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University Physics With Modern Physics

University Physics With Modern

  • Page 3 and 4: PhET SIMULATIONS Available in the P
  • Page 5 and 6: SEARS AND ZEMANSKY’S UNIVERSITY P
  • Page 7 and 8: BRIEF CONTENTS MECHANICS 1 Units, P
  • Page 9 and 10: Build Confidence NEW! Bridging Prob
  • Page 11 and 12: Make a Difference with MasteringPhy
  • Page 13 and 14: TO THE STUDENT HOW TO SUCCEED IN PH
  • Page 15 and 16: TO THE INSTRUCTOR PREFACE This book
  • Page 17 and 18: PREFACE xv MasteringPhysics ® (www
  • Page 19 and 20: PREFACE xvii Acknowledgments We wou
  • Page 21 and 22: DETAILED CONTENTS MECHANICS 1 UNITS
  • Page 23 and 24: DETAILED CONTENTS xxi 18 THERMAL PR
  • Page 25 and 26: DETAILED CONTENTS xxiii 35 INTERFER
  • Page 27 and 28: UNITS, PHYSICAL QUANTITIES, AND VEC
  • Page 29 and 30: 1.2 Solving Physics Problems 3 at t
  • Page 31 and 32: 1.3 Standards and Units 5 299,792,4
  • Page 33 and 34: 1.4 Unit Consistency and Conversion
  • Page 35 and 36: 1.5 Uncertainty and Significant Fig
  • Page 37 and 38: 1.7 Vectors and Vector Addition 11
  • Page 39 and 40: 1.7 Vectors and Vector Addition 13
  • Page 41 and 42: 1.8 Components of Vectors 15 is u (
  • Page 43 and 44: 1.8 Components of Vectors 17 of the
  • Page 45 and 46: 1.9 Unit Vectors 19 Test Your Under
  • Page 47 and 48: 1.10 Products of Vectors 21 positiv
  • Page 49 and 50: 1.10 Products of Vectors 23 Vector
  • Page 51 and 52: 1.10 Products of Vectors 25 Example
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    Discussion Questions 27 BRIDGING PR

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    Exercises 29 to Paris and then over

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    Problems 31 in a day? (b) If this a

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    Challenge Problems 33 (b) If and ha

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    MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 2 LEAR

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    2.1 Displacement, Time, and Average

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    2.2 Instantaneous Velocity 39 To fi

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    2.2 Instantaneous Velocity 41 2.7 U

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    2.3 Average and Instantaneous Accel

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    2.3 Average and Instantaneous Accel

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    2.4 Motion with Constant Accelerati

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    2.4 Motion with Constant Accelerati

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    2.4 Motion with Constant Accelerati

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    2.5 Freely Falling Bodies 53 Exampl

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    2.6 Velocity and Position by Integr

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    2.6 Velocity and Position by Integr

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    Discussion Questions 59 BRIDGING PR

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    Exercises 61 Figure E2.11 x (m) 40

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    Exercises 63 2.33 .. Mars Landing.

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    Problems 65 first 25.0 m? (b) The r

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    Challenge Problems 67 2.83 . Visito

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    MOTION IN TWO OR THREE DIMENSIONS 3

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    3.1 Position and Velocity Vectors 7

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    3.2 The Acceleration Vector 73 3.6

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    3.2 The Acceleration Vector 75 (b)

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    3.3 Projectile Motion 77 Conceptual

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    3.3 Projectile Motion 79 components

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    3.3 Projectile Motion 81 Example 3.

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    3.3 Projectile Motion 83 of h and R

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    3.4 Motion in a Circle 85 From Eq.

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    3.4 Motion in a Circle 87 CAUTION U

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    3.5 Relative Velocity 89 It’s a s

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    3.5 Relative Velocity 91 the statio

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    3.5 Relative Velocity 93 EXECUTE: F

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    Discussion Questions 95 BRIDGING PR

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    Exercises 97 insect jumps. When lea

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    Problems 99 40 km>h wind blowing fr

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    1965 1AWx Problems 101 3.65 ... Loo

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    Answers 103 3.86 .. Two soccer play

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    4.1 Force and Interactions 105 idea

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    CAUTION Using a wiggly line in forc

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    4.2 Newton’s First Law 109 The te

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    4.2 Newton’s First Law 111 4.11 R

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    4.3 Newton’s Second Law 113 that

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    In symbols, 4.3 Newton’s Second L

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    4.4 Mass and Weight 117 4.19 Our sk

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    g = 9.80 m>s 2 We will use for prob

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    4.5 Newton’s Third Law 121 In Fig

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    4.5 Newton’s Third Law 123 Concep

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    4.6 Free-Body Diagrams 125 Test You

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    Discussion Questions 127 BRIDGING P

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    Exercises 129 4.4 . A man is draggi

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    Problems 131 4.39 .. CP BIO A Stand

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    Answers 133 4.4 It would take twice

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    5.1 Using Newton’s First Law: Par

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    5.1 Using Newton’s First Law: Par

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    5.1 Using Newton’s First Law: Par

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    5.2 Using Newton’s Second Law: Dy

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    5.2 Using Newton’s Second Law: Dy

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    to solve the two equations for a x

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    5.3 Frictional Forces 147 get it st

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    5.3 Frictional Forces 149 In some s

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    5.3 Frictional Forces 151 Example 5

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    5.3 Frictional Forces 153 (remember

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    5.4 Dynamics of Circular Motion 155

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    5.4 Dynamics of Circular Motion 157

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    5.5 The Fundamental Forces of Natur

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    CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY Using Newton’s

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    Exercises 163 Q5.12 In a world with

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    Exercises 165 5.14 . Three sleds ar

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    Exercises 167 how much force it wou

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    cushion the impact on their hip fro

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    Problems 171 5.88 .. CP Losing Carg

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    Problems 173 square of its speed).

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    Answers 175 Answers Chapter Opening

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    6.1 Work 177 6.1 Work You’d proba

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    6.1 Work 179 6.4 A constant force c

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    6.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Ene

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    K energy is greater than the initia

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    6.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Ene

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    6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Fo

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    6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Fo

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    6.3 Work and Energy with Varying Fo

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    6.4 Power 193 angle du has a magnit

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    6.4 Power 195 Example 6.10 A “pow

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    Discussion Questions 197 BRIDGING P

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    Exercises 199 (ii) the tension in t

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    Exercises 201 instantaneously? With

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    hand to move the object slowly from

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    Challenge Problems 205 6.95 . BIO P

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    POTENTIAL ENERGY AND ENERGY CONSERV

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    7.1 Gravitational Potential Energy

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    7.1 Gravitational Potential Energy

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    7.1 Gravitational Potential Energy

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    7.1 Gravitational Potential Energy

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    7.2 Elastic Potential Energy 217 Th

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    7.2 Elastic Potential Energy 219 in

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    7.3 Conservative and Nonconservativ

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    7.3 Conservative and Nonconservativ

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    7.4 Force and Potential Energy 225

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    7.4 Force and Potential Energy 227

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    7.5 Energy Diagrams 229 7.24 The ma

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    Discussion Questions 231 BRIDGING P

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    Exercises 233 140 food calories per

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    U1x2 = -C >x 6 , energy function .

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    Figure P7.55 7.56 .. A 1500-kg rock

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    Challenge Problem 239 masses of the

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    MOMENTUM, IMPULSE, AND COLLISIONS 8

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    8.1 Momentum and Impulse 243 Let’

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    8.1 Momentum and Impulse 245 by a f

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    8.2 Conservation of Momentum 247 8.

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    8.2 Conservation of Momentum 249 Ex

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    8.3 Momentum Conservation and Colli

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    8.3 Momentum Conservation and Colli

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    8.4 Elastic Collisions 255 Finally,

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    8.4 Elastic Collisions 257 Example

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    8.5 Center of Mass 259 The position

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    8.5 Center of Mass 261 External For

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    8.6 Rocket Propulsion 263 so its x-

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    8.6 Rocket Propulsion 265 Example 8

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    Discussion Questions 267 BRIDGING P

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    Exercises 269 ball? Is the effect o

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    Exercises 271 (a) How fast were the

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    Problems 273 8.67 .. A steel ball w

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    Problems 275 (Fig. P8.95). You can

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    Answers 277 Consider a thin rod of

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    9.1 Angular Velocity and Accelerati

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    v v V Just as x is the x-component

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    9.2 Rotation with Constant Angular

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    a 6 0 K = 1 2 mv2 for a particle, a

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    9.3 Relating Linear and Angular Kin

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    9.4 Energy in Rotational Motion 289

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    9.4 Energy in Rotational Motion 291

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    9.5 Parallel-Axis Theorem 293 Gravi

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    9.6 Moment-of-Inertia Calculations

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    CHAPTER 9 SUMMARY Rotational kinema

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    Exercises 299 Q9.6 A flywheel rotat

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    Exercises 301 outer radii of this s

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    Problems 303 object of the same mat

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    Problems 305 The meter stick is hel

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    Answers 307 rotates through a small

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    10.1 Torque 309 it’s directed alo

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    10.2 Torque and Angular Acceleratio

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    10.2 Torque and Angular Acceleratio

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    this: Every possible motion of a ri

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    10.3 Rigid-Body Rotation About a Mo

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    10.3 Rigid-Body Rotation About a Mo

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    10.4 Work and Power in Rotational M

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    The value of L S depends on the cho

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    10.6 Conservation of Angular Moment

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    10.6 Conservation of Angular Moment

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    10.7 Gyroscopes and Precession 329

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    CHAPTER10 SUMMARY Torque: When a fo

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    Discussion Questions 333 Q10.7 When

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    Exercises 335 wheel. (c) Which of t

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    Exercises 337 10.43 .. The Spinning

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    Problems 339 (b) You carefully bala

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    Problems 341 10.86 .. A uniform dra

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    Answers 343 Answers Chapter Opening

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    11.2 Center of Gravity 345 11.1 Con

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    11.2 Center of Gravity 347 The tota

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    11.3 Solving Rigid-Body Equilibrium

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    11.3 Solving Rigid-Body Equilibrium

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    11.4 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Mo

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    11.4 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Mo

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    11.5 Elasticity and Plasticity 357

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    CHAPTER 11 SUMMARY Conditions for e

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    Exercises 361 the horseshoe’s cen

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    Exercises 363 the wheelbarrow is al

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    Problems 365 (b) How much will the

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    Problems 367 and if you raise your

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    Problems 369 horizontal. If the bic

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    Challenge Problems 371 11.92 ... CP

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    FLUID MECHANICS 12 LEARNING GOALS B

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    12.2 Pressure in a Fluid 375 sea le

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    12.2 Pressure in a Fluid 377 p 2 -

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    12.2 Pressure in a Fluid 379 Anothe

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    12.3 Buoyancy 381 submerged because

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    12.4 Fluid Flow 383 steady flow, ev

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    12.5 Bernoulli’s Equation 385 12.

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    12.5 Bernoulli’s Equation 387 Exa

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    12.6 Viscosity and Turbulence 389 1

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    12.6 Viscosity and Turbulence 391 C

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    Discussion Questions 393 BRIDGING P

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    Exercises 395 12.12 . A barrel cont

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    Problems 397 What pressure differen

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    Problems 399 weight when completely

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    Answers 401 upward. (c) Derive an e

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    13.1 Newton’s Law of Gravitation

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    13.1 Newton’s Law of Gravitation

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    13.2 Weight 407 When the body is ne

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    13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy

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    13.4 The Motion of Satellites 411 E

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    13.4 The Motion of Satellites 413 T

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    13.5 Kepler’s Laws and the Motion

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    13.5 Kepler’s Laws and the Motion

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    13.6 Spherical Mass Distributions 4

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    13.7 Apparent Weight and the Earth

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    13.8 Black Holes 423 Test Your Unde

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    13.8 Black Holes 425 EVALUATE: The

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    CHAPTER 13 SUMMARY Newton’s law o

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    Exercises 429 Q13.17 At what point

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    Problems 431 the gravitational pote

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    Problems 433 13.60 .. In Example 13

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    Challenge Problems 435 the magnitud

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    PERIODIC MOTION 14 LEARNING GOALS B

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    14.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 439 Als

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    14.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 441 xy-

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    14.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 443 EXE

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    14.2 Simple Harmonic Motion 445 To

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    14.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Moti

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    14.3 Energy in Simple Harmonic Moti

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    14.4 Applications of Simple Harmoni

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    14.5 The Simple Pendulum 453 If ƒu

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    14.6 The Physical Pendulum 455 the

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    14.7 Damped Oscillations 457 oscill

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    14.8 Forced Oscillations and Resona

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    CHAPTER 14 SUMMARY Periodic motion:

  • Page 489 and 490:

    Exercises 463 Problems For instruct

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    Exercises 465 3.0 mm and a phase an

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    Problems 467 14.55 . Two pendulums

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    Problems 469 (a) the period of osci

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    Answers 471 terms of l, v, and L; f

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    15.1 Types of Mechanical Waves 473

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    15.2 Periodic Waves 475 waves with

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    15.3 Mathematical Description of a

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    15.3 Mathematical Description of a

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    15.3 Mathematical Description of a

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    15.4 Speed of a Transverse Wave 483

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    15.4 Speed of a Transverse Wave 485

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    15.5 Energy in Wave Motion 487 15.1

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    15.6 Wave Interference, Boundary Co

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    15.7 Standing Waves on a String 491

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    15.7 Standing Waves on a String 493

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    15.8 Normal Modes of a String 495 E

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    15.8 Normal Modes of a String 497 C

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    CHAPTER 15 SUMMARY Waves and their

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    Exercises 501 along the string and

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    Exercises 503 normal conversation,

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    Problems 505 has mass per unit leng

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    Challenge Problems 507 transverse v

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    SOUND AND HEARING 16 LEARNING GOALS

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    16.1 Sound Waves 511 (a) A graph of

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    16.1 Sound Waves 513 (b) To find th

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    16.2 Speed of Sound Waves 515 press

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    16.2 Speed of Sound Waves 517 scann

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    16.3 Sound Intensity 519 CAUTION Wa

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    16.3 Sound Intensity 521 Example 16

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    16.4 Standing Sound Waves and Norma

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    16.4 Standing Sound Waves and Norma

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    16.5 Resonance and Sound 527 narrow

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    16.6 Interference of Waves 529 cond

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    16.7 Beats 531 Interference effects

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    16.8 The Doppler Effect 533 Test Yo

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    16.8 The Doppler Effect 535 the med

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    16.8 The Doppler Effect 537 16.33 T

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    16.9 Shock Waves 539 the direction

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    CHAPTER 16 SUMMARY Sound waves: Sou

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    Exercises 543 Problems For instruct

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    Exercises 545 16.17 . A sound wave

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    Problems 547 other one? (b) What wa

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    Answers 549 ƒ R = ƒ S a1 - v c b

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    TEMPERATURE AND HEAT 17 LEARNING GO

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    17.2 Thermometers and Temperature S

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    17.3 Gas Thermometers and the Kelvi

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    17.4 Thermal Expansion 557 17.4 The

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    17.4 Thermal Expansion 559 Now we r

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    17.4 Thermal Expansion 561 Both ¢L

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    17.5 Quantity of Heat 563 Putting a

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    17.6 Calorimetry and Phase Changes

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    17.6 Calorimetry and Phase Changes

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    17.6 Calorimetry and Phase Changes

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    17.7 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 57

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    17.7 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 57

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    17.7 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 57

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    17.7 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 57

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    Discussion Questions 579 BRIDGING P

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    Exercises 581 Section 17.4 Thermal

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    Exercises 583 12.0°C. temperature

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    Problems 585 17.79 ... You are maki

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    Problems 587 17.106 .. One experime

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    Answers 589 a cylindrical jacket ma

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    18.1 Equations of State 591 18.1 Eq

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    18.1 Equations of State 593 We used

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    18.1 Equations of State 595 18.4 Th

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    18.2 Molecular Properties of Matter

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    18.3 Kinetic-Molecular Model of an

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    18.3 Kinetic-Molecular Model of an

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    18.3 Kinetic-Molecular Model of an

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    18.4 Heat Capacities 605 Test Your

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    18.4 Heat Capacities 607 4R 7R/2 C

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    18.5 Molecular Speeds 609 We can al

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    18.6 Phases of Matter 611 p c At th

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    18.6 Phases of Matter 613 p V 1 , V

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    Discussion Questions 615 BRIDGING P

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    Exercises 617 22.0°C and behaves a

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    Problems 619 be observed with a mic

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    Problems 621 18.72 . CP (a) Compute

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    Answers 623 of about 11 km, the tem

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    19.2 Work Done During Volume Change

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    19.2 Work Done During Volume Change

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    19.4 Internal Energy and the First

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    19.4 Internal Energy and the First

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    19.4 Internal Energy and the First

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    19.5 Kinds of Thermodynamic Process

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    19.7 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Ga

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    19.7 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Ga

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    19.8 Adiabatic Processes for an Ide

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    CHAPTER 19 SUMMARY Heat and work in

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    Exercises 645 Q19.11 When you blow

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    Problems 647 19.24 . Three moles of

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    Problems 649 expands at constant pr

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    Answers 651 Answers Chapter Opening

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    20.1 Directions of Thermodynamic Pr

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    20.2 Heat Engines 655 temperature.

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    20.3 Internal-Combustion Engines 65

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    20.4 Refrigerators 659 adiabatic co

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    20.5 The Second Law of Thermodynami

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    20.6 The Carnot Cycle 663 cold rese

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    20.6 The Carnot Cycle 665 Thus the

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    20.6 The Carnot Cycle 667 Then we s

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    20.7 Entropy 669 ratio of the heats

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    20.7 Entropy 671 Example 20.6 Entro

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    20.7 Entropy 673 20.19 (a) A revers

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    20.8 Microscopic Interpretation of

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    20.8 Microscopic Interpretation of

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    Discussion Questions Summary 679 An

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    Exercises 681 of the cycle is adiab

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    Problems 683 process 3 S 1 is at a

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    Challenge Problem 685 20.56 . An ai

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    ELECTRIC CHARGE AND ELECTRIC FIELD

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    21.1 Electric Charge 689 21.2 Schem

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    21.2 Conductors, Insulators, and In

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    21.3 Coulomb’s Law 693 21.8 The c

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    21.3 Coulomb’s Law 695 The propor

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    21.3 Coulomb’s Law 697 Problem-So

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    21.4 Electric Field and Electric Fo

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    21.4 Electric Field and Electric Fo

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    21.5 Electric-Field Calculations 70

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    21.5 Electric-Field Calculations 70

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    21.5 Electric-Field Calculations 70

  • Page 735 and 736:

    21.7 Electric Dipoles 709 21.28 Ele

  • Page 737 and 738:

    21.7 Electric Dipoles 711 t = pE si

  • Page 739 and 740:

    21.7 Electric Dipoles 713 21.33 Fin

  • Page 741 and 742:

    Discussion Questions 715 BRIDGING P

  • Page 743 and 744:

    Exercises 717 21.9 .. Two small pla

  • Page 745 and 746:

    Exercises 719 Section 21.5 Electric

  • Page 747 and 748:

    Problems 721 by using trial values

  • Page 749 and 750:

    Challenge Problems 723 solution. Th

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    GAUSS’S LAW 22 LEARNING GOALS By

  • Page 753 and 754:

    22.1 Charge and Electric Flux 727 i

  • Page 755 and 756:

    22.2 Calculating Electric Flux 729

  • Page 757 and 758:

    22.2 Calculating Electric Flux 731

  • Page 759 and 760:

    22.3 Gauss’s Law 733 We can also

  • Page 761 and 762:

    22.3 Gauss’s Law 735 (a) Gaussian

  • Page 763 and 764:

    + + + 22.4 Applications of Gauss’

  • Page 765 and 766:

    - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22.4

  • Page 767 and 768:

    - - --- 22.5 Charges on Conductors

  • Page 769 and 770:

    22.5 Charges on Conductors 743 22.2

  • Page 771 and 772:

    22.5 Charges on Conductors 745 Conc

  • Page 773 and 774:

    Discussion Questions 747 BRIDGING P

  • Page 775 and 776:

    Exercises 749 22.11 . A 6.20-mC poi

  • Page 777 and 778:

    Problems 751 sheet, as shown in Fig

  • Page 779 and 780:

    Answers 753 three regions. Express

  • Page 781 and 782:

    23.1 Electric Potential Energy 755

  • Page 783 and 784:

    23.1 Electric Potential Energy 757

  • Page 785 and 786:

    23.1 Electric Potential Energy 759

  • Page 787 and 788:

    23.2 Electric Potential 761 EXECUTE

  • Page 789 and 790:

    23.2 Electric Potential 763 extends

  • Page 791 and 792:

    23.2 Electric Potential 765 V a - V

  • Page 793 and 794:

    23.3 Calculating Electric Potential

  • Page 795 and 796:

    23.3 Calculating Electric Potential

  • Page 797 and 798:

    23.4 Equipotential Surfaces 771 fie

  • Page 799 and 800:

    23.4 Equipotential Surfaces 773 Sin

  • Page 801 and 802:

    23.5 Potential Gradient 775 At each

  • Page 803 and 804:

    CHAPTER 23 SUMMARY Electric potenti

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    Exercises 779 Q23.14 A conducting s

  • Page 807 and 808:

    Exercises 781 23.31 . A very long w

  • Page 809 and 810:

    Problems 783 23.58 .. Two oppositel

  • Page 811 and 812:

    Challenge Problems 785 infinity. Fi

  • Page 813 and 814:

    Answers 787 Answers Chapter Opening

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    24.1 Capacitors and Capacitance 789

  • Page 817 and 818:

    24.1 Capacitors and Capacitance 791

  • Page 819 and 820:

    24.2 Capacitors in Series and Paral

  • Page 821 and 822:

    24.2 Capacitors in Series and Paral

  • Page 823 and 824:

    24.3 Energy Storage in Capacitors a

  • Page 825 and 826:

    24.3 Energy Storage in Capacitors a

  • Page 827 and 828:

    24.4 Dielectrics 801 When the charg

  • Page 829 and 830:

    24.4 Dielectrics 803 home repair wo

  • Page 831 and 832:

    - + 24.5 Molecular Model of Induced

  • Page 833 and 834:

    24.6 Gauss’s Law in Dielectrics 8

  • Page 835 and 836:

    CHAPTER 24 SUMMARY Capacitors and c

  • Page 837 and 838:

    Exercises 811 charges on the plates

  • Page 839 and 840:

    Exercises 813 which the plates attr

  • Page 841 and 842:

    Problems 815 Figure P24.55 a 8.60 m

  • Page 843 and 844:

    Answers 817 C of this system. (b) S

  • Page 845 and 846:

    25.1 Current 819 25.1 Current A cur

  • Page 847 and 848:

    25.1 Current 821 particle has a cha

  • Page 849 and 850:

    25.2 Resistivity 823 R 1æ # m2 Tab

  • Page 851 and 852:

    25.3 Resistance 825 Superconductors

  • Page 853 and 854:

    25.3 Resistance 827 25.10 Current-v

  • Page 855 and 856:

    25.4 Electromotive Force and Circui

  • Page 857 and 858:

    25.4 Electromotive Force and Circui

  • Page 859 and 860:

    25.4 Electromotive Force and Circui

  • Page 861 and 862:

    25.5 Energy and Power in Electric C

  • Page 863 and 864:

    25.5 Energy and Power in Electric C

  • Page 865 and 866:

    25.6 Theory of Metallic Conduction

  • Page 867 and 868:

    CHAPTER 25 SUMMARY Current and curr

  • Page 869 and 870:

    Exercises 843 Q25.13 Why does an el

  • Page 871 and 872:

    Exercises 845 25.31 . An ideal volt

  • Page 873 and 874:

    Problems 847 resistance 1.2 Æ. An

  • Page 875 and 876:

    Answers 849 CHALLENGE PROBLEMS 25.8

  • Page 877 and 878:

    26.1 Resistors in Series and Parall

  • Page 879 and 880:

    26.1 Resistors in Series and Parall

  • Page 881 and 882:

    26.2 Kirchhoff’s Rules 855 26.5 W

  • Page 883 and 884:

    26.2 Kirchhoff’s Rules 857 Proble

  • Page 885 and 886:

    26.2 Kirchhoff’s Rules 859 Exampl

  • Page 887 and 888:

    26.3 Electrical Measuring Instrumen

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    26.3 Electrical Measuring Instrumen

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    26.4 R-C Circuits 865 CAUTION Lower

  • Page 893 and 894:

    26.4 R-C Circuits 867 Discharging a

  • Page 895 and 896:

    26.5 Power Distribution Systems 869

  • Page 897 and 898:

    26.5 Power Distribution Systems 871

  • Page 899 and 900:

    | | | | | | | | CHAPTER 26 SUMMARY

  • Page 901 and 902:

    + Exercises 875 Q26.10 A real batte

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    Exercises 877 Figure E26.27 Figure

  • Page 905 and 906:

    + + Problems 879 + 26.56 . A 400-Æ

  • Page 907 and 908:

    + Challenge Problems 881 these resi

  • Page 909 and 910:

    MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETIC FORCES

  • Page 911 and 912:

    27.2 Magnetic Field 885 north pole.

  • Page 913 and 914:

    27.2 Magnetic Field 887 27.7 Findin

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    27.3 Magnetic Field Lines and Magne

  • Page 917 and 918:

    27.3 Magnetic Field Lines and Magne

  • Page 919 and 920:

    S A charge moving at right angles t

  • Page 921 and 922:

    27.4 Motion of Charged Particles in

  • Page 923 and 924:

    27.5 Applications of Motion of Char

  • Page 925 and 926:

    27.6 Magnetic Force on a Current-Ca

  • Page 927 and 928:

    27.7 Force and Torque on a Current

  • Page 929 and 930:

    27.7 Force and Torque on a Current

  • Page 931 and 932:

    27.7 Force and Torque on a Current

  • Page 933 and 934:

    27.8 The Direct-Current Motor 907 s

  • Page 935 and 936:

    27.9 The Hall Effect 909 (b) The po

  • Page 937 and 938:

    CHAPTER 27 SUMMARY Magnetic forces:

  • Page 939 and 940:

    Exercises 913 Q27.4 The magnetic fo

  • Page 941 and 942:

    Exercises 915 27.24 .. A beam of pr

  • Page 943 and 944:

    Problems 917 and the value of the p

  • Page 945 and 946:

    Problems 919 27.72 .. CP A plastic

  • Page 947 and 948:

    Challenge Problems 921 immersed in

  • Page 949 and 950:

    SOURCES OF MAGNETIC FIELD 28 LEARNI

  • Page 951 and 952:

    28.1 Magnetic Field of a Moving Cha

  • Page 953 and 954:

    28.2 Magnetic Field of a Current El

  • Page 955 and 956:

    28.3 Magnetic Field of a Straight C

  • Page 957 and 958:

    + + 28.4 Force Between Parallel Con

  • Page 959 and 960:

    28.5 Magnetic Field of a Circular C

  • Page 961 and 962:

    28.6 Ampere’s Law 935 Test Your U

  • Page 963 and 964:

    28.6 Ampere’s Law 937 C BS # d l

  • Page 965 and 966:

    28.7 Applications of Ampere’s Law

  • Page 967 and 968:

    28.8 Magnetic Materials 941 length

  • Page 969 and 970:

    28.8 Magnetic Materials 943 field,

  • Page 971 and 972:

    28.8 Magnetic Materials 945 field i

  • Page 973 and 974:

    CHAPTER 28 SUMMARY Magnetic field o

  • Page 975 and 976:

    Exercises 949 Problems For instruct

  • Page 977 and 978:

    Exercises 951 Section 28.3 Magnetic

  • Page 979 and 980:

    Problems 953 28.46 . Repeat Exercis

  • Page 981 and 982:

    Challenge Problems 955 the magnetic

  • Page 983 and 984:

    ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 29 ? When

  • Page 985 and 986:

    29.2 Faraday’s Law 959 deformatio

  • Page 987 and 988:

    29.2 Faraday’s Law 961 SOLUTION d

  • Page 989 and 990:

    29.2 Faraday’s Law 963 Problem-So

  • Page 991 and 992:

    29.2 Faraday’s Law 965 between po

  • Page 993 and 994:

    29.3 Lenz’s Law 967 the left side

  • Page 995 and 996:

    29.4 Motional Electromotive Force 9

  • Page 997 and 998:

    29.5 Induced Electric Fields 971 Ex

  • Page 999 and 1000:

    29.5 Induced Electric Fields 973 ti

  • Page 1001 and 1002:

    - - - 29.7 Displacement Current and

  • Page 1003 and 1004:

    + + 29.7 Displacement Current and M

  • Page 1005 and 1006:

    29.8 Superconductivity 979 interven

  • Page 1007 and 1008:

    CHAPTER 29 SUMMARY Faraday’s law:

  • Page 1009 and 1010:

    Exercises 983 emf induced in the ri

  • Page 1011 and 1012:

    Exercises 985 the instant when the

  • Page 1013 and 1014:

    Problems 987 rectangle 2.0 m by 4.0

  • Page 1015 and 1016:

    Problems 989 induced in the ring at

  • Page 1017 and 1018:

    INDUCTANCE 30 LEARNING GOALS By stu

  • Page 1019 and 1020:

    30.1 Mutual Inductance 993 denoted

  • Page 1021 and 1022:

    30.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors

  • Page 1023 and 1024:

    30.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors

  • Page 1025 and 1026:

    30.3 Magnetic-Field Energy 999 the

  • Page 1027 and 1028:

    30.4 The R-L Circuit 1001 SOLUTION

  • Page 1029 and 1030:

    30.4 The R-L Circuit 1003 This sepa

  • Page 1031 and 1032:

    30.5 The L-C Circuit 1005 Example 3

  • Page 1033 and 1034:

    30.5 The L-C Circuit 1007 We apply

  • Page 1035 and 1036:

    30.5 The L-R-C Series Circuit 1009

  • Page 1037 and 1038:

    30.5 The L-R-C Series Circuit 1011

  • Page 1039 and 1040:

    Discussion Questions 1013 BRIDGING

  • Page 1041 and 1042:

    Exercises 1015 energy density in th

  • Page 1043 and 1044:

    Problems 1017 30.52 . An inductor i

  • Page 1045 and 1046:

    Challenge Problems 1019 (c) The fra

  • Page 1047 and 1048:

    ALTERNATING CURRENT 31 LEARNING GOA

  • Page 1049 and 1050:

    31.1 Phasors and Alternating Curren

  • Page 1051 and 1052:

    31.2 Resistance and Reactance 1025

  • Page 1053 and 1054:

    31.2 Resistance and Reactance 1027

  • Page 1055 and 1056:

    31.2 Resistance and Reactance 1029

  • Page 1057 and 1058:

    31.3 The L-R-C Series Circuit 1031

  • Page 1059 and 1060:

    31.3 The L-R-C Series Circuit 1033

  • Page 1061 and 1062:

    31.4 Power in Alternating-Current C

  • Page 1063 and 1064:

    31.5 Resonance in Alternating-Curre

  • Page 1065 and 1066:

    31.5 Resonance in Alternating-Curre

  • Page 1067 and 1068:

    31.6 Transformers 1041 emfs. If the

  • Page 1069 and 1070:

    CHAPTER 31 SUMMARY Phasors and alte

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    Exercises 1045 inductive or capacit

  • Page 1073 and 1074:

    Problems 1047 Section 31.6 Transfor

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    Challenge Problems 1049 frequency?

  • Page 1077 and 1078:

    ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 32 LEARNING G

  • Page 1079 and 1080:

    32.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Elec

  • Page 1081 and 1082:

    32.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves an

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    32.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves an

  • Page 1085 and 1086:

    32.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves an

  • Page 1087 and 1088:

    32.3 Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Wav

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    32.3 Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Wav

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    32.4 Energy and Momentum in Electro

  • Page 1093 and 1094:

    32.4 Energy and Momentum in Electro

  • Page 1095 and 1096:

    32.5 Standing Electromagnetic Waves

  • Page 1097 and 1098:

    32.5 Standing Electromagnetic Waves

  • Page 1099 and 1100:

    CHAPTER 32 SUMMARY Maxwell’s equa

  • Page 1101 and 1102:

    Exercises 1075 EXERCISES Section 32

  • Page 1103 and 1104:

    Problems 1077 32.39 .. You want to

  • Page 1105 and 1106:

    Answers 1079 Answers Chapter Openin

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    33.1 The Nature of Light 1081 In 18

  • Page 1109 and 1110:

    33.2 Reflection and Refraction 1083

  • Page 1111 and 1112:

    33.2 Reflection and Refraction 1085

  • Page 1113 and 1114:

    33.2 Reflection and Refraction 1087

  • Page 1115 and 1116:

    33.3 Total Internal Reflection 1089

  • Page 1117 and 1118:

    33.4 Dispersion 1091 Conceptual Exa

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    33.5 Polarization 1093 exit the rai

  • Page 1121 and 1122:

    33.5 Polarization 1095 Incident unp

  • Page 1123 and 1124:

    33.5 Polarization 1097 Example 33.5

  • Page 1125 and 1126:

    33.5 Polarization 1099 Circular and

  • Page 1127 and 1128:

    33.6 Scattering of Light 1101 33.32

  • Page 1129 and 1130:

    33.7 Huygens’s Principle 1103 arr

  • Page 1131 and 1132:

    CHAPTER 33 SUMMARY Light and its pr

  • Page 1133 and 1134:

    Exercises 1107 Q33.18 For the old

  • Page 1135 and 1136:

    Problems 1109 Figure E33.29 I 0 Unp

  • Page 1137 and 1138:

    Problems 1111 (In actuality a light

  • Page 1139 and 1140:

    Answers 1113 surface of the drop at

  • Page 1141 and 1142:

    34.1 Reflection and Refraction at a

  • Page 1143 and 1144:

    34.1 Reflection and Refraction at a

  • Page 1145 and 1146:

    34.2 Reflection at a Spherical Surf

  • Page 1147 and 1148:

    34.2 Reflection at a Spherical Surf

  • Page 1149 and 1150:

    34.2 Reflection at a Spherical Surf

  • Page 1151 and 1152:

    34.2 Reflection at a Spherical Surf

  • Page 1153 and 1154:

    34.3 Refraction at a Spherical Surf

  • Page 1155 and 1156:

    34.3 Refraction at a Spherical Surf

  • Page 1157 and 1158:

    34.4 Thin Lenses 1131 Test Your Und

  • Page 1159 and 1160:

    34.4 Thin Lenses 1133 points in the

  • Page 1161 and 1162:

    34.4 Thin Lenses 1135 34.35 A conve

  • Page 1163 and 1164:

    34.4 Thin Lenses 1137 Parts (a), (b

  • Page 1165 and 1166:

    34.5 Cameras 1139 We first find the

  • Page 1167 and 1168:

    34.5 Cameras 1141 commonly expresse

  • Page 1169 and 1170:

    34.6 The Eye 1143 held in place by

  • Page 1171 and 1172:

    34.6 The Eye 1145 (a) Vertical line

  • Page 1173 and 1174:

    34.8 Microscopes and Telescopes 114

  • Page 1175 and 1176:

    34.8 Microscopes and Telescopes 114

  • Page 1177 and 1178:

    34.8 Microscopes and Telescopes 115

  • Page 1179 and 1180:

    Bridging Summary Problem 1153 Camer

  • Page 1181 and 1182:

    Exercises 1155 34.5 . An object 0.6

  • Page 1183 and 1184:

    Exercises 1157 object is 200 m from

  • Page 1185 and 1186:

    Problems 1159 inverted with respect

  • Page 1187 and 1188:

    Challenge Problems 1161 the image i

  • Page 1189 and 1190:

    INTERFERENCE 35 LEARNING GOALS By s

  • Page 1191 and 1192:

    35.1 Interference and Coherent Sour

  • Page 1193 and 1194:

    35.2 Two-Source Interference of Lig

  • Page 1195 and 1196:

    35.2 Two-Source Interference of Lig

  • Page 1197 and 1198:

    35.3 Intensity in Interference Patt

  • Page 1199 and 1200:

    35.4 Interference in Thin Films 117

  • Page 1201 and 1202:

    35.4 Interference in Thin Films 117

  • Page 1203 and 1204:

    35.4 Interference in Thin Films 117

  • Page 1205 and 1206:

    35.5 The Michelson Interferometer 1

  • Page 1207 and 1208:

    35.5 The Michelson Interferometer 1

  • Page 1209 and 1210:

    Discussion Questions 1183 Michelson

  • Page 1211 and 1212:

    Exercises 1185 to 7 1 2 l. How many

  • Page 1213 and 1214:

    Problems 1187 (a) How far from the

  • Page 1215 and 1216:

    Answers 1189 extremely small. (a) I

  • Page 1217 and 1218:

    36.1 Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffrac

  • Page 1219 and 1220:

    36.2 Diffraction from a Single Slit

  • Page 1221 and 1222:

    36.3 Intensity in the Single-Slit P

  • Page 1223 and 1224:

    36.3 Intensity in the Single-Slit P

  • Page 1225 and 1226:

    36.4 Multiple Slits 1199 EVALUATE:

  • Page 1227 and 1228:

    36.5 The Diffraction Grating 1201 3

  • Page 1229 and 1230:

    36.5 The Diffraction Grating 1203 S

  • Page 1231 and 1232:

    36.6 X-Ray Diffraction 1205 Accordi

  • Page 1233 and 1234:

    36.6 X-Ray Diffraction 1207 36.23 A

  • Page 1235 and 1236:

    36.7 Circular Apertures and Resolvi

  • Page 1237 and 1238:

    36.8 Holography 1211 Test Your Unde

  • Page 1239 and 1240:

    36.8 Holography 1213 Because of the

  • Page 1241 and 1242:

    Discussion Questions 1215 BRIDGING

  • Page 1243 and 1244:

    Exercises 1217 what is the width of

  • Page 1245 and 1246:

    Problems 1219 36.50 . Searching for

  • Page 1247 and 1248:

    Challenge Problems 1221 fringes on

  • Page 1249 and 1250:

    RELATIVITY 37 LEARNING GOALS By stu

  • Page 1251 and 1252:

    37.1 Invariance of Physical Laws 12

  • Page 1253 and 1254:

    37.2 Relativity of Simultaneity 122

  • Page 1255 and 1256:

    37.3 Relativity of Time Intervals 1

  • Page 1257 and 1258:

    37.3 Relativity of Time Intervals 1

  • Page 1259 and 1260:

    37.4 Relativity of Length 1233 Eart

  • Page 1261 and 1262:

    37.4 Relativity of Length 1235 [We

  • Page 1263 and 1264:

    37.5 The Lorentz Transformations 12

  • Page 1265 and 1266:

    37.5 The Lorentz Transformations 12

  • Page 1267 and 1268:

    37.6 The Doppler Effect for Electro

  • Page 1269 and 1270:

    37.7 Relativistic Momentum 1243 37.

  • Page 1271 and 1272:

    37.7 Relativistic Momentum 1245 We

  • Page 1273 and 1274:

    37.8 Relativistic Work and Energy 1

  • Page 1275 and 1276:

    37.9 Newtonian Mechanics and Relati

  • Page 1277 and 1278:

    37.9 Newtonian Mechanics and Relati

  • Page 1279 and 1280:

    Discussion Questions 1253 BRIDGING

  • Page 1281 and 1282:

    Exercises 1255 be 2.00 m by his doc

  • Page 1283 and 1284:

    Problems 1257 major axis is 1.40 ti

  • Page 1285 and 1286:

    Challenge Problems 1259 where u is

  • Page 1287 and 1288:

    PHOTONS: LIGHT WAVES BEHAVING AS PA

  • Page 1289 and 1290:

    38.1 Light Absorbed as Photons: The

  • Page 1291 and 1292:

    38.1 Light Absorbed as Photons: The

  • Page 1293 and 1294:

    + 38.2 Light Emitted as Photons: X-

  • Page 1295 and 1296:

    38.3 Light Scattered as Photons: Co

  • Page 1297 and 1298:

    38.3 Light Scattered as Photons: Co

  • Page 1299 and 1300:

    38.4 Wave-Particle Duality, Probabi

  • Page 1301 and 1302:

    38.4 Wave-Particle Duality, Probabi

  • Page 1303 and 1304:

    38.4 Wave-Particle Duality, Probabi

  • Page 1305 and 1306:

    38.4 Wave-Particle Duality, Probabi

  • Page 1307 and 1308:

    Discussion Questions 1281 BRIDGING

  • Page 1309 and 1310:

    Problems 1283 x rays with a wavelen

  • Page 1311 and 1312:

    Answers 1285 Test Your Understandin

  • Page 1313 and 1314:

    V ba 5 V b 2 V a 39.1 Electron Wave

  • Page 1315 and 1316:

    39.1 Electron Waves 1289 patterns f

  • Page 1317 and 1318:

    39.1 Electron Waves 1291 Note that

  • Page 1319 and 1320:

    39.2 The Nuclear Atom and Atomic Sp

  • Page 1321 and 1322:

    39.2 The Nuclear Atom and Atomic Sp

  • Page 1323 and 1324:

    39.3 Energy Levels and the Bohr Mod

  • Page 1325 and 1326:

    39.3 Energy Levels and the Bohr Mod

  • Page 1327 and 1328:

    39.3 Energy Levels and the Bohr Mod

  • Page 1329 and 1330:

    39.3 Energy Levels and the Bohr Mod

  • Page 1331 and 1332:

    39.3 Energy Levels and the Bohr Mod

  • Page 1333 and 1334:

    39.4 The Laser 1307 Test Your Under

  • Page 1335 and 1336:

    39.4 The Laser 1309 39.29 (a), (b),

  • Page 1337 and 1338:

    39.5 Continuous Spectra 1311 CAUTIO

  • Page 1339 and 1340:

    39.5 Continuous Spectra 1313 state.

  • Page 1341 and 1342:

    39.6 The Uncertainty Principle Revi

  • Page 1343 and 1344:

    39.6 The Uncertainty Principle Revi

  • Page 1345 and 1346:

    Bridging Problem 1319 The Heisenber

  • Page 1347 and 1348:

    Exercises 1321 level and (b) the n

  • Page 1349 and 1350:

    Problems 1323 39.45 .. Two stars, b

  • Page 1351 and 1352:

    Problems 1325 slower than that of l

  • Page 1353 and 1354:

    Answers 1327 Answers Chapter Openin

  • Page 1355 and 1356:

    40.1 Wave Functions and the One-Dim

  • Page 1357 and 1358:

    40.1 Wave Functions and the One-Dim

  • Page 1359 and 1360:

    40.1 Wave Functions and the One-Dim

  • Page 1361 and 1362:

    40.1 Wave Functions and the One-Dim

  • Page 1363 and 1364:

    40.1 Wave Functions and the One-Dim

  • Page 1365 and 1366:

    40.2 Particle in a Box 1339 In Sect

  • Page 1367 and 1368:

    40.2 Particle in a Box 1341 (a) E n

  • Page 1369 and 1370:

    40.3 Potential Wells 1343 in the re

  • Page 1371 and 1372:

    40.3 Potential Wells 1345 “expone

  • Page 1373 and 1374:

    E = 0.405U E 1 , the particle canno

  • Page 1375 and 1376:

    40.4 Potential Barriers and Tunneli

  • Page 1377 and 1378:

    40.5 The Harmonic Oscillator 1351 I

  • Page 1379 and 1380:

    40.5 The Harmonic Oscillator 1353 4

  • Page 1381 and 1382:

    CHAPTER 40 SUMMARY Wave functions:

  • Page 1383 and 1384:

    Exercises 1357 Q40.4 Why must the w

  • Page 1385 and 1386:

    Problems 1359 level and absorbs a p

  • Page 1387 and 1388:

    Challenge Problems 1361 the barrier

  • Page 1389 and 1390:

    Answers 1363 Answers Chapter Openin

  • Page 1391 and 1392:

    41.1 The Schrödinger Equation in T

  • Page 1393 and 1394:

    41.2 Particle in a Three-Dimensiona

  • Page 1395 and 1396:

    41.2 Particle in a Three-Dimensiona

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    41.2 Particle in a Three-Dimensiona

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    41.3 The Hydrogen Atom 1373 bound s

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    41.3 The Hydrogen Atom 1375 three-d

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    41.3 The Hydrogen Atom 1377 We deno

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    41.4 The Zeeman Effect 1379 systems

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    41.4 The Zeeman Effect 1381 orienta

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    41.5 Electron Spin 1383 41.5 Electr

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    41.5 Electron Spin 1385 integer mul

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    41.6 Many-Electron Atoms and the Ex

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    41.6 Many-Electron Atoms and the Ex

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    41.6 Many-Electron Atoms and the Ex

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    41.7 X-Ray Spectra 1393 Example 41.

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    41.7 X-Ray Spectra 1395 atom (becau

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    CHAPTER 41 SUMMARY Three-dimensiona

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    Exercises 1399 Problems For instruc

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    Problems 1401 astronomers can learn

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    Challenge Problems 1403 spin can be

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    MOLECULES AND CONDENSED MATTER 42 L

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    42.1 Types of Molecular Bonds 1407

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    42.2 Molecular Spectra 1409 distanc

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    42.2 Molecular Spectra 1411 42.9 A

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    42.3 Structure of Solids 1413 42.11

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    42.3 Structure of Solids 1415 meani

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    42.4 Energy Bands 1417 there is som

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    42.5 Free-Electron Model of Metals

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    42.5 Free-Electron Model of Metals

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    42.6 Semiconductors 1423 Example 42

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    42.7 Semiconductor Devices 1425 Thi

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    42.7 Semiconductor Devices 1427 42.

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    42.7 Semiconductor Devices 1429 Tra

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    CHAPTER 42 SUMMARY Molecular bonds

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    Exercises 1433 Q42.13 What factors

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    Problems 1435 42.33 .. (a) A forwar

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    Answers 1437 ƒ ƒ rial is defined

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    NUCLEAR PHYSICS 43 ? This sculpture

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    43.1 Properties of Nuclei 1441 The

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    43.1 Properties of Nuclei 1443 magn

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    43.2 Nuclear Binding and Nuclear St

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    43.2 Nuclear Binding and Nuclear St

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    43.3 Nuclear Stability and Radioact

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    43.3 Nuclear Stability and Radioact

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    60 EVALUATE: With three decay produ

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    43.3 Nuclear Stability and Radioact

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    43.4 Activities and Half-Lives 1457

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    43.5 Biological Effects of Radiatio

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    43.5 Biological Effects of Radiatio

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    43.6 Nuclear Reactions 1463 and so

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    43.7 Nuclear Fission 1465 fragments

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    43.7 Nuclear Fission 1467 43.14 Sch

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    43.8 Nuclear Fusion 1469 43.16 The

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    43.8 Nuclear Fusion 1471 We conside

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    Discussion Questions 1473 BRIDGING

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    Exercises 1475 43.20 . BIO Radioact

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    Problems 1477 230 43.56 .. CP Thori

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    Answers 1479 43.2 Answer: (ii), (ii

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    44.1 Fundamental Particles—A Hist

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    44.1 Fundamental Particles—A Hist

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    44.2 Particle Accelerators and Dete

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    44.2 Particle Accelerators and Dete

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    44.2 Particle Accelerators and Dete

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    44.3 Particles and Interactions 149

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    44.3 Particles and Interactions 149

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    44.3 Particles and Interactions 149

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    44.4 Quarks and the Eightfold Way 1

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    44.5 The Standard Model and Beyond

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    44.6 The Expanding Universe 1501 In

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    44.6 The Expanding Universe 1503 Th

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    44.6 The Expanding Universe 1505 tw

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    44.6 The Expanding Universe 1507 Th

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    44.7 The Beginning of Time 1509 Exa

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    44.7 The Beginning of Time 1511 cha

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    44.7 The Beginning of Time 1513 AGE

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    44.7 The Beginning of Time 1515 Bac

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    CHAPTER 44 SUMMARY Fundamental part

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    Exercises 1519 44.3 .. A positive p

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    Answers 1521 for industrial workers

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    APPENDIX A THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM

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    APPENDIX B USEFUL MATHEMATICAL RELA

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    APPENDIX D PERIODIC TABLE OF THE EL

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    APPENDIX F NUMERICAL CONSTANTS Fund

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    ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS Ch

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    Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-

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    Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-

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    Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-

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    Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-

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    Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-

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    Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems A-

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    PHOTO CREDITS About the Author Hugh

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    Chapter 43 Opener: Juraj Liptak/Deu

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    INDEX For users of the three-volume

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    Index I-3 Capacitive reactance, 102

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    Index I-5 electric, 709-713 magneti

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    Index I-7 rotational, 1408-1412 Sch

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    Index I-9 Gravitational force(s), 1

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    Index I-11 definition of, 1131 of e

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    Index I-13 Morley, Edward, 1180-118

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    Index I-15 Physical laws (principle

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    Index I-17 in nerve conduction, 824

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    Index I-19 tensile, 352-354 volume,

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    Index I-21 magnitude of, 38t motion

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    NUMERICAL CONSTANTS Fundamental Phy

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