page 2410 and 2411:

    Obtain an immunization history, esp

  • Page 2412 and 2413:

    IMPLEMENTATION Interventions and (R

  • Page 2414 and 2415:

    amounts. Encourage small, highcalor

  • Page 2416 and 2417:

    or developmental delays.) is an eff

  • Page 2418 and 2419:

    cells.) oral hygiene and rinse the

  • Page 2420 and 2421:

    effectiveness of the drugs.) drugs

  • Page 2422 and 2423:

    38.6 Use of multiple drugs and spec

  • Page 2424 and 2425:

    2. Administer an antiemetic by intr

  • Page 2426 and 2427:

    it has on his work. He also admits

  • Page 2428 and 2429:

    31-32. doi:10.1188/13.CJON.31-32 Ch

  • Page 2430:

    Unit 6 The Respiratory System

  • Page 2433 and 2434:

    Chapter 39 Drugs for Allergic Rhini

  • Page 2435 and 2436:

    provides a means by which the body

  • Page 2437 and 2438:

    activation has the opposite effect:

  • Page 2439 and 2440:

    Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis

  • Page 2441 and 2442:

    environment. These periods are typi

  • Page 2443 and 2444:

    H -Receptor Antagonists 1 (Antihist

  • Page 2445 and 2446:

    FIRST-GENERATION DRUGS brompheniram

  • Page 2447 and 2448:

    olopatadine (Patanase, Patanol) Int

  • Page 2449 and 2450:

    antihistamines, because their sedat

  • Page 2451 and 2452:

    Diphenhydramine is a first-generati

  • Page 2453 and 2454:

    condition responds well to H -recep

  • Page 2455 and 2456:

    a mild vasoconstriction. They are a

  • Page 2457 and 2458:

    corticosteroids are most effective

  • Page 2459 and 2460:

    and worsening nasal congestion once

  • Page 2461 and 2462:

    viral, fungal, or parasitic infecti

  • Page 2463 and 2464:

    (Afrin, others) Therapeutic Class:

  • Page 2465 and 2466:

    When administered orally, sympathom

  • Page 2467 and 2468:

    Common Cold The common cold is a vi

  • Page 2469 and 2470:

    (Delsym, Robitussin DM, others) q6-

  • Page 2471 and 2472:

    the CNS to raise the cough threshol

  • Page 2473 and 2474:

    common cold. Although the use of an

  • Page 2475 and 2476:

    secretions, such as in asthma, smok

  • Page 2477 and 2478:

    Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst) is one of

  • Page 2479 and 2480:

    Implementation Interventions and (R

  • Page 2481 and 2482:

    moisten the upper respiratory tract

  • Page 2483 and 2484:

    Implementation Interventions and (R

  • Page 2485 and 2486:

    y blowing, followed by the nasal sp

  • Page 2487 and 2488:

    39.5 The most commonly used deconge

  • Page 2489 and 2490:

    1. Use the fluticasone first, then

  • Page 2491 and 2492:

    References De Sutter, A. I., van Dr

  • Page 2493 and 2494:

    1754.2010.01779.x U.S. Food and Dru

  • Page 2495 and 2496:

    Mast Cell Stabilizers page 667 Mono

  • Page 2497 and 2498:

    The Lower Respiratory System 40.1 P

  • Page 2499 and 2500:

    40.2 Bronchiolar Smooth Muscle Bron

  • Page 2501 and 2502:

    and even death. In general, however

  • Page 2503 and 2504:

    Asthma Asthma is a chronic pulmonar

  • Page 2505 and 2506:

    Approximately 8% of adults and 9.3%

  • Page 2507 and 2508:

    onchoconstriction narrows the airwa

  • Page 2509 and 2510:

    corticosteroids. Long-acting beta -

  • Page 2511 and 2512:

    Bronchodialators for Treating Asthm

  • Page 2513 and 2514:

    BETA-ADRENERGIC AGONISTS albuterol

  • Page 2515 and 2516:

    METHYLXANTHINES aminophylline theop

  • Page 2517 and 2518:

    Actions and Uses Albuterol is a SAB

  • Page 2519 and 2520:

    hypokalemia, and hyperglycemia. In

  • Page 2521 and 2522:

    (Atrovent) Therapeutic Class: Bronc

  • Page 2523 and 2524:

    Drug-Drug: Use with other drugs in

  • Page 2525 and 2526:

    Refer to the Nursing Practice Appli

  • Page 2527 and 2528:

    flunisolide (AeroSpan) fluticasone

  • Page 2529 and 2530:

    onchodilator and should not be used

  • Page 2531 and 2532:

    Corticosteroids, also known as gluc

  • Page 2533 and 2534:

    Pharmacokinetics Onset Peak Duratio

  • Page 2535 and 2536:

    The leukotriene modifiers are secon

  • Page 2537 and 2538:

    nedocromil are pregnancy category B

  • Page 2539 and 2540:

    appropriate use than does a younger

  • Page 2541 and 2542:

    emphysema is sometimes unclear, bec

  • Page 2543 and 2544:

    to seasons, foods, or environmental

  • Page 2545 and 2546:

    Safety: Advise the patient to carry

  • Page 2547 and 2548:

    Monitor eating and sleep patterns a

  • Page 2549 and 2550:

    Monitor for anticholinergic adverse

  • Page 2552 and 2553:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 2554 and 2555:

    1. A patient is receiving treatment

  • Page 2556 and 2557:

    3. The drug has not had sufficient

  • Page 2558 and 2559:

    Lareau, S. C., & Hodder, R. (2012).

  • Page 2560 and 2561:

    7-18. doi:10.2147/NRR.S54396 Nation

  • Page 2563 and 2564:

    The Gastrointestinal System Chapter

  • Page 2565 and 2566:

    Learning Outcomes After reading thi

  • Page 2567 and 2568:

    The Digestive System 41.1 Normal Di

  • Page 2569 and 2570:

    GERD at some point during their lif

  • Page 2572 and 2573:

    Figure 41.1 The digestive system So

  • Page 2574 and 2575:

    Figure 41.2 Natural defenses agains

  • Page 2576 and 2577:

    women over age 60. NSAID-related ul

  • Page 2578 and 2579:

    Drugs for Treating Peptic Ulcer Dis

  • Page 2580 and 2581:

    41.6 Pharmacotherapy With Proton Pu

  • Page 2583 and 2584:

    continue for 3 to 5 days after the

  • Page 2585 and 2586:

    Adverse Effects Adverse effects are

  • Page 2587 and 2588:

    famotidine (Pepcid) nizatidine (Axi

  • Page 2589 and 2590:

    are possible; thus, periodic blood

  • Page 2591 and 2592:

    Antacids are alkaline substances th

  • Page 2593 and 2594:

    neutralizing stomach acid. Chewable

  • Page 2595 and 2596:

    Prototype Drug Aluminum Hydroxide (

  • Page 2597 and 2598:

    Treatment of Overdose: There is no

  • Page 2599 and 2600:

    Omeprazole (or other PPI), clarithr

  • Page 2601 and 2602:

    loody vomiting, or blood in stool o

  • Page 2603 and 2604:

    Monitor for any severe abdominal pa

  • Page 2605 and 2606:

    Instruct the patient to consult the

  • Page 2607 and 2608:

    Patient self-administration of drug

  • Page 2609 and 2610:

    Lifespan Considerations: Pediatric

  • Page 2611 and 2612:

    herb is sometimes standardized acco

  • Page 2613 and 2614:

    y H. pylori, provide relief from sy

  • Page 2615 and 2616:

    3. Pantoprazole (Protonix) 4. Calci

  • Page 2617 and 2618:

    References Bartels, E. M., Folmer,

  • Page 2619 and 2620:

    O’Keefe, S. J. D. (2010). Tube fe

  • Page 2621 and 2622:

    pancrelipase (Creon, Pancreaze, oth

  • Page 2623 and 2624:

    The Lower Digestive Tract 42.1 Norm

  • Page 2625 and 2626:

    Figure 42.1 The digestive system: f

  • Page 2627 and 2628:

    Constipation Constipation may be de

  • Page 2629 and 2630:

    42.3 Pharmacotherapy With Laxatives

  • Page 2631 and 2632:

    sodium biphosphate (Fleet Phospho-S

  • Page 2633 and 2634:

    preferred drugs for the treatment a

  • Page 2635 and 2636:

    Psyllium is a safe laxative that ra

  • Page 2637 and 2638:

    Diarrhea When the large intestine d

  • Page 2639 and 2640:

    ecent travels, dietary habits, immu

  • Page 2641 and 2642:

    acidophilus units (CFUs) daily Alle

  • Page 2643 and 2644:

    Interactions Drug-Drug: Diphenoxyla

  • Page 2645 and 2646:

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable

  • Page 2647 and 2648:

    Sauk, Shrime, Gupta, and Ananthakri

  • Page 2649 and 2650:

    Drugs that provide symptomatic reli

  • Page 2651 and 2652:

    lubiprostone (Amitiza) Chronic idio

  • Page 2653 and 2654:

    42.7 Pharmacotherapy of Inflammator

  • Page 2655 and 2656:

    Contraindications: Sulfasalazine is

  • Page 2657 and 2658:

    If corticosteroid therapy fails to

  • Page 2659 and 2660:

    elimination, normal stool consisten

  • Page 2661 and 2662:

    Continue to monitor abdominal asses

  • Page 2663 and 2664:

    caregiver in the proper selfadminis

  • Page 2665 and 2666:

    infections, food poisoning, nervous

  • Page 2667 and 2668:

    prescription medications. Patients

  • Page 2669 and 2670:

    scopolamine (Hyoscine, Transderm-Sc

  • Page 2671 and 2672:

    dolasetron (Anzemet) PO: 100 mg 1 h

  • Page 2673 and 2674:

    Pharmacokinetics Onset Peak Duratio

  • Page 2675 and 2676:

    Corticosteroids Dexamethasone (Deca

  • Page 2677 and 2678:

    able to tolerate fluids and increas

  • Page 2679 and 2680:

    Teach the patient on at-home chemot

  • Page 2681 and 2682:

    any antiemetic drug for morning sic

  • Page 2683 and 2684:

    Pancreatitis The pancreas secretes

  • Page 2685 and 2686:

    Contraindications: Pancrelipase is

  • Page 2687 and 2688:

    Drugs prescribed for the treatment

  • Page 2689 and 2690:

    effective drugs for controlling sev

  • Page 2691 and 2692:

    4. Take an antidiarrheal drug such

  • Page 2693 and 2694:

    See appendix C for answers and rati

  • Page 2695 and 2696:

    Clinical Infectious Diseases, 58, 1

  • Page 2697 and 2698:

    Wallace, J. L., & Sharkey, K. A. (2

  • Page 2699 and 2700:

    Parenteral Nutrition page 727 DRUGS

  • Page 2701 and 2702:

    Vitamins Vitamins are essential sub

  • Page 2703 and 2704:

    the liver and recycled through ente

  • Page 2705 and 2706:

    cells food source; pancreatic disea

  • Page 2707 and 2708:

    cephalosporins and salicylates Note

  • Page 2709 and 2710:

    Certain drugs have the potential to

  • Page 2711 and 2712:

    Vitamin E consists of about eight c

  • Page 2713 and 2714:

    during periods of increased need su

  • Page 2715 and 2716:

    D and Disease Risk Vitamin D defici

  • Page 2717 and 2718:

    carries a black box warning that an

  • Page 2719 and 2720:

    vitamin B : riboflavin PO: 5-10 mg/

  • Page 2721 and 2722:

    with B deficiency. Administration o

  • Page 2723 and 2724:

    Vitamin B , or pyridoxine, consists

  • Page 2725 and 2726:

    Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is the

  • Page 2727 and 2728:

    most patients. As with vitamins, pa

  • Page 2729 and 2730:

    calcium acetate (PhosLo) calcium ca

  • Page 2731 and 2732:

    muscle weakness, confusion ZINC zin

  • Page 2733 and 2734:

    Premenopausal women: 18 mg Pregnant

  • Page 2735 and 2736:

    Assess for and promptly report adve

  • Page 2737 and 2738:

    Lifespan: Assess for pregnancy. Ass

  • Page 2739 and 2740:

    in bone structure, phosphorus is a

  • Page 2741 and 2742:

    thyroid function. Lugol’s solutio

  • Page 2743 and 2744:

    Adverse Effects Patients who are re

  • Page 2745 and 2746:

    deficiency states at doses of 60 to

  • Page 2747 and 2748:

    Eating disorders GI disorders Chron

  • Page 2749 and 2750:

    gastroenterologist. Feedings may be

  • Page 2751 and 2752:

    acute care, long-term care, and hom

  • Page 2753 and 2754:

    Lifestyle choices play a key role i

  • Page 2755 and 2756:

    intake will maintain normal salivat

  • Page 2757 and 2758:

    Monitor blood glucose levels. Obser

  • Page 2759 and 2760:

    efore any feeding is initiated. Con

  • Page 2761 and 2762:

    when to report; and the anticipated

  • Page 2763 and 2764:

    Drugs for Obesity Despite the publi

  • Page 2765 and 2766:

    Onset Peak Duration 24-48 h Unknown

  • Page 2767 and 2768:

    Lipase inhibitors are drugs such as

  • Page 2769 and 2770:

    activating receptors for glucagon-l

  • Page 2771 and 2772:

    43.5 Deficiencies of vitamins A, D,

  • Page 2773 and 2774:

    4. A patient who has taken an overd

  • Page 2775 and 2776:

    3. Create a list of potential compl

  • Page 2777 and 2778:

    Schodin, B. A. (2014). Vitamin D te

  • Page 2779 and 2780:

    Dibb, M., Teubner, A., Theis, V., S

  • Page 2781:

    Unit 8 The Endocrine System

  • Page 2784 and 2785:

    Chapter 44 Drugs for Pituitary, Thy

  • Page 2786 and 2787:

    10. For each of the classes listed

  • Page 2788:

    feedback. A hormone causes an actio

  • Page 2791 and 2792:

    of thyroid hormone after the thyroi

  • Page 2793 and 2794:

    ody. Selected endocrine disorders a

  • Page 2795 and 2796:

    The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Glan

  • Page 2798 and 2799:

    Figure 44.2 Hormones associated wit

  • Page 2800 and 2801:

    desmopressin (DDAVP, Stimate) IV/su

  • Page 2802 and 2803:

    Some of these hormones can be obtai

  • Page 2804 and 2805:

    to be beneficial to the psychologic

  • Page 2806 and 2807:

    e administered three to four times

  • Page 2808 and 2809:

    Actions and Uses Desmopressin is a

  • Page 2810 and 2811:

    action can occur with lithium, alco

  • Page 2812 and 2813:

    IMPLEMENTATION Interventions and (R

  • Page 2814 and 2815:

    to ADH treatment may lead to increa

  • Page 2816 and 2817:

    spray before using but rotate gentl

  • Page 2818:

    Thyroid Drugs Thyroid disorders are

  • Page 2821 and 2822:

    PharmFacts Thyroid Disorders Hypoth

  • Page 2823 and 2824:

    thyroid, desiccated (Armour Thyroid

  • Page 2825 and 2826:

    24 h PO, 6-8 h IV 3-4 wk 1-3 wk Adv

  • Page 2827 and 2828:

    the impact of soy formula and soy m

  • Page 2829 and 2830:

    it destroys follicular cells. The g

  • Page 2831 and 2832:

    usually administered several times

  • Page 2833 and 2834:

    Baseline assessment prior to admini

  • Page 2835 and 2836:

    Monitor diet for iodine-containing

  • Page 2837 and 2838:

    Ensure patient and caregiver safety

  • Page 2839 and 2840:

    Gonadocorticoids The gonadocorticoi

  • Page 2841 and 2842:

    hormone (ACTH). ACTH then travels t

  • Page 2843 and 2844:

    Adrenal Drugs Corticosteroids The c

  • Page 2845 and 2846:

    LONG ACTING betamethasone (Celeston

  • Page 2847 and 2848:

    achieve the same physiological leve

  • Page 2850 and 2851:

    Skin disorders, including contact d

  • Page 2852 and 2853:

    1-2 h PO; 20 min IM 1 h PO; 4-8 h I

  • Page 2854 and 2855:

    Give the drugs locally by inhalatio

  • Page 2856 and 2857:

    hypersecretion is an adrenal tumor

  • Page 2858 and 2859:

    Evaluate appropriate laboratory fin

  • Page 2860 and 2861:

    palpitations, or increased blood pr

  • Page 2862 and 2863:

    carbonated sodas has been linked to

  • Page 2864 and 2865:

    (Adrenal insufficiency and crisis m

  • Page 2866 and 2867:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 2868 and 2869:

    Review Questions 1. A nurse is prep

  • Page 2870 and 2871:

    2. The drug must be given regularly

  • Page 2872 and 2873:

    Adler, G. K. (2014). Cushing syndro

  • Page 2874 and 2875:

    Marieb, E. N., & Hoehn, K. (2013).

  • Page 2876 and 2877:

    1. Explain how blood glucose levels

  • Page 2878 and 2879:

    Following a meal, the pancreas reco

  • Page 2880 and 2881:

    sedentary and stressful lifestyles,

  • Page 2882 and 2883:

    Figure 45.2 Glucose metabolism duri

  • Page 2884 and 2885:

    not require fasting, and it provide

  • Page 2886 and 2887:

    Of the 29 million Americans who hav

  • Page 2888 and 2889:

    long-acting insulin may be taken da

  • Page 2890 and 2891:

    necessary. Most pumps contain an al

  • Page 2892 and 2893:

    Human regular insulin is used to he

  • Page 2894 and 2895:

    Drug-Drug: The following substances

  • Page 2896 and 2897:

    initiating treatment, rapid- or sho

  • Page 2898 and 2899:

    hyper- and hypoglycemia to observe

  • Page 2900 and 2901:

    Minimizing adverse effects: Continu

  • Page 2902 and 2903:

    patient to notify the health care p

  • Page 2904 and 2905:

    effects to observe for and when to

  • Page 2906 and 2907:

    injection, but do not massage. Prop

  • Page 2908 and 2909:

    disorder characterized by insuffici

  • Page 2910 and 2911:

    Treating the Diverse Patient: Diabe

  • Page 2912 and 2913:

    INCRETIN ENHANCERS (GLP-1 AGONISTS)

  • Page 2914 and 2915:

    glyburide micronized (Glynase) THIA

  • Page 2916 and 2917:

    drug for type 2 diabetes, choice of

  • Page 2918 and 2919:

    Avandaryl rosiglitazone/glimepiride

  • Page 2920 and 2921:

    that it does not cause hypoglycemia

  • Page 2922 and 2923:

    Interactions Drug-Drug: Alcohol inc

  • Page 2924 and 2925:

    sucrose. Concurrent use of garlic a

  • Page 2926 and 2927:

    secretion of insulin, slowing the a

  • Page 2928 and 2929:

    Refer to the Nursing Practice Appli

  • Page 2930 and 2931:

    Monitor for hypersensitivity and al

  • Page 2932 and 2933:

    produce some insulin, insulin injec

  • Page 2934 and 2935:

    treated by combining two drugs from

  • Page 2936 and 2937:

    4. Contact the health care provider

  • Page 2938 and 2939:

    States. Handelsman from the Bibliog

  • Page 2940 and 2941:

    Association and the European Associ

  • Page 2942 and 2943:

    Drugs For Dysfunctional Uterine Ble

  • Page 2944 and 2945:

    every body system including effects

  • Page 2946 and 2947:

    age 40, and 5 of 100 women will con

  • Page 2948:

    endometrium becomes vascular and th

  • Page 2951:

    Hormonal Contraceptives Hormonal co

  • Page 2954 and 2955:

    Figure 46.3 An oral contraceptive s

  • Page 2956 and 2957:

    Yasmin ethinyl estradiol: 30 mcg dr

  • Page 2958 and 2959:

    events, and they have no effect on

  • Page 2960 and 2961:

    irregularities of progestin. The do

  • Page 2962 and 2963:

    The incidence of cancer in women ta

  • Page 2964 and 2965:

    Black Box Warning: Cigarette smokin

  • Page 2966 and 2967:

    thromboembolic disorders. These med

  • Page 2968 and 2969:

    Interventions and (Rationales) Pati

  • Page 2970 and 2971:

    Monitor hepatic function tests and

  • Page 2972 and 2973:

    teaching.) package insert specific

  • Page 2974 and 2975:

    Plan B is approved for purchase OTC

  • Page 2976 and 2977:

    dinoprostone (Prostin E ) 2 Intrava

  • Page 2978 and 2979:

    prostaglandins. Other uses of prost

  • Page 2980 and 2981:

    when it became clear that the poten

  • Page 2982 and 2983:

    palliation of inoperable metastatic

  • Page 2984 and 2985:

    Women who are taking estrogen alone

  • Page 2986 and 2987:

    Uterine Abnormalities Dysfunctional

  • Page 2988 and 2989:

    (Beer et al., 2013). Adverse effect

  • Page 2990 and 2991:

    female hypogonadism and use after o

  • Page 2992 and 2993:

    Drug-Drug: Drug interactions includ

  • Page 2994 and 2995:

    progesterone (Crinone, Endometrin,

  • Page 2996 and 2997:

    Labor and Breast-Feeding Several dr

  • Page 2998 and 2999:

    (Hemabate) 1/2-3 1/2-h intervals if

  • Page 3000 and 3001:

    It is important to note that oxytoc

  • Page 3002 and 3003:

    Actions and Uses Oxytocin (Pitocin)

  • Page 3004 and 3005:

    invasive cervical carcinoma, active

  • Page 3006 and 3007:

    Female Infertility Infertility is t

  • Page 3008 and 3009:

    contraction, diminished urine outpu

  • Page 3010 and 3011:

    less than 90/60 mmHg, especially if

  • Page 3012 and 3013:

    FSH AND LH ENHANCING DRUGS chorioni

  • Page 3014 and 3015:

    such as ganirelix and cetrorelix (C

  • Page 3016 and 3017:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 3018 and 3019:

    4. A 24-year-old who smokes one pac

  • Page 3020 and 3021:

    4. The patient’s past history of

  • Page 3022 and 3023:

    ecommendations for ​clinicians. C

  • Page 3024 and 3025:

    menopausal hormone therapy. Climact

  • Page 3026 and 3027:

    Chapter 47 Drugs for Disorders and

  • Page 3028 and 3029:

    Because hormonal secretion in men i

  • Page 3030 and 3031:

    late adulthood, after which it slow

  • Page 3032 and 3033:

    Figure 47.1 Hormonal control of the

  • Page 3034 and 3035:

    Pharmacotherapy of hypogonadism inc

  • Page 3036 and 3037:

    testosterone cypionate (Depo- Testo

  • Page 3038 and 3039:

    Transdermal AndroGel, The drug is a

  • Page 3040 and 3041:

    The goal of endocrine pharmacothera

  • Page 3042 and 3043:

    Pregnancy category X. Pharmacokinet

  • Page 3044 and 3045:

    Erectile Dysfunction Erectile dysfu

  • Page 3046 and 3047:

    Monitor vital signs, height, and we

  • Page 3048 and 3049:

    may occur, along with resulting adv

  • Page 3050 and 3051:

    Most health care providers are fami

  • Page 3052 and 3053:

    Psychogenic causes may include depr

  • Page 3054 and 3055:

    lasting longer than 6 hours, has be

  • Page 3056 and 3057:

    Three other PDE-5 inhibitors have b

  • Page 3058:

    Complementary and Alternative Thera

  • Page 3061 and 3062:

    The goal of treatment for patients

  • Page 3063 and 3064:

    finasteride (Proscar) PO: 5 mg once

  • Page 3065 and 3066:

    metabolites, 5-alpha dihydrotestost

  • Page 3067 and 3068:

    Herbal/Food: Saw palmetto may poten

  • Page 3069 and 3070:

    Assess for desired therapeutic effe

  • Page 3071 and 3072:

    Give the first dose of any alphaadr

  • Page 3073 and 3074:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 3075 and 3076:

    1. It should always result in a pen

  • Page 3077 and 3078:

    1. A 78-year-old widower has come t

  • Page 3079 and 3080:

    Kemp, S. (2014) Hypogonadism. Retri

  • Page 3081:

    Unit 9 The Integumentary System, Ey

  • Page 3084 and 3085:

    Chapter 48 Drugs for Bone and Joint

  • Page 3086 and 3087:

    7. For each of the drug classes lis

  • Page 3088 and 3089:

    Figure 48.1

  • Page 3090:

    obtained from dietary products such

  • Page 3093 and 3094:

    48.2 Pharmacotherapy of Hypocalcemi

  • Page 3095 and 3096:

    may occur. Acute hypercalcemia can

  • Page 3097 and 3098:

    supplements. Increasing the consump

  • Page 3099 and 3100:

    Metabolic Bone diseases 48.3 Pathop

  • Page 3101 and 3102:

    calcium carbonate (Rolaids, Tums, o

  • Page 3103 and 3104:

    the bone cells that resorb bone. Wh

  • Page 3105 and 3106:

    Calcium metabolism in osteoporosis:

  • Page 3107 and 3108:

    Treatment of Overdose: Vitamin D ov

  • Page 3109 and 3110:

    indicated) BISPHOSPHONATES alendron

  • Page 3111 and 3112:

    denosumab (Prolia, Xgeva) Subcutane

  • Page 3113 and 3114:

    Prototype Drug Alendronate (Fosamax

  • Page 3115 and 3116:

    patients with renal impairment, hea

  • Page 3117 and 3118:

    Actions and Uses Raloxifene is a SE

  • Page 3119 and 3120:

    eceiving concurrent treatment with

  • Page 3121 and 3122:

    Obtain a history of any current sym

  • Page 3123 and 3124:

    consumption may diminish the absorp

  • Page 3125 and 3126:

    Monitor the use of vitamin D. Exces

  • Page 3127 and 3128:

    apply. decrease bone resorption; th

  • Page 3129 and 3130:

    e given daily by the subcutaneous r

  • Page 3131 and 3132:

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressiv

  • Page 3133 and 3134:

    destruction of the synovial membran

  • Page 3135 and 3136:

    and neuromuscular functioning, incr

  • Page 3137 and 3138:

    Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid art

  • Page 3139 and 3140:

    monthly IV: 3 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2,

  • Page 3141 and 3142:

    ox) oligospermia Note: Italics indi

  • Page 3143 and 3144:

    Administration Alerts Take at the s

  • Page 3145 and 3146:

    48.7 Pharmacotherapy of Gout Gout i

  • Page 3147 and 3148:

    Treatment of Chronic Gout and Proph

  • Page 3149 and 3150:

    Interactions Drug-Drug: Alcohol may

  • Page 3151 and 3152:

    therapy. Approved in 2010, peglotic

  • Page 3153 and 3154:

    400 mg bid Blood dyscrasias, nephro

  • Page 3155 and 3156:

    to limit or eliminate alcohol consu

  • Page 3157 and 3158:

    Patient understanding of drug thera

  • Page 3159 and 3160:

    48.5 For osteoarthritis, the main d

  • Page 3161 and 3162:

    4. It prevents the formation of uri

  • Page 3163 and 3164:

    References Araujo, A. B., Yang, M.,

  • Page 3165 and 3166:

    Bethel, M. (2015). Osteoporosis. Re

  • Page 3167 and 3168:

    Chapter 49 Drugs for Skin Disorders

  • Page 3169 and 3170:

    6. For each of the classes listed i

  • Page 3171 and 3172:

    The deepest epidermal sublayer, the

  • Page 3173 and 3174:

    The middle layer of the skin is the

  • Page 3175 and 3176:

    Fungal infections: ringworm, athlet

  • Page 3177:

    Skin Infections Normal skin is popu

  • Page 3180 and 3181:

    Bacitracin ointment Erythromycin oi

  • Page 3182 and 3183:

    Skin Parasites Common skin parasite

  • Page 3184 and 3185:

    Onset Peak Duration 10 min Unknown

  • Page 3186 and 3187:

    Permethrin is also a preferred drug

  • Page 3188 and 3189:

    IMPLEMENTATION Interventions and (R

  • Page 3190 and 3191:

    When administering the medication,

  • Page 3192 and 3193:

    Table 49.2 Drugs for Acne and Rosac

  • Page 3194 and 3195:

    depends on the extent and severity

  • Page 3196 and 3197:

    Actions and Uses Tretinoin is a nat

  • Page 3198 and 3199:

    drug is ​contraindicated during l

  • Page 3200 and 3201:

    soft tissues of the nose may thicke

  • Page 3202 and 3203:

    Assessment Potential Nursing Diagno

  • Page 3204 and 3205:

    depression, or expressed suicidal t

  • Page 3206 and 3207:

    donate blood while on the drug. Pat

  • Page 3208 and 3209:

    Dermatitis Dermatitis is a general

  • Page 3210 and 3211:

    Figure 49.3 Inflamed skin and blist

  • Page 3212 and 3213:

    amcinonide Cyclocort fluocinonide L

  • Page 3214 and 3215:

    of skin cancer and lymphoma. They a

  • Page 3216 and 3217:

    These plaques shed the scales, whic

  • Page 3218 and 3219:

    psoriasis resolve spontaneously a f

  • Page 3220 and 3221:

    Paresthesia, rigors, arthralgia, sk

  • Page 3222 and 3223:

    * See Table 49.3 for topical cortic

  • Page 3224 and 3225:

    e used for severe conditions when o

  • Page 3226 and 3227:

    elatively few adverse effects (Denn

  • Page 3228 and 3229:

    Sunburn and Minor Burns Burns are a

  • Page 3230 and 3231:

    Chapter Review Key Concepts The num

  • Page 3232 and 3233:

    3. Worsening of acne 4. Burning and

  • Page 3234 and 3235:

    3. She must increase intake of vita

  • Page 3236 and 3237:

    efficacy. Journal of Dermatological

  • Page 3238 and 3239:

    American Academy of Dermatology. (n

  • Page 3240 and 3241:

    Chapter 50 Drugs for Eye and Ear Di

  • Page 3242 and 3243:

    The senses of vision and hearing pr

  • Page 3244 and 3245:

    contains an opening called the scle

  • Page 3246 and 3247:

    Internal structures of the eye Figu

  • Page 3248 and 3249:

    Glaucoma Glaucoma is an eye disease

  • Page 3250 and 3251:

    is higher in older adults and in pe

  • Page 3252 and 3253:

    Once pharmacotherapy is initiated,

  • Page 3254 and 3255:

    imatoprost (Lumigan) latanoprost (X

  • Page 3256 and 3257:

    Carpine, Pilopine) Chronic glaucoma

  • Page 3258 and 3259:

    the affected eye(s) in the evening.

  • Page 3260 and 3261:

    the production of aqueous humor by

  • Page 3262 and 3263:

    dorzolamide, a carbonic anhydrase i

  • Page 3264 and 3265:

    act by decreasing the production of

  • Page 3266 and 3267:

    Assess for adverse effects: conjunc

  • Page 3268 and 3269:

    Provide for eye comfort such as an

  • Page 3270 and 3271:

    Mydriatics cause intense photophobi

  • Page 3272 and 3273:

    atropine (Isopto Atropine, others)

  • Page 3274 and 3275:

    animals (Miyake et al., 2012). Bilb

  • Page 3276 and 3277:

    Samek, and Lévesque (2014) found t

  • Page 3278 and 3279:

    50.6 Pharmacotherapy With Otic Medi

  • Page 3280 and 3281:

    Note: Italics indicate common adver

  • Page 3282 and 3283:

    50.4 Drug classes for glaucoma incl

  • Page 3284 and 3285:

    for which of the following medical

  • Page 3286 and 3287:

    ends her head back, opens her eyes,

  • Page 3288 and 3289:

    Rhee, D. J. (2014). Drug-induced gl

  • Page 3290 and 3291:

    AD, AS, AU Right ear, left ear, Mis

  • Page 3292 and 3293:

    q6PM, etc. Every evening at 6 PM Mi

  • Page 3294 and 3295:

    such as mg. or unnecessary and coul

  • Page 3296 and 3297:

    hydrochlorothiazide drug name HCTZ

  • Page 3298 and 3299:

    mistaken as “40” / (slash mark)

  • Page 3300 and 3301:

    adrenergic agonists, IV (e.g., EPIN

  • Page 3302 and 3303:

    opium tincture oxytocin, IV nitropr

  • Page 3304 and 3305:

    Appendix C Calculating Dosages 1. C

  • Page 3306 and 3307:

    The patient should receive 900 mg o

  • Page 3308 and 3309:

    Appendix D NANDA-Approved Nursing D

  • Page 3310 and 3311:

    Comfort, Impaired Comfort, Readines

  • Page 3312 and 3313:

    Family Processes, Interrupted Famil

  • Page 3314 and 3315:

    Injury, Risk for Insomnia Jaundice,

  • Page 3316 and 3317:

    Personal Identity: Disturbed, Risk

  • Page 3318 and 3319:

    Shock, Risk for Sitting, Impaired S

  • Page 3320 and 3321:

    Urinary Incontinence, Urge Urinary

  • Page 3322 and 3323:

    Note: Page numbers followed by f in

  • Page 3324 and 3325:

    abuse of drugs, 16-18, 17t acai, 10

  • Page 3326 and 3327:

    Aclovate. See alclometasone dipropi

  • Page 3328 and 3329:

    adenosine diphosphate (ADP) recepto

  • Page 3330 and 3331:

    affinity, defined, 41 Affordable Ca

  • Page 3332 and 3333:

    sodium regulation, 363, 364f alefac

  • Page 3334 and 3335:

    nerve transmission, 147-49, 147t, 1

  • Page 3336 and 3337:

    Amidate. See etomidate amides, 265-

  • Page 3338 and 3339:

    abuse by athletes, 811t adverse eff

  • Page 3340 and 3341:

    Anestacon. See lidocaine anesthesia

  • Page 3342 and 3343:

    pharmacotherapy with iron, 493-94,

  • Page 3344 and 3345:

    as immunosuppressants, 528 antichol

  • Page 3346 and 3347:

    endocrine disorders, 740t fluid bal

  • Page 3348 and 3349:

    for anxiety and insomnia, 176 commo

  • Page 3350 and 3351:

    asparaginase, 631, 632t belinostat,

  • Page 3352 and 3353:

    for general anesthesia, 271, 271t N

  • Page 3354 and 3355:

    ANTITUSSIVES adverse effects, 649t.

  • Page 3356 and 3357:

    Aqua MEPHYTON. See vitamin K Aquaso

  • Page 3358 and 3359:

    as antiplatelet agent, 468, 469t, 4

  • Page 3360 and 3361:

    as general anesthesia adjuncts, 276

  • Page 3362 and 3363:

    Avastin. See bevacizumab Aveed. See

  • Page 3364 and 3365:

    B B cells, immune response, 517, 51

  • Page 3366 and 3367:

    elatacept, 528, 529t Beleodaq. See

  • Page 3368 and 3369:

    BETA-ADRENERGIC AGONISTS (SYMPATHOM

  • Page 3370 and 3371:

    ile, excretion of medications, 44-4

  • Page 3372 and 3373:

    as fluid replacement agent, 432f, 4

  • Page 3374 and 3375:

    Brintellix. See vortioxetine brinzo

  • Page 3376 and 3377:

    for anxiety and insomnia, 172, 174t

  • Page 3378 and 3379:

    functions of, 722t, 724 hypo- and h

  • Page 3380 and 3381:

    Nursing Practice Application, 632-3

  • Page 3382 and 3383:

    carbozantinib, 630t carcinoma, 613,

  • Page 3384 and 3385:

    overdose of, 151 catecholamin-O-met

  • Page 3386 and 3387:

    Center for Food Safety and Applied

  • Page 3388 and 3389:

    chemotherapy. See also ANTINEOPLAST

  • Page 3390 and 3391:

    for glaucoma, 869t, 870 mechanism o

  • Page 3392 and 3393:

    Claforan. See cefotaxime Clarinex.

  • Page 3394 and 3395:

    clozapine cardiometabolic disease a

  • Page 3396 and 3397:

    colony stimulating factors, 482, 48

  • Page 3398 and 3399:

    adverse effects, 786-88, 787t, 791t

  • Page 3400 and 3401:

    pharmacology with, 753-57, 754, 755

  • Page 3402 and 3403:

    culture, defined, 96-98 culture and

  • Page 3404 and 3405:

    Cytoxan. See cyclophosphamide

  • Page 3406 and 3407:

    darbepoetin alfa for hematopoietic

  • Page 3408 and 3409:

    depolarization, membrane potential,

  • Page 3410 and 3411:

    dextroamphetamine, 215-17, 216t sub

  • Page 3412 and 3413:

    Dietary Supplement and Nonprescript

  • Page 3414 and 3415:

    for EPS symptoms, 283 for nausea an

  • Page 3416 and 3417:

    Division of Medication Error Preven

  • Page 3418 and 3419:

    doxorubicin, 623t, 624t doxorubicin

  • Page 3420 and 3421:

    Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), 17-1

  • Page 3422 and 3423:

    classification of, 444, 444t define

  • Page 3424 and 3425:

    genetic polymorphism and, 100t herb

  • Page 3426 and 3427:

    Nursing Practice Application, 669t,

  • Page 3428 and 3429:

    epilepsy defined, 181 EEG tracing,

  • Page 3430 and 3431:

    eribulin, 625-26, 625t Erivedge. Se

  • Page 3432 and 3433:

    for immunosuppression, 529t for pso

  • Page 3434 and 3435:

    extended-release (XR), 26 EXTENDED-

  • Page 3436 and 3437:

    FDA’s Critical Path Initiative, 1

  • Page 3438 and 3439:

    fesoterodine, 137t fetal period, 82

  • Page 3440 and 3441:

    Fluarix, 522t fluconazole, 571, 572

  • Page 3442 and 3443:

    Fluzone, 522t focal seizure, 183, 1

  • Page 3444 and 3445:

    Fosrenol. See lanthanum carbonate F

  • Page 3446 and 3447:

    garlic, 105t, 108t, 109t, 464t gase

  • Page 3448 and 3449:

    for ear infections, 875 for skin in

  • Page 3450 and 3451:

    Glyset. See miglitol goals, 65 Goec

  • Page 3452 and 3453:

    H + + H , K -ATPase, 680-81, 680t,

  • Page 3454 and 3455:

    health management, patient assessme

  • Page 3456 and 3457:

    adverse effects, 477t. See also spe

  • Page 3458 and 3459:

    drug classification and HAART, 592-

  • Page 3460 and 3461:

    indication for hormone pharmacother

  • Page 3462 and 3463:

    for ear infections, 875t for inflam

  • Page 3464 and 3465:

    hypnotics, 166-67. See also BARBITU

  • Page 3466 and 3467:

    Imbruvica. See ibrutinib Imdur. See

  • Page 3468 and 3469:

    defined, 528 mechanism of action, 5

  • Page 3470 and 3471:

    for immunosuppression, 528 for psor

  • Page 3472 and 3473:

    Institute for Safe Medication Pract

  • Page 3474 and 3475:

    Intermezzo. See zolpidem intermitte

  • Page 3476 and 3477:

    for nutritional and electrolyte dis

  • Page 3478 and 3479:

    J Janumet, 774t Januvia. See sitagl

  • Page 3480 and 3481:

    substance use disorder, 313 Ketek.

  • Page 3482 and 3483:

    L labetalol, 386t, 389 lacosamide,

  • Page 3484 and 3485:

    leishmaniasis, 579, 580t, 581t Lemt

  • Page 3486 and 3487:

    limbic system, 162-63, 163f linaclo

  • Page 3488 and 3489:

    lithium, 210-11t Livalo. See pitava

  • Page 3490 and 3491:

    Lotensin. See benazepril Lotensin H

  • Page 3492 and 3493:

    M Maalox Plus, 684t Macrobid. See n

  • Page 3494 and 3495:

    for glaucoma, 869t for renal failur

  • Page 3496 and 3497:

    MedWatch, 15 nurse’s role, 23t pa

  • Page 3498 and 3499:

    Merrem IV. See meropenem mesalamine

  • Page 3500 and 3501:

    for cancer, 621-22, 621t, 622t, 623

  • Page 3502 and 3503:

    for skin infections, 848 metyrapone

  • Page 3504 and 3505:

    minocycline, 546, 546t, 853 minoxid

  • Page 3506 and 3507:

    Monoket. See isosorbide mononitrate

  • Page 3508 and 3509:

    capsaicin (cayenne pepper), 303t ca

  • Page 3510 and 3511:

    angiotensin-converting enzyme inhib

  • Page 3512 and 3513:

    for pain, 244t, 249 for weight loss

  • Page 3514 and 3515:

    NebuPent. See pentamidine nedocromi

  • Page 3516 and 3517:

    adverse effects, 705t for nausea an

  • Page 3518 and 3519:

    Nimotop. See nimodipine nipah virus

  • Page 3520 and 3521:

    for conjunctivitis, 873 COX-2 selec

  • Page 3522 and 3523:

    Novolin R. See insulin regular Novo

  • Page 3524 and 3525:

    O obesity etiology of, 727, 730 pha

  • Page 3526 and 3527:

    for migraines, 255t, 256 for muscle

  • Page 3528 and 3529:

    adverse effects. See specific drugs

  • Page 3530 and 3531:

    calcitonin-salmon, 829t cinacalcet,

  • Page 3532 and 3533:

    P P-450 system, 42 Pacerone. See am

  • Page 3534 and 3535:

    parenteral nutrition, 726, 727, 728

  • Page 3536 and 3537:

    pediatric patients (continued) orop

  • Page 3538 and 3539:

    pathophysiology, 678-79, 679f pharm

  • Page 3540 and 3541:

    loading and maintenance doses, 46-4

  • Page 3542 and 3543:

    for seizures, 188-90, 188t, 192t ph

  • Page 3544 and 3545:

    plasma concentration and therapeuti

  • Page 3546 and 3547:

    posaconazole, 571, 573t positive sy

  • Page 3548 and 3549:

    prednisolone, 507t, 754t prednisone

  • Page 3550 and 3551:

    Pro-Banthine. See propantheline pro

  • Page 3552 and 3553:

    PROSTAGLANDINS adverse effects, 797

  • Page 3554 and 3555:

    psychedelics, 319-20, 319f psychody

  • Page 3556 and 3557:

    R rabeprazole, 680t rabies immune g

  • Page 3558 and 3559:

    eleasing hormones, 740-41, 741f Rel

  • Page 3560 and 3561:

    eticular activating system (RAS), 1

  • Page 3562 and 3563:

    ivastigmine, 134t, 289t rizatriptan

  • Page 3564 and 3565:

    S Sabril. See vigabatrin Saccharomy

  • Page 3566 and 3567:

    seasonal affective disorder (SAD),

  • Page 3568 and 3569:

    Sensorcaine. See bupivacaine sensor

  • Page 3570 and 3571:

    short-term insomnia, 165 sibutramin

  • Page 3572 and 3573:

    pharmacotherapy, 849t, 850-51 skin

  • Page 3574 and 3575:

    somatization, 202 somatotropin, 742

  • Page 3576 and 3577:

    stable angina, 414 Stadol. See buto

  • Page 3578 and 3579:

    hallucinogens, 319-20, 319f inciden

  • Page 3580 and 3581:

    supplements. See also herbal therap

  • Page 3582 and 3583:

    T T cells, immune response, 517, 51

  • Page 3584 and 3585:

    Tegretol. See carbamazepine Tekamlo

  • Page 3586 and 3587:

    tetracycline, 546, 546t, 547t TETRA

  • Page 3588 and 3589:

    adverse effects, 474t. See also spe

  • Page 3590 and 3591:

    Tindamax. See tinidazole tinea capi

  • Page 3592 and 3593:

    cardiometabolic disease and, 226t f

  • Page 3594 and 3595:

    tremors, 282 Trental. See pentoxify

  • Page 3596 and 3597:

    Trivora-28, 786t troglitazone, 776

  • Page 3598 and 3599:

    U Uceris. See budesonide ulcer. See

  • Page 3600 and 3601:

    U.S. Pharmacopoeia (USP), 11-12f U.

  • Page 3602 and 3603:

    valproate adverse effects. See spec

  • Page 3604 and 3605:

    Velphoro. See sucroferric oxyhydrox

  • Page 3606 and 3607:

    virion, 589, 589f Viroptic. See tri

  • Page 3608 and 3609:

    pharmacotherapy with, 718t, 719 rec

  • Page 3610 and 3611:

    ecommended intake, 715t sources, 71

  • Page 3612 and 3613:

    X Xalatan. See latanoprost Xalkori.

  • Page 3614 and 3615:

    Z zafirlukast, 666-67 zaleplon, 172

  • Page 3616 and 3617:

    Zolinza. See vorinostat zolmitripta

  • Page 3618 and 3619:

    Special Features Community-Oriented

  • Page 3620 and 3621:

    Capsaicin for Neuropathic and Other

  • Page 3622 and 3623:

    Fecal Microbiota Transplant, p. 699

  • Page 3624 and 3625:

    Nursing Practice Application Entera

  • Page 3626 and 3627:

    Pharmacotherapy for Pain, p. 247 Ph

  • Page 3628 and 3629:

    Pharmacotherapy With Hormonal Contr

  • Page 3630 and 3631:

    Alzheimer’s Drugs Work by Intensi

  • Page 3632 and 3633:

    Replication of HIV, p. 591 Sites of

  • Page 3634 and 3635:

    Heart Failure, p. 396 Hematopoietic

  • Page 3636 and 3637:

    Acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), p.

  • Page 3638 and 3639:

    Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), p. 619

  • Page 3640 and 3641:

    Fluticasone (Flonase, Veramyst), p.

  • Page 3642 and 3643:

    Medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera,

  • Page 3644 and 3645:

    Physostigmine (Antilirium), p. 136

  • Page 3646 and 3647:

    Valproic Acid (Depakene), p. 192 Ve

  • Page 3648 and 3649:

    Answers

  • Page 3650 and 3651:

    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

  • Page 3652 and 3653:

    Chapter 2 Answers to Critical Think

  • Page 3654 and 3655:

    Chapter 3 Answers to Review Questio

  • Page 3656 and 3657:

    types of medications will alter the

  • Page 3658 and 3659:

    situations and should be given with

  • Page 3660 and 3661:

    may occur when one drug shifts anot

  • Page 3662 and 3663:

    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Chapter 5 Answers to Review Questio

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    disease conditions, or client popul

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    Chapter 6 Answers to Review Questio

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    affect the willingness to take medi

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    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Chapter 7 Answers to Review Questio

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    patient questions a change in medic

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    esponsible for not checking to see

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    Options 1, 2, and 4 are incorrect.

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    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Chapter 9 Answers to Review Questio

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    Analyzing. Nursing Process: Assessm

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    Chapter 10Answers to Chapter Review

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    5. Answer: 2, 4, 5 Rationale: Pregn

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    Chapter 11 Answer to Check Your Und

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    4. Answer: 3 Rationale: The antibio

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    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Chapter 12Answer to Check Your Unde

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    Cognitive Level: Analyzing; Client

  • Page 3702 and 3703:

    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Chapter 13 Answers to Check Your Un

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    3. Answer: 4 Rationale: Because bet

  • Page 3708 and 3709:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3710 and 3711:

    Chapter 14Answer to Check Your Unde

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    opioid (narcotic) drugs. Cognitive

  • Page 3714 and 3715:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3716 and 3717:

    Chapter 15Answer to Check Your Unde

  • Page 3718 and 3719:

    3. Answer: 4 Rationale: CNS depress

  • Page 3720 and 3721:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3722 and 3723:

    Chapter 16 Answers to Check Your Un

  • Page 3724 and 3725:

    Options 2, 3, and 4 are incorrect.

  • Page 3726 and 3727:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3728 and 3729:

    Chapter 17 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3730 and 3731:

    thought processes should be noted.

  • Page 3732 and 3733:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3734 and 3735:

    Chapter 18 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3736 and 3737:

    health care provider arrives. It is

  • Page 3738 and 3739:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3740 and 3741:

    Chapter 19 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3742 and 3743:

    not perceive pain differently; it i

  • Page 3744 and 3745:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3746 and 3747:

    Chapter 20 Answer to Check Your Und

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    e evaluated, and the dose of the dr

  • Page 3750 and 3751:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3752 and 3753:

    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Answers to Review Questions 1. Answ

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    may cause erratic blood pressure, i

  • Page 3758 and 3759:

    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Chapter 22 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3762 and 3763:

    are incorrect. Marijuana is a contr

  • Page 3764 and 3765:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3766 and 3767:

    Chapter 23 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3768 and 3769:

    higher serum levels and increasing

  • Page 3770 and 3771:

    provide additional fiber while stav

  • Page 3772 and 3773:

    Chapter 24 Answers Review Questions

  • Page 3774 and 3775:

    6. Answer: 4 Rationale: ACE inhibit

  • Page 3776 and 3777:

    may cause electrolytes to increase

  • Page 3778 and 3779:

    Answer to Check Your Understanding

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    Answer to Check Your Understanding

  • Page 3782 and 3783:

    e ordered to increase fluid intake

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    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

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    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Answer to Check Your Understanding

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    Other conditions may be treated, bu

  • Page 3792 and 3793:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3794 and 3795:

    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

  • Page 3796 and 3797:

    Answers to Chapter Review Questions

  • Page 3798 and 3799:

    milrinone (Primacor) or any phospho

  • Page 3800 and 3801:

    hypotension and she should be taugh

  • Page 3802 and 3803:

    Chapter 28 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3804 and 3805:

    3. Answer: 1, 3 Rationale: Atenolol

  • Page 3806 and 3807:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3808 and 3809:

    Chapter 29 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3810 and 3811:

    dopamine. Cognitive Level: Analyzin

  • Page 3812 and 3813:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3814 and 3815:

    Chapter 30 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3816 and 3817:

    3. Answer: 3 Rationale: CCBs such a

  • Page 3818 and 3819:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3820 and 3821:

    Chapter 31Answer to Check Your Unde

  • Page 3822 and 3823:

    Answers to Review Questions 1. Answ

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    lood clots. Cognitive Level: Analyz

  • Page 3826 and 3827:

    develop DVT. Air travel may increas

  • Page 3828 and 3829:

    Chapter 32 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3830 and 3831:

    alfa therapy. Cognitive Level: Appl

  • Page 3832 and 3833:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3834 and 3835:

    Chapter 33 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3836 and 3837:

    Analyzing. Nursing Process: Impleme

  • Page 3838 and 3839:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3840 and 3841:

    Chapter 34 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3842 and 3843:

    Answers to Review Questions 1. Answ

  • Page 3844 and 3845:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3846 and 3847:

    Chapter 35 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3848 and 3849:

    2, and 3 are incorrect. Tetracyclin

  • Page 3850 and 3851:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3852 and 3853:

    Chapter 36 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3854 and 3855:

    corticosteroids (e.g., prednisone)

  • Page 3856 and 3857:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3858 and 3859:

    Chapter 37 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3860 and 3861:

    Analyzing. Nursing Process: Evaluat

  • Page 3862 and 3863:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3864 and 3865:

    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Answers to Review Questions 1. Answ

  • Page 3868 and 3869:

    count. Options 1, 3, and 4 are inco

  • Page 3870 and 3871:

    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Answers to Review Questions 1. Answ

  • Page 3874 and 3875:

    care provider. Cognitive Level: App

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    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Answers to Review Questions 1. Answ

  • Page 3880 and 3881:

    Corticosteroids such as beclomethas

  • Page 3882 and 3883:

    Wait approximately 2 minutes before

  • Page 3884 and 3885:

    Chapter 41 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3886 and 3887:

    3. Answer: 1 Rationale: Simethicone

  • Page 3888 and 3889:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3890 and 3891:

    Chapter 42 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3892 and 3893:

    improve adherence. Options 1, 3, an

  • Page 3894 and 3895:

    Answers to the Patient-Focused Case

  • Page 3896 and 3897:

    Chapter 43 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3898 and 3899:

    4. Answer: 2 Rationale: Refrigerati

  • Page 3900 and 3901:

    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

  • Page 3902 and 3903:

    Answers to Review Questions 1. Answ

  • Page 3904 and 3905:

    until then to give the drug will no

  • Page 3906 and 3907:

    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

  • Page 3908 and 3909:

    Chapter 45 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3910 and 3911:

    the syringe first, followed by the

  • Page 3912 and 3913:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3914 and 3915:

    Chapter 46 Answers to Check Your Un

  • Page 3916 and 3917:

    appropriate pain management, and fe

  • Page 3918 and 3919:

    Answers to the Patient-Focused Case

  • Page 3920 and 3921:

    Chapter 47 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3922 and 3923:

    causes, an erection. Cognitive Leve

  • Page 3924 and 3925:

    Answer to Patient-Focused Case Stud

  • Page 3926 and 3927:

    Chapter 48Answer to Check Your Unde

  • Page 3928 and 3929:

    acidity. Cognitive Level: Analyzing

  • Page 3930 and 3931:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3932 and 3933:

    should ask the patient questions ab

  • Page 3934 and 3935:

    Answers to Review Questions 1. Answ

  • Page 3936 and 3937:

    successful. Cognitive Level: Applyi

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    Answers to Critical Thinking Questi

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    Chapter 50 Answer to Check Your Und

  • Page 3942 and 3943:

    Timolol (Timoptic) should not affec

  • Page 3944 and 3945:

    Answers to Patient-Focused Case Stu

  • Page 3946 and 3947:

    stinging. The conjunctival sac norm

  • Page 3948 and 3949:

    condition characterized by small in

  • Page 3950 and 3951:

    Adjuvant chemotherapy technique in

  • Page 3952 and 3953:

    Alkylation process by which certain

  • Page 3954 and 3955:

    Anesthesia medical procedure perfor

  • Page 3956 and 3957:

    agent that reduces gas bubbles in t

  • Page 3958 and 3959:

    Atherosclerosis condition character

  • Page 3960 and 3961:

    use of multiple medications to rapi

  • Page 3962 and 3963:

    intentional use of infectious biolo

  • Page 3964 and 3965:

    C fibers nerves that transmit dull,

  • Page 3966 and 3967:

    class of agents secreted in respons

  • Page 3968 and 3969:

    generic term used to describe sever

  • Page 3970 and 3971:

    Conjugates side chains that, during

  • Page 3972 and 3973:

    Culture set of beliefs, values, rel

  • Page 3974 and 3975:

    eversal of the plasma membrane char

  • Page 3976 and 3977:

    Dopamine type 2 (D ) receptor 2 rec

  • Page 3978 and 3979:

    Electrocardiogram (ECG) device that

  • Page 3980 and 3981:

    Enterohepatic recirculation recycli

  • Page 3982 and 3983:

    scratch that breaks the skin surfac

  • Page 3984 and 3985:

    Fight-or-flight response characteri

  • Page 3986 and 3987:

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

  • Page 3988 and 3989:

    Growth fraction the ratio of the nu

  • Page 3990 and 3991:

    as it relates to pharmacotherapy, l

  • Page 3992 and 3993:

    older system of measurement that us

  • Page 3994 and 3995:

    type of shock caused by loss of flu

  • Page 3996 and 3997:

    Inotropic effect change in the stre

  • Page 3998 and 3999:

    chemical substance secreted by the

  • Page 4000 and 4001:

    Lipid infusion therapy (Lipid Rescu

  • Page 4002 and 4003:

    Mast cells connective tissue cells

  • Page 4004 and 4005:

    Metabolism total of all biochemical

  • Page 4006 and 4007:

    Mood stabilizers drugs that level m

  • Page 4008 and 4009:

    Nadir lowest values of erythrocyte,

  • Page 4010 and 4011:

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS

  • Page 4012 and 4013:

    method of problem solving that incl

  • Page 4014 and 4015:

    Otitis media inflammation of the mi

  • Page 4016 and 4017:

    medication that produces a weaker,

  • Page 4018 and 4019:

    Peripheral resistance amount of fri

  • Page 4020 and 4021:

    Phosphodiesterase enzyme in muscle

  • Page 4022 and 4023:

    evaluation of a new drug after it h

  • Page 4024 and 4025:

    least common disease course of mult

  • Page 4026 and 4027:

    hallucinations, delusions, and diso

  • Page 4028 and 4029:

    signs and symptoms produced when th

  • Page 4030 and 4031:

    a term describing a drug placed int

  • Page 4032 and 4033:

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibi

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    Situational depression depression c

  • Page 4036 and 4037:

    condition characterized by repeated

  • Page 4038 and 4039:

    tablets or capsules designed to dis

  • Page 4040 and 4041:

    method for organizing drugs on the

  • Page 4042 and 4043:

    Toddlerhood term applied to childre

  • Page 4044 and 4045:

    Tubercles cavity-like lesions in th

  • Page 4046 and 4047:

    Vaccine biologic material that conf

  • Page 4048 and 4049:

    physical signs of discomfort associ

  • Page 4050 and 4051:

    Generic Equivalents 10. 1.9 Decisio

  • Page 4052 and 4053:

    4. Chapter Review a. Key Concepts b

  • Page 4054 and 4055:

    7. 6.6 Evaluating the Effects of Me

  • Page 4056 and 4057:

    12. Review Questions 13. Critical T

  • Page 4058 and 4059:

    d. 11.7 Ionizing Radiation e. 11.8

  • Page 4060 and 4061:

    8. Critical Thinking Questions 9. R

  • Page 4062 and 4063:

    4. Drugs That Potentiate GABA Actio

  • Page 4064 and 4065:

    a. 16.9 Pharmacotherapy of Bipolar

  • Page 4066 and 4067:

    . 18.2 Complementary and Alternativ

  • Page 4068 and 4069:

    a. Inhaled Drugs b. 19.6 Pharmacoth

  • Page 4070 and 4071:

    10. References 11. Selected Bibliog

  • Page 4072 and 4073:

    a. Amphetamines and Methylphenidate

  • Page 4074 and 4075:

    Failure 5. Diuretics a. 24.4 Mechan

  • Page 4076 and 4077:

    a. 25.8 Buffers and the Maintenance

  • Page 4078 and 4079:

    a. 27.1 The Etiology of Heart Failu

  • Page 4080 and 4081:

    a. 28.8 Diagnosis of Acute Coronary

  • Page 4082 and 4083:

    H. Chapter 30Drugs for Dysrhythmias

  • Page 4084 and 4085:

    c. Thrombolytics d. 31.7 Pharmacoth

  • Page 4086 and 4087:

    c. Ibuprofen and Ibuprofen-Like NSA

  • Page 4088 and 4089:

    c. Tetracyclines a. 35.10 Pharmacot

  • Page 4090 and 4091:

    a. 36.9 Pharmacotherapy of Helminth

  • Page 4092 and 4093:

    1. Drugs at a Glance 2. Learning Ou

  • Page 4094 and 4095:

    2. Learning Outcomes 3. The Upper R

  • Page 4096 and 4097:

    Anticholinergics b. Methylxanthines

  • Page 4098 and 4099:

    d. Antacids a. 41.8 Pharmacotherapy

  • Page 4100 and 4101:

    10. Chapter Review a. Key Concepts

  • Page 4102 and 4103:

    4. The Hypothalamus and Pituitary G

  • Page 4104 and 4105:

    a. 45.4 Etiology and Characteristic

  • Page 4106 and 4107:

    a. Key Concepts b. Review Questions

  • Page 4108 and 4109:

    c. Critical Thinking Questions d. R

  • Page 4110 and 4111:

    e. Osmotic Diuretics a. Check Your

  • Page 4112 and 4113:

    25. Nursing Practice Application 26

  • Page 4114 and 4115:

    AX. Answers to Critical Thinking Qu

  • Page 4116 and 4117:

    DB. Chapter 32 Answer to Check Your

  • Page 4118 and 4119:

    FF. Answers to Critical Thinking Qu

  • Page 4120 and 4121:

    administration site is prepped; (c)

  • Page 4122 and 4123:

    40. Figure 10.3 L-carnitine is a po

  • Page 4124 and 4125:

    93. Figure 38.3 94. Figure 38.4 95.

  • Page 4126 and 4127:

    14. Table 7.1 Look-Alike and Sound-

  • Page 4128 and 4129:

    56. Table 18.3 Opioids for Pain Man

  • Page 4130 and 4131:

    102. Table 30.2 Classification of A

  • Page 4132 and 4133:

    153. Table 39.4 Nasal Decongestants

  • Page 4134 and 4135:

    195. Table 49.1 Classification of S

  • Page 4136 and 4137:

    36. 14 37. 15 38. 16 39. 17 40. 18

  • Page 4138 and 4139:

    92. 70 93. 71 94. 72 95. 73 96. 74

  • Page 4140 and 4141:

    148. 126 149. 127 150. 128 151. 129

  • Page 4142 and 4143:

    204. 182 205. 183 206. 184 207. 185

  • Page 4144 and 4145:

    260. 238 261. 239 262. 240 263. 241

  • Page 4146 and 4147:

    316. 294 317. 295 318. 296 319. 297

  • Page 4148 and 4149:

    372. 350 373. 351 374. 352 375. 353

  • Page 4150 and 4151:

    428. 406 429. 407 430. 408 431. 409

  • Page 4152 and 4153:

    484. 462 485. 463 486. 464 487. 465

  • Page 4154 and 4155:

    540. 518 541. 519 542. 520 543. 521

  • Page 4156 and 4157:

    596. 574 597. 575 598. 576 599. 577

  • Page 4158 and 4159:

    652. 630 653. 631 654. 632 655. 633

  • Page 4160 and 4161:

    708. 686 709. 687 710. 688 711. 689

  • Page 4162 and 4163:

    764. 742 765. 743 766. 744 767. 745

  • Page 4164 and 4165:

    820. 798 821. 799 822. 800 823. 801

  • Page 4166 and 4167:

    876. 854 877. 855 878. 856 879. 857

  • Page 4168 and 4169:

    932. 910 933. 911 934. 912 935. 913

  • Page 4170 and 4171:

    988. A-28 989. A-29 990. A-30 991.

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