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# University Physics With Modern Physics

## University Physics With Modern

• Page 3 and 4: PhET SIMULATIONS Available in the P
• Page 5 and 6: SEARS AND ZEMANSKY’S UNIVERSITY P
• Page 7 and 8: BRIEF CONTENTS MECHANICS 1 Units, P
• Page 9 and 10: Build Confidence NEW! Bridging Prob
• Page 11 and 12: Make a Difference with MasteringPhy
• Page 13 and 14: TO THE STUDENT HOW TO SUCCEED IN PH
• Page 15 and 16: TO THE INSTRUCTOR PREFACE This book
• Page 17 and 18: PREFACE xv MasteringPhysics ® (www
• Page 19 and 20: PREFACE xvii Acknowledgments We wou
• Page 21 and 22: DETAILED CONTENTS MECHANICS 1 UNITS
• Page 23 and 24: DETAILED CONTENTS xxi 18 THERMAL PR
• Page 25 and 26: DETAILED CONTENTS xxiii 35 INTERFER
• Page 27 and 28: UNITS, PHYSICAL QUANTITIES, AND VEC
• Page 29 and 30: 1.2 Solving Physics Problems 3 at t
• Page 31 and 32: 1.3 Standards and Units 5 299,792,4
• Page 33 and 34: 1.4 Unit Consistency and Conversion
• Page 35 and 36: 1.5 Uncertainty and Significant Fig
• Page 37 and 38: 1.7 Vectors and Vector Addition 11
• Page 39 and 40: 1.7 Vectors and Vector Addition 13
• Page 41 and 42: 1.8 Components of Vectors 15 is u (
• Page 43 and 44: 1.8 Components of Vectors 17 of the
• Page 45 and 46: 1.9 Unit Vectors 19 Test Your Under
• Page 47 and 48: 1.10 Products of Vectors 21 positiv
• Page 49 and 50: 1.10 Products of Vectors 23 Vector
• Page 51 and 52: 1.10 Products of Vectors 25 Example
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Discussion Questions 27 BRIDGING PR

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Exercises 29 to Paris and then over

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Problems 31 in a day? (b) If this a

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Challenge Problems 33 (b) If and ha

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MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 2 LEAR

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2.1 Displacement, Time, and Average

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2.2 Instantaneous Velocity 39 To fi

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2.2 Instantaneous Velocity 41 2.7 U

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2.3 Average and Instantaneous Accel

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2.3 Average and Instantaneous Accel

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2.4 Motion with Constant Accelerati

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2.4 Motion with Constant Accelerati

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2.4 Motion with Constant Accelerati

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2.5 Freely Falling Bodies 53 Exampl

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2.6 Velocity and Position by Integr

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2.6 Velocity and Position by Integr

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Discussion Questions 59 BRIDGING PR

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Exercises 61 Figure E2.11 x (m) 40

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Exercises 63 2.33 .. Mars Landing.

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Problems 65 first 25.0 m? (b) The r

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Challenge Problems 67 2.83 . Visito

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MOTION IN TWO OR THREE DIMENSIONS 3

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3.1 Position and Velocity Vectors 7

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3.2 The Acceleration Vector 73 3.6

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3.2 The Acceleration Vector 75 (b)

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3.3 Projectile Motion 77 Conceptual

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3.3 Projectile Motion 79 components

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3.3 Projectile Motion 81 Example 3.

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3.3 Projectile Motion 83 of h and R

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3.4 Motion in a Circle 85 From Eq.

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3.4 Motion in a Circle 87 CAUTION U

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3.5 Relative Velocity 89 It’s a s

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3.5 Relative Velocity 91 the statio

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3.5 Relative Velocity 93 EXECUTE: F

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Discussion Questions 95 BRIDGING PR

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Exercises 97 insect jumps. When lea

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Problems 99 40 km>h wind blowing fr

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1965 1AWx Problems 101 3.65 ... Loo

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Answers 103 3.86 .. Two soccer play

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4.1 Force and Interactions 105 idea

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CAUTION Using a wiggly line in forc

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4.2 Newton’s First Law 109 The te

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4.2 Newton’s First Law 111 4.11 R

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4.3 Newton’s Second Law 113 that

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In symbols, 4.3 Newton’s Second L

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4.4 Mass and Weight 117 4.19 Our sk

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g = 9.80 m>s 2 We will use for prob

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4.5 Newton’s Third Law 121 In Fig

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4.5 Newton’s Third Law 123 Concep

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4.6 Free-Body Diagrams 125 Test You

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Discussion Questions 127 BRIDGING P

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Exercises 129 4.4 . A man is draggi

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Problems 131 4.39 .. CP BIO A Stand

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Answers 133 4.4 It would take twice

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5.1 Using Newton’s First Law: Par

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5.1 Using Newton’s First Law: Par

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5.1 Using Newton’s First Law: Par

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5.2 Using Newton’s Second Law: Dy

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5.2 Using Newton’s Second Law: Dy

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to solve the two equations for a x

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5.3 Frictional Forces 147 get it st

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5.3 Frictional Forces 149 In some s

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5.3 Frictional Forces 151 Example 5

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5.3 Frictional Forces 153 (remember

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5.4 Dynamics of Circular Motion 155

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5.4 Dynamics of Circular Motion 157

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5.5 The Fundamental Forces of Natur

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CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY Using Newton’s

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Exercises 163 Q5.12 In a world with

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Exercises 165 5.14 . Three sleds ar

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Exercises 167 how much force it wou

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cushion the impact on their hip fro

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Problems 171 5.88 .. CP Losing Carg

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Problems 173 square of its speed).

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6.1 Work 177 6.1 Work You’d proba

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6.1 Work 179 6.4 A constant force c

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6.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Ene

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K energy is greater than the initia

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6.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Ene

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6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Fo

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6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Fo

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6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Fo

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6.4 Power 193 angle du has a magnit

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6.4 Power 195 Example 6.10 A “pow

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Discussion Questions 197 BRIDGING P

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Exercises 199 (ii) the tension in t

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Exercises 201 instantaneously? With

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hand to move the object slowly from

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Challenge Problems 205 6.95 . BIO P

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POTENTIAL ENERGY AND ENERGY CONSERV

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7.1 Gravitational Potential Energy

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7.1 Gravitational Potential Energy

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7.1 Gravitational Potential Energy

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7.1 Gravitational Potential Energy

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7.2 Elastic Potential Energy 217 Th

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7.2 Elastic Potential Energy 219 in

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7.3 Conservative and Nonconservativ

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7.3 Conservative and Nonconservativ

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7.4 Force and Potential Energy 225

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7.4 Force and Potential Energy 227

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7.5 Energy Diagrams 229 7.24 The ma

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Discussion Questions 231 BRIDGING P

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Exercises 233 140 food calories per

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U1x2 = -C >x 6 , energy function .

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Figure P7.55 7.56 .. A 1500-kg rock

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Challenge Problem 239 masses of the

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MOMENTUM, IMPULSE, AND COLLISIONS 8

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8.1 Momentum and Impulse 243 Let’

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8.1 Momentum and Impulse 245 by a f

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8.2 Conservation of Momentum 247 8.

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8.2 Conservation of Momentum 249 Ex

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8.3 Momentum Conservation and Colli

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8.3 Momentum Conservation and Colli

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8.4 Elastic Collisions 255 Finally,

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8.4 Elastic Collisions 257 Example

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8.5 Center of Mass 259 The position

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8.5 Center of Mass 261 External For

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8.6 Rocket Propulsion 263 so its x-

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8.6 Rocket Propulsion 265 Example 8

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Discussion Questions 267 BRIDGING P

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Exercises 269 ball? Is the effect o

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Exercises 271 (a) How fast were the

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Problems 273 8.67 .. A steel ball w

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Problems 275 (Fig. P8.95). You can

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Answers 277 Consider a thin rod of

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9.1 Angular Velocity and Accelerati

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v v V Just as x is the x-component

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9.2 Rotation with Constant Angular

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a 6 0 K = 1 2 mv2 for a particle, a

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9.3 Relating Linear and Angular Kin

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9.4 Energy in Rotational Motion 289

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9.4 Energy in Rotational Motion 291

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9.5 Parallel-Axis Theorem 293 Gravi

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9.6 Moment-of-Inertia Calculations

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CHAPTER 9 SUMMARY Rotational kinema

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Exercises 299 Q9.6 A flywheel rotat

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Exercises 301 outer radii of this s

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Problems 303 object of the same mat

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Problems 305 The meter stick is hel

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Answers 307 rotates through a small

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10.1 Torque 309 it’s directed alo

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10.2 Torque and Angular Acceleratio

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10.2 Torque and Angular Acceleratio

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this: Every possible motion of a ri

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10.3 Rigid-Body Rotation About a Mo

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10.3 Rigid-Body Rotation About a Mo

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10.4 Work and Power in Rotational M

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The value of L S depends on the cho

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10.6 Conservation of Angular Moment

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10.6 Conservation of Angular Moment

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10.7 Gyroscopes and Precession 329

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CHAPTER10 SUMMARY Torque: When a fo

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Discussion Questions 333 Q10.7 When

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Exercises 335 wheel. (c) Which of t

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Exercises 337 10.43 .. The Spinning

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Problems 339 (b) You carefully bala

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Problems 341 10.86 .. A uniform dra

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11.2 Center of Gravity 345 11.1 Con

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11.2 Center of Gravity 347 The tota

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11.3 Solving Rigid-Body Equilibrium

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11.3 Solving Rigid-Body Equilibrium

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11.4 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Mo

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11.4 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Mo

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11.5 Elasticity and Plasticity 357

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CHAPTER 11 SUMMARY Conditions for e

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Exercises 361 the horseshoe’s cen

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Exercises 363 the wheelbarrow is al

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Problems 365 (b) How much will the

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Problems 367 and if you raise your

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Problems 369 horizontal. If the bic

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Challenge Problems 371 11.92 ... CP

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FLUID MECHANICS 12 LEARNING GOALS B

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12.2 Pressure in a Fluid 375 sea le

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12.2 Pressure in a Fluid 377 p 2 -

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12.2 Pressure in a Fluid 379 Anothe

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12.3 Buoyancy 381 submerged because

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12.4 Fluid Flow 383 steady flow, ev

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12.5 Bernoulli’s Equation 385 12.

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12.5 Bernoulli’s Equation 387 Exa

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12.6 Viscosity and Turbulence 389 1

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12.6 Viscosity and Turbulence 391 C

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Discussion Questions 393 BRIDGING P

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Exercises 395 12.12 . A barrel cont

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Problems 397 What pressure differen

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Problems 399 weight when completely

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Answers 401 upward. (c) Derive an e

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13.1 Newton’s Law of Gravitation

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13.1 Newton’s Law of Gravitation

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13.2 Weight 407 When the body is ne

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13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy

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13.4 The Motion of Satellites 411 E

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13.4 The Motion of Satellites 413 T

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13.5 Kepler’s Laws and the Motion

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13.5 Kepler’s Laws and the Motion

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13.6 Spherical Mass Distributions 4

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13.7 Apparent Weight and the Earth

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13.8 Black Holes 423 Test Your Unde

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13.8 Black Holes 425 EVALUATE: The

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CHAPTER 13 SUMMARY Newton’s law o

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Exercises 429 Q13.17 At what point

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Problems 431 the gravitational pote

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Problems 433 13.60 .. In Example 13

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Challenge Problems 435 the magnitud

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PERIODIC MOTION 14 LEARNING GOALS B

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14.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 439 Als

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14.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 441 xy-

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14.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 443 EXE

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14.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 445 To

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14.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Moti

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14.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Moti

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14.4 Applications of Simple Harmoni

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14.5 The Simple Pendulum 453 If ƒu

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14.6 The Physical Pendulum 455 the

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14.7 Damped Oscillations 457 oscill

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14.8 Forced Oscillations and Resona

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CHAPTER 14 SUMMARY Periodic motion:

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Exercises 463 Problems For instruct

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Exercises 465 3.0 mm and a phase an

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Problems 467 14.55 . Two pendulums

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Problems 469 (a) the period of osci

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Answers 471 terms of l, v, and L; f

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15.1 Types of Mechanical Waves 473

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15.2 Periodic Waves 475 waves with

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15.3 Mathematical Description of a

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15.3 Mathematical Description of a

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15.3 Mathematical Description of a

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15.4 Speed of a Transverse Wave 483

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15.4 Speed of a Transverse Wave 485

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15.5 Energy in Wave Motion 487 15.1

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15.6 Wave Interference, Boundary Co

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15.7 Standing Waves on a String 491

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15.7 Standing Waves on a String 493

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15.8 Normal Modes of a String 495 E

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15.8 Normal Modes of a String 497 C

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CHAPTER 15 SUMMARY Waves and their

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Exercises 501 along the string and

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Exercises 503 normal conversation,

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Problems 505 has mass per unit leng

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Challenge Problems 507 transverse v

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SOUND AND HEARING 16 LEARNING GOALS

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16.1 Sound Waves 511 (a) A graph of

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16.1 Sound Waves 513 (b) To find th

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16.2 Speed of Sound Waves 515 press

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16.2 Speed of Sound Waves 517 scann

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16.3 Sound Intensity 519 CAUTION Wa

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16.3 Sound Intensity 521 Example 16

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16.4 Standing Sound Waves and Norma

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16.4 Standing Sound Waves and Norma

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16.5 Resonance and Sound 527 narrow

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16.6 Interference of Waves 529 cond

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16.7 Beats 531 Interference effects

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16.8 The Doppler Effect 533 Test Yo

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16.8 The Doppler Effect 535 the med

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16.8 The Doppler Effect 537 16.33 T

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16.9 Shock Waves 539 the direction

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CHAPTER 16 SUMMARY Sound waves: Sou

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Exercises 543 Problems For instruct

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Exercises 545 16.17 . A sound wave

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Problems 547 other one? (b) What wa

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Answers 549 ƒ R = ƒ S a1 - v c b

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TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 17 LEARNING GO

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17.2 Thermometers and Temperature S

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17.3 Gas Thermometers and the Kelvi

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17.4 Thermal Expansion 557 17.4 The

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17.4 Thermal Expansion 559 Now we r

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17.4 Thermal Expansion 561 Both ¢L

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17.5 Quantity of Heat 563 Putting a

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17.6 Calorimetry and Phase Changes

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17.6 Calorimetry and Phase Changes

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17.6 Calorimetry and Phase Changes

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17.7 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 57

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17.7 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 57

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17.7 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 57

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17.7 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 57

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Discussion Questions 579 BRIDGING P

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Exercises 581 Section 17.4 Thermal

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Exercises 583 12.0°C. temperature

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Problems 585 17.79 ... You are maki

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Problems 587 17.106 .. One experime

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Answers 589 a cylindrical jacket ma

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18.1 Equations of State 591 18.1 Eq

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18.1 Equations of State 593 We used

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18.1 Equations of State 595 18.4 Th

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18.2 Molecular Properties of Matter

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18.3 Kinetic-Molecular Model of an

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18.3 Kinetic-Molecular Model of an

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18.3 Kinetic-Molecular Model of an

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18.4 Heat Capacities 605 Test Your

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18.4 Heat Capacities 607 4R 7R/2 C

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18.5 Molecular Speeds 609 We can al

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18.6 Phases of Matter 611 p c At th

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18.6 Phases of Matter 613 p V 1 , V

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Discussion Questions 615 BRIDGING P

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Exercises 617 22.0°C and behaves a

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Problems 619 be observed with a mic

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Problems 621 18.72 . CP (a) Compute

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19.2 Work Done During Volume Change

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19.2 Work Done During Volume Change

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19.4 Internal Energy and the First

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19.4 Internal Energy and the First

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19.4 Internal Energy and the First

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19.5 Kinds of Thermodynamic Process

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19.7 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Ga

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19.7 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Ga

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19.8 Adiabatic Processes for an Ide

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CHAPTER 19 SUMMARY Heat and work in

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Exercises 645 Q19.11 When you blow

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Problems 647 19.24 . Three moles of

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Problems 649 expands at constant pr

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20.1 Directions of Thermodynamic Pr

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20.2 Heat Engines 655 temperature.

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20.3 Internal-Combustion Engines 65

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20.5 The Second Law of Thermodynami

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20.6 The Carnot Cycle 663 cold rese

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20.6 The Carnot Cycle 665 Thus the

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20.6 The Carnot Cycle 667 Then we s

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20.7 Entropy 669 ratio of the heats

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20.7 Entropy 671 Example 20.6 Entro

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20.7 Entropy 673 20.19 (a) A revers

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20.8 Microscopic Interpretation of

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20.8 Microscopic Interpretation of

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Discussion Questions Summary 679 An

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Exercises 681 of the cycle is adiab

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Problems 683 process 3 S 1 is at a

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Challenge Problem 685 20.56 . An ai

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ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD

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21.1 Electric Charge 689 21.2 Schem

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21.2 Conductors, Insulators, and In

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21.3 Coulomb’s Law 693 21.8 The c

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21.3 Coulomb’s Law 695 The propor

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21.3 Coulomb’s Law 697 Problem-So

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21.4 Electric Field and Electric Fo

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21.4 Electric Field and Electric Fo

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21.5 Electric-Field Calculations 70

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21.5 Electric-Field Calculations 70

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21.5 Electric-Field Calculations 70

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21.7 Electric Dipoles 709 21.28 Ele

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21.7 Electric Dipoles 711 t = pE si

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21.7 Electric Dipoles 713 21.33 Fin

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Discussion Questions 715 BRIDGING P

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Exercises 717 21.9 .. Two small pla

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Exercises 719 Section 21.5 Electric

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Problems 721 by using trial values

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Challenge Problems 723 solution. Th

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GAUSS’S LAW 22 LEARNING GOALS By

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22.1 Charge and Electric Flux 727 i

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22.2 Calculating Electric Flux 729

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22.2 Calculating Electric Flux 731

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22.3 Gauss’s Law 733 We can also

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22.3 Gauss’s Law 735 (a) Gaussian

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+ + + 22.4 Applications of Gauss’

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- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22.4

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- - --- 22.5 Charges on Conductors

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22.5 Charges on Conductors 743 22.2

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22.5 Charges on Conductors 745 Conc

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Discussion Questions 747 BRIDGING P

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Exercises 749 22.11 . A 6.20-mC poi

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Problems 751 sheet, as shown in Fig

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23.1 Electric Potential Energy 755

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23.1 Electric Potential Energy 757

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23.1 Electric Potential Energy 759

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23.2 Electric Potential 761 EXECUTE

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23.2 Electric Potential 763 extends

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23.2 Electric Potential 765 V a - V

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23.3 Calculating Electric Potential

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23.3 Calculating Electric Potential

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23.4 Equipotential Surfaces 771 fie

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23.4 Equipotential Surfaces 773 Sin

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23.5 Potential Gradient 775 At each

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CHAPTER 23 SUMMARY Electric potenti

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Exercises 779 Q23.14 A conducting s

• Page 807 and 808:

Exercises 781 23.31 . A very long w

• Page 809 and 810:

Problems 783 23.58 .. Two oppositel

• Page 811 and 812:

Challenge Problems 785 infinity. Fi

• Page 813 and 814:

• Page 815 and 816:

24.1 Capacitors and Capacitance 789

• Page 817 and 818:

24.1 Capacitors and Capacitance 791

• Page 819 and 820:

24.2 Capacitors in Series and Paral

• Page 821 and 822:

24.2 Capacitors in Series and Paral

• Page 823 and 824:

24.3 Energy Storage in Capacitors a

• Page 825 and 826:

24.3 Energy Storage in Capacitors a

• Page 827 and 828:

24.4 Dielectrics 801 When the charg

• Page 829 and 830:

24.4 Dielectrics 803 home repair wo

• Page 831 and 832:

- + 24.5 Molecular Model of Induced

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24.6 Gauss’s Law in Dielectrics 8

• Page 835 and 836:

CHAPTER 24 SUMMARY Capacitors and c

• Page 837 and 838:

Exercises 811 charges on the plates

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Exercises 813 which the plates attr

• Page 841 and 842:

Problems 815 Figure P24.55 a 8.60 m

• Page 843 and 844:

Answers 817 C of this system. (b) S

• Page 845 and 846:

25.1 Current 819 25.1 Current A cur

• Page 847 and 848:

25.1 Current 821 particle has a cha

• Page 849 and 850:

25.2 Resistivity 823 R 1æ # m2 Tab

• Page 851 and 852:

25.3 Resistance 825 Superconductors

• Page 853 and 854:

25.3 Resistance 827 25.10 Current-v

• Page 855 and 856:

25.4 Electromotive Force and Circui

• Page 857 and 858:

25.4 Electromotive Force and Circui

• Page 859 and 860:

25.4 Electromotive Force and Circui

• Page 861 and 862:

25.5 Energy and Power in Electric C

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25.5 Energy and Power in Electric C

• Page 865 and 866:

25.6 Theory of Metallic Conduction

• Page 867 and 868:

CHAPTER 25 SUMMARY Current and curr

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Exercises 843 Q25.13 Why does an el

• Page 871 and 872:

Exercises 845 25.31 . An ideal volt

• Page 873 and 874:

Problems 847 resistance 1.2 Æ. An

• Page 875 and 876:

• Page 877 and 878:

26.1 Resistors in Series and Parall

• Page 879 and 880:

26.1 Resistors in Series and Parall

• Page 881 and 882:

26.2 Kirchhoff’s Rules 855 26.5 W

• Page 883 and 884:

26.2 Kirchhoff’s Rules 857 Proble

• Page 885 and 886:

26.2 Kirchhoff’s Rules 859 Exampl

• Page 887 and 888:

26.3 Electrical Measuring Instrumen

• Page 889 and 890:

26.3 Electrical Measuring Instrumen

• Page 891 and 892:

26.4 R-C Circuits 865 CAUTION Lower

• Page 893 and 894:

26.4 R-C Circuits 867 Discharging a

• Page 895 and 896:

26.5 Power Distribution Systems 869

• Page 897 and 898:

26.5 Power Distribution Systems 871

• Page 899 and 900:

| | | | | | | | CHAPTER 26 SUMMARY

• Page 901 and 902:

+ Exercises 875 Q26.10 A real batte

• Page 903 and 904:

Exercises 877 Figure E26.27 Figure

• Page 905 and 906:

+ + Problems 879 + 26.56 . A 400-Æ

• Page 907 and 908:

+ Challenge Problems 881 these resi

• Page 909 and 910:

MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETIC FORCES

• Page 911 and 912:

27.2 Magnetic Field 885 north pole.

• Page 913 and 914:

27.2 Magnetic Field 887 27.7 Findin

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27.3 Magnetic Field Lines and Magne

• Page 917 and 918:

27.3 Magnetic Field Lines and Magne

• Page 919 and 920:

S A charge moving at right angles t

• Page 921 and 922:

27.4 Motion of Charged Particles in

• Page 923 and 924:

27.5 Applications of Motion of Char

• Page 925 and 926:

27.6 Magnetic Force on a Current-Ca

• Page 927 and 928:

27.7 Force and Torque on a Current

• Page 929 and 930:

27.7 Force and Torque on a Current

• Page 931 and 932:

27.7 Force and Torque on a Current

• Page 933 and 934:

27.8 The Direct-Current Motor 907 s

• Page 935 and 936:

27.9 The Hall Effect 909 (b) The po

• Page 937 and 938:

CHAPTER 27 SUMMARY Magnetic forces:

• Page 939 and 940:

Exercises 913 Q27.4 The magnetic fo

• Page 941 and 942:

Exercises 915 27.24 .. A beam of pr

• Page 943 and 944:

Problems 917 and the value of the p

• Page 945 and 946:

Problems 919 27.72 .. CP A plastic

• Page 947 and 948:

Challenge Problems 921 immersed in

• Page 949 and 950:

SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD 28 LEARNI

• Page 951 and 952:

28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Cha

• Page 953 and 954:

28.2 Magnetic Field of a Current El

• Page 955 and 956:

28.3 Magnetic Field of a Straight C

• Page 957 and 958:

+ + 28.4 Force Between Parallel Con

• Page 959 and 960:

28.5 Magnetic Field of a Circular C

• Page 961 and 962:

28.6 Ampere’s Law 935 Test Your U

• Page 963 and 964:

28.6 Ampere’s Law 937 C BS # d l

• Page 965 and 966:

28.7 Applications of Ampere’s Law

• Page 967 and 968:

28.8 Magnetic Materials 941 length

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28.8 Magnetic Materials 943 field,

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28.8 Magnetic Materials 945 field i

• Page 973 and 974:

CHAPTER 28 SUMMARY Magnetic field o

• Page 975 and 976:

Exercises 949 Problems For instruct

• Page 977 and 978:

Exercises 951 Section 28.3 Magnetic

• Page 979 and 980:

Problems 953 28.46 . Repeat Exercis

• Page 981 and 982:

Challenge Problems 955 the magnetic

• Page 983 and 984:

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 29 ? When

• Page 985 and 986:

• Page 987 and 988:

29.2 Faraday’s Law 961 SOLUTION d

• Page 989 and 990:

• Page 991 and 992:

29.2 Faraday’s Law 965 between po

• Page 993 and 994:

29.3 Lenz’s Law 967 the left side

• Page 995 and 996:

29.4 Motional Electromotive Force 9

• Page 997 and 998:

29.5 Induced Electric Fields 971 Ex

• Page 999 and 1000:

29.5 Induced Electric Fields 973 ti

• Page 1001 and 1002:

- - - 29.7 Displacement Current and

• Page 1003 and 1004:

+ + 29.7 Displacement Current and M

• Page 1005 and 1006:

29.8 Superconductivity 979 interven

• Page 1007 and 1008:

• Page 1009 and 1010:

Exercises 983 emf induced in the ri

• Page 1011 and 1012:

Exercises 985 the instant when the

• Page 1013 and 1014:

Problems 987 rectangle 2.0 m by 4.0

• Page 1015 and 1016:

Problems 989 induced in the ring at

• Page 1017 and 1018:

INDUCTANCE 30 LEARNING GOALS By stu

• Page 1019 and 1020:

30.1 Mutual Inductance 993 denoted

• Page 1021 and 1022:

30.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors

• Page 1023 and 1024:

30.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors

• Page 1025 and 1026:

30.3 Magnetic-Field Energy 999 the

• Page 1027 and 1028:

30.4 The R-L Circuit 1001 SOLUTION

• Page 1029 and 1030:

30.4 The R-L Circuit 1003 This sepa

• Page 1031 and 1032:

30.5 The L-C Circuit 1005 Example 3

• Page 1033 and 1034:

30.5 The L-C Circuit 1007 We apply

• Page 1035 and 1036:

30.5 The L-R-C Series Circuit 1009

• Page 1037 and 1038:

30.5 The L-R-C Series Circuit 1011

• Page 1039 and 1040:

Discussion Questions 1013 BRIDGING

• Page 1041 and 1042:

Exercises 1015 energy density in th

• Page 1043 and 1044:

Problems 1017 30.52 . An inductor i

• Page 1045 and 1046:

Challenge Problems 1019 (c) The fra

• Page 1047 and 1048:

ALTERNATING CURRENT 31 LEARNING GOA

• Page 1049 and 1050:

31.1 Phasors and Alternating Curren

• Page 1051 and 1052:

31.2 Resistance and Reactance 1025

• Page 1053 and 1054:

31.2 Resistance and Reactance 1027

• Page 1055 and 1056:

31.2 Resistance and Reactance 1029

• Page 1057 and 1058:

31.3 The L-R-C Series Circuit 1031

• Page 1059 and 1060:

31.3 The L-R-C Series Circuit 1033

• Page 1061 and 1062:

31.4 Power in Alternating-Current C

• Page 1063 and 1064:

31.5 Resonance in Alternating-Curre

• Page 1065 and 1066:

31.5 Resonance in Alternating-Curre

• Page 1067 and 1068:

31.6 Transformers 1041 emfs. If the

• Page 1069 and 1070:

CHAPTER 31 SUMMARY Phasors and alte

• Page 1071 and 1072:

Exercises 1045 inductive or capacit

• Page 1073 and 1074:

Problems 1047 Section 31.6 Transfor

• Page 1075 and 1076:

Challenge Problems 1049 frequency?

• Page 1077 and 1078:

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 32 LEARNING G

• Page 1079 and 1080:

32.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Elec

• Page 1081 and 1082:

32.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves an

• Page 1083 and 1084:

32.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves an

• Page 1085 and 1086:

32.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves an

• Page 1087 and 1088:

32.3 Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Wav

• Page 1089 and 1090:

32.3 Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Wav

• Page 1091 and 1092:

32.4 Energy and Momentum in Electro

• Page 1093 and 1094:

32.4 Energy and Momentum in Electro

• Page 1095 and 1096:

32.5 Standing Electromagnetic Waves

• Page 1097 and 1098:

32.5 Standing Electromagnetic Waves

• Page 1099 and 1100:

CHAPTER 32 SUMMARY Maxwell’s equa

• Page 1101 and 1102:

Exercises 1075 EXERCISES Section 32

• Page 1103 and 1104:

Problems 1077 32.39 .. You want to

• Page 1105 and 1106:

• Page 1107 and 1108:

33.1 The Nature of Light 1081 In 18

• Page 1109 and 1110:

33.2 Reflection and Refraction 1083

• Page 1111 and 1112:

33.2 Reflection and Refraction 1085

• Page 1113 and 1114:

33.2 Reflection and Refraction 1087

• Page 1115 and 1116:

33.3 Total Internal Reflection 1089

• Page 1117 and 1118:

33.4 Dispersion 1091 Conceptual Exa

• Page 1119 and 1120:

33.5 Polarization 1093 exit the rai

• Page 1121 and 1122:

33.5 Polarization 1095 Incident unp

• Page 1123 and 1124:

33.5 Polarization 1097 Example 33.5

• Page 1125 and 1126:

33.5 Polarization 1099 Circular and

• Page 1127 and 1128:

33.6 Scattering of Light 1101 33.32

• Page 1129 and 1130:

33.7 Huygens’s Principle 1103 arr

• Page 1131 and 1132:

CHAPTER 33 SUMMARY Light and its pr

• Page 1133 and 1134:

Exercises 1107 Q33.18 For the old

• Page 1135 and 1136:

Problems 1109 Figure E33.29 I 0 Unp

• Page 1137 and 1138:

Problems 1111 (In actuality a light

• Page 1139 and 1140:

Answers 1113 surface of the drop at

• Page 1141 and 1142:

34.1 Reflection and Refraction at a

• Page 1143 and 1144:

34.1 Reflection and Refraction at a

• Page 1145 and 1146:

34.2 Reflection at a Spherical Surf

• Page 1147 and 1148:

34.2 Reflection at a Spherical Surf

• Page 1149 and 1150:

34.2 Reflection at a Spherical Surf

• Page 1151 and 1152:

34.2 Reflection at a Spherical Surf

• Page 1153 and 1154:

34.3 Refraction at a Spherical Surf

• Page 1155 and 1156:

34.3 Refraction at a Spherical Surf

• Page 1157 and 1158:

34.4 Thin Lenses 1131 Test Your Und

• Page 1159 and 1160:

34.4 Thin Lenses 1133 points in the

• Page 1161 and 1162:

34.4 Thin Lenses 1135 34.35 A conve

• Page 1163 and 1164:

34.4 Thin Lenses 1137 Parts (a), (b

• Page 1165 and 1166:

34.5 Cameras 1139 We first find the

• Page 1167 and 1168:

34.5 Cameras 1141 commonly expresse

• Page 1169 and 1170:

34.6 The Eye 1143 held in place by

• Page 1171 and 1172:

34.6 The Eye 1145 (a) Vertical line

• Page 1173 and 1174:

34.8 Microscopes and Telescopes 114

• Page 1175 and 1176:

34.8 Microscopes and Telescopes 114

• Page 1177 and 1178:

34.8 Microscopes and Telescopes 115

• Page 1179 and 1180:

Bridging Summary Problem 1153 Camer

• Page 1181 and 1182:

Exercises 1155 34.5 . An object 0.6

• Page 1183 and 1184:

Exercises 1157 object is 200 m from

• Page 1185 and 1186:

Problems 1159 inverted with respect

• Page 1187 and 1188:

Challenge Problems 1161 the image i

• Page 1189 and 1190:

INTERFERENCE 35 LEARNING GOALS By s

• Page 1191 and 1192:

35.1 Interference and Coherent Sour

• Page 1193 and 1194:

35.2 Two-Source Interference of Lig

• Page 1195 and 1196:

35.2 Two-Source Interference of Lig

• Page 1197 and 1198:

35.3 Intensity in Interference Patt

• Page 1199 and 1200:

35.4 Interference in Thin Films 117

• Page 1201 and 1202:

35.4 Interference in Thin Films 117

• Page 1203 and 1204:

35.4 Interference in Thin Films 117

• Page 1205 and 1206:

35.5 The Michelson Interferometer 1

• Page 1207 and 1208:

35.5 The Michelson Interferometer 1

• Page 1209 and 1210:

Discussion Questions 1183 Michelson

• Page 1211 and 1212:

Exercises 1185 to 7 1 2 l. How many

• Page 1213 and 1214:

Problems 1187 (a) How far from the

• Page 1215 and 1216:

Answers 1189 extremely small. (a) I

• Page 1217 and 1218:

36.1 Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffrac

• Page 1219 and 1220:

36.2 Diffraction from a Single Slit

• Page 1221 and 1222:

36.3 Intensity in the Single-Slit P

• Page 1223 and 1224:

36.3 Intensity in the Single-Slit P

• Page 1225 and 1226:

36.4 Multiple Slits 1199 EVALUATE:

• Page 1227 and 1228:

36.5 The Diffraction Grating 1201 3

• Page 1229 and 1230:

36.5 The Diffraction Grating 1203 S

• Page 1231 and 1232:

36.6 X-Ray Diffraction 1205 Accordi

• Page 1233 and 1234:

36.6 X-Ray Diffraction 1207 36.23 A

• Page 1235 and 1236:

36.7 Circular Apertures and Resolvi

• Page 1237 and 1238:

36.8 Holography 1211 Test Your Unde

• Page 1239 and 1240:

36.8 Holography 1213 Because of the

• Page 1241 and 1242:

Discussion Questions 1215 BRIDGING

• Page 1243 and 1244:

Exercises 1217 what is the width of

• Page 1245 and 1246:

Problems 1219 36.50 . Searching for

• Page 1247 and 1248:

Challenge Problems 1221 fringes on

• Page 1249 and 1250:

RELATIVITY 37 LEARNING GOALS By stu

• Page 1251 and 1252:

37.1 Invariance of Physical Laws 12

• Page 1253 and 1254:

37.2 Relativity of Simultaneity 122

• Page 1255 and 1256:

37.3 Relativity of Time Intervals 1

• Page 1257 and 1258:

37.3 Relativity of Time Intervals 1

• Page 1259 and 1260:

37.4 Relativity of Length 1233 Eart

• Page 1261 and 1262:

37.4 Relativity of Length 1235 [We

• Page 1263 and 1264:

37.5 The Lorentz Transformations 12

• Page 1265 and 1266:

37.5 The Lorentz Transformations 12

• Page 1267 and 1268:

37.6 The Doppler Effect for Electro

• Page 1269 and 1270:

37.7 Relativistic Momentum 1243 37.

• Page 1271 and 1272:

37.7 Relativistic Momentum 1245 We

• Page 1273 and 1274:

37.8 Relativistic Work and Energy 1

• Page 1275 and 1276:

37.9 Newtonian Mechanics and Relati

• Page 1277 and 1278:

37.9 Newtonian Mechanics and Relati

• Page 1279 and 1280:

Discussion Questions 1253 BRIDGING

• Page 1281 and 1282:

Exercises 1255 be 2.00 m by his doc

• Page 1283 and 1284:

Problems 1257 major axis is 1.40 ti

• Page 1285 and 1286:

Challenge Problems 1259 where u is

• Page 1287 and 1288:

PHOTONS: LIGHT WAVES BEHAVING AS PA

• Page 1289 and 1290:

38.1 Light Absorbed as Photons: The

• Page 1291 and 1292:

38.1 Light Absorbed as Photons: The

• Page 1293 and 1294:

+ 38.2 Light Emitted as Photons: X-

• Page 1295 and 1296:

38.3 Light Scattered as Photons: Co

• Page 1297 and 1298:

38.3 Light Scattered as Photons: Co

• Page 1299 and 1300:

38.4 Wave-Particle Duality, Probabi

• Page 1301 and 1302:

38.4 Wave-Particle Duality, Probabi

• Page 1303 and 1304:

38.4 Wave-Particle Duality, Probabi

• Page 1305 and 1306:

38.4 Wave-Particle Duality, Probabi

• Page 1307 and 1308:

Discussion Questions 1281 BRIDGING

• Page 1309 and 1310:

Problems 1283 x rays with a wavelen

• Page 1311 and 1312:

• Page 1313 and 1314:

V ba 5 V b 2 V a 39.1 Electron Wave

• Page 1315 and 1316:

39.1 Electron Waves 1289 patterns f

• Page 1317 and 1318:

39.1 Electron Waves 1291 Note that

• Page 1319 and 1320:

39.2 The Nuclear Atom and Atomic Sp

• Page 1321 and 1322:

39.2 The Nuclear Atom and Atomic Sp

• Page 1323 and 1324:

39.3 Energy Levels and the Bohr Mod

• Page 1325 and 1326:

39.3 Energy Levels and the Bohr Mod

• Page 1327 and 1328:

39.3 Energy Levels and the Bohr Mod

• Page 1329 and 1330:

39.3 Energy Levels and the Bohr Mod

• Page 1331 and 1332:

39.3 Energy Levels and the Bohr Mod

• Page 1333 and 1334:

39.4 The Laser 1307 Test Your Under

• Page 1335 and 1336:

39.4 The Laser 1309 39.29 (a), (b),

• Page 1337 and 1338:

39.5 Continuous Spectra 1311 CAUTIO

• Page 1339 and 1340:

39.5 Continuous Spectra 1313 state.

• Page 1341 and 1342:

39.6 The Uncertainty Principle Revi

• Page 1343 and 1344:

39.6 The Uncertainty Principle Revi

• Page 1345 and 1346:

Bridging Problem 1319 The Heisenber

• Page 1347 and 1348:

Exercises 1321 level and (b) the n

• Page 1349 and 1350:

Problems 1323 39.45 .. Two stars, b

• Page 1351 and 1352:

Problems 1325 slower than that of l

• Page 1353 and 1354:

• Page 1355 and 1356:

40.1 Wave Functions and the One-Dim

• Page 1357 and 1358:

40.1 Wave Functions and the One-Dim

• Page 1359 and 1360:

40.1 Wave Functions and the One-Dim

• Page 1361 and 1362:

40.1 Wave Functions and the One-Dim

• Page 1363 and 1364:

40.1 Wave Functions and the One-Dim

• Page 1365 and 1366:

40.2 Particle in a Box 1339 In Sect

• Page 1367 and 1368:

40.2 Particle in a Box 1341 (a) E n

• Page 1369 and 1370:

40.3 Potential Wells 1343 in the re

• Page 1371 and 1372:

40.3 Potential Wells 1345 “expone

• Page 1373 and 1374:

E = 0.405U E 1 , the particle canno

• Page 1375 and 1376:

40.4 Potential Barriers and Tunneli

• Page 1377 and 1378:

40.5 The Harmonic Oscillator 1351 I

• Page 1379 and 1380:

40.5 The Harmonic Oscillator 1353 4

• Page 1381 and 1382:

CHAPTER 40 SUMMARY Wave functions:

• Page 1383 and 1384:

Exercises 1357 Q40.4 Why must the w

• Page 1385 and 1386:

Problems 1359 level and absorbs a p

• Page 1387 and 1388:

Challenge Problems 1361 the barrier

• Page 1389 and 1390:

• Page 1391 and 1392:

41.1 The Schrödinger Equation in T

• Page 1393 and 1394:

41.2 Particle in a Three-Dimensiona

• Page 1395 and 1396:

41.2 Particle in a Three-Dimensiona

• Page 1397 and 1398:

41.2 Particle in a Three-Dimensiona

• Page 1399 and 1400:

41.3 The Hydrogen Atom 1373 bound s

• Page 1401 and 1402:

41.3 The Hydrogen Atom 1375 three-d

• Page 1403 and 1404:

41.3 The Hydrogen Atom 1377 We deno

• Page 1405 and 1406:

41.4 The Zeeman Effect 1379 systems

• Page 1407 and 1408:

41.4 The Zeeman Effect 1381 orienta

• Page 1409 and 1410:

41.5 Electron Spin 1383 41.5 Electr

• Page 1411 and 1412:

41.5 Electron Spin 1385 integer mul

• Page 1413 and 1414:

41.6 Many-Electron Atoms and the Ex

• Page 1415 and 1416:

41.6 Many-Electron Atoms and the Ex

• Page 1417 and 1418:

41.6 Many-Electron Atoms and the Ex

• Page 1419 and 1420:

41.7 X-Ray Spectra 1393 Example 41.

• Page 1421 and 1422:

41.7 X-Ray Spectra 1395 atom (becau

• Page 1423 and 1424:

CHAPTER 41 SUMMARY Three-dimensiona

• Page 1425 and 1426:

Exercises 1399 Problems For instruc

• Page 1427 and 1428:

Problems 1401 astronomers can learn

• Page 1429 and 1430:

Challenge Problems 1403 spin can be

• Page 1431 and 1432:

MOLECULES AND CONDENSED MATTER 42 L

• Page 1433 and 1434:

42.1 Types of Molecular Bonds 1407

• Page 1435 and 1436:

42.2 Molecular Spectra 1409 distanc

• Page 1437 and 1438:

42.2 Molecular Spectra 1411 42.9 A

• Page 1439 and 1440:

42.3 Structure of Solids 1413 42.11

• Page 1441 and 1442:

42.3 Structure of Solids 1415 meani

• Page 1443 and 1444:

42.4 Energy Bands 1417 there is som

• Page 1445 and 1446:

42.5 Free-Electron Model of Metals

• Page 1447 and 1448:

42.5 Free-Electron Model of Metals

• Page 1449 and 1450:

42.6 Semiconductors 1423 Example 42

• Page 1451 and 1452:

42.7 Semiconductor Devices 1425 Thi

• Page 1453 and 1454:

42.7 Semiconductor Devices 1427 42.

• Page 1455 and 1456:

42.7 Semiconductor Devices 1429 Tra

• Page 1457 and 1458:

CHAPTER 42 SUMMARY Molecular bonds

• Page 1459 and 1460:

Exercises 1433 Q42.13 What factors

• Page 1461 and 1462:

Problems 1435 42.33 .. (a) A forwar

• Page 1463 and 1464:

Answers 1437 ƒ ƒ rial is defined

• Page 1465 and 1466:

NUCLEAR PHYSICS 43 ? This sculpture

• Page 1467 and 1468:

43.1 Properties of Nuclei 1441 The

• Page 1469 and 1470:

43.1 Properties of Nuclei 1443 magn

• Page 1471 and 1472:

43.2 Nuclear Binding and Nuclear St

• Page 1473 and 1474:

43.2 Nuclear Binding and Nuclear St

• Page 1475 and 1476:

• Page 1477 and 1478:

• Page 1479 and 1480:

60 EVALUATE: With three decay produ

• Page 1481 and 1482:

• Page 1483 and 1484:

43.4 Activities and Half-Lives 1457

• Page 1485 and 1486:

• Page 1487 and 1488:

• Page 1489 and 1490:

43.6 Nuclear Reactions 1463 and so

• Page 1491 and 1492:

43.7 Nuclear Fission 1465 fragments

• Page 1493 and 1494:

43.7 Nuclear Fission 1467 43.14 Sch

• Page 1495 and 1496:

43.8 Nuclear Fusion 1469 43.16 The

• Page 1497 and 1498:

43.8 Nuclear Fusion 1471 We conside

• Page 1499 and 1500:

Discussion Questions 1473 BRIDGING

• Page 1501 and 1502:

Exercises 1475 43.20 . BIO Radioact

• Page 1503 and 1504:

Problems 1477 230 43.56 .. CP Thori

• Page 1505 and 1506:

• Page 1507 and 1508:

44.1 Fundamental Particles—A Hist

• Page 1509 and 1510:

44.1 Fundamental Particles—A Hist

• Page 1511 and 1512:

44.2 Particle Accelerators and Dete

• Page 1513 and 1514:

44.2 Particle Accelerators and Dete

• Page 1515 and 1516:

44.2 Particle Accelerators and Dete

• Page 1517 and 1518:

44.3 Particles and Interactions 149

• Page 1519 and 1520:

44.3 Particles and Interactions 149

• Page 1521 and 1522:

44.3 Particles and Interactions 149

• Page 1523 and 1524:

44.4 Quarks and the Eightfold Way 1

• Page 1525 and 1526:

44.5 The Standard Model and Beyond

• Page 1527 and 1528:

44.6 The Expanding Universe 1501 In

• Page 1529 and 1530:

44.6 The Expanding Universe 1503 Th

• Page 1531 and 1532:

44.6 The Expanding Universe 1505 tw

• Page 1533 and 1534:

44.6 The Expanding Universe 1507 Th

• Page 1535 and 1536:

44.7 The Beginning of Time 1509 Exa

• Page 1537 and 1538:

44.7 The Beginning of Time 1511 cha

• Page 1539 and 1540:

44.7 The Beginning of Time 1513 AGE

• Page 1541 and 1542:

44.7 The Beginning of Time 1515 Bac

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CHAPTER 44 SUMMARY Fundamental part

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Exercises 1519 44.3 .. A positive p

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APPENDIX A THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM

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APPENDIX B USEFUL MATHEMATICAL RELA

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APPENDIX D PERIODIC TABLE OF THE EL

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APPENDIX F NUMERICAL CONSTANTS Fund

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PHOTO CREDITS About the Author Hugh

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Chapter 43 Opener: Juraj Liptak/Deu

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INDEX For users of the three-volume

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Index I-3 Capacitive reactance, 102

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Index I-5 electric, 709-713 magneti

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Index I-7 rotational, 1408-1412 Sch

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Index I-9 Gravitational force(s), 1

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Index I-11 definition of, 1131 of e

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Index I-13 Morley, Edward, 1180-118

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Index I-15 Physical laws (principle

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Index I-17 in nerve conduction, 824

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Index I-19 tensile, 352-354 volume,

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Index I-21 magnitude of, 38t motion

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NUMERICAL CONSTANTS Fundamental Phy

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