www.downloadslide.com Chapter Seven Group Influences on ConsumerBehavior 249 Online social network site 222 Opinion leader 232 Primary groups 217 Reference group 216 Secondary groups 217 Twitter 238 Two-step flow of communication 232 Viral marketing 238 Word-of-mouth (WOM) communications 229 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. How does a group differ from a reference group? 2. What criteria are used by marketers to classify groups? 3. What is a dissociative reference group? In what way can dissociative reference groups influence consumer behavior? 4. What is an aspiration reference group? How can an aspiration reference group influence behavior? 5. What is a consumption-based group or a consumption subculture? How can marketers develop strategy based on consumption subcultures? 6. What is a brand community? What are the characteristics of such a group? 7. How can a marketer foster a brand community? 8. What is an online social network site? What are the guidelines for marketers operating in online communities and social networking sites? 9. What types of group influence exist? Why must a marketing manager be aware of these separate types of group influence? 10. What five factors determine the strength of reference group influence in a situation? 11. What is the Asch phenomenon and how do marketers utilize it? 12. How can a marketer use knowledge of reference group influences to develop advertising strategies? 13. What is an opinion leader? How does an opinion leader relate to the multistep flow of communication? 14. What characterizes an opinion leader? 15. What determines the likelihood that a consumer will seek information from an opinion leader? 16. How does a market maven differ from an opinion leader? 17. Explain the role of enduring involvement in driving opinion leadership. 18. How can marketing managers identify opinion leaders? 19. How can marketers utilize opinion leaders? 20. What is buzz? How can marketers create it? 21. What is a blog? 22. What is an innovation? Who determines whether a given product is an innovation? 23. What are the various categories of innovations? How do they differ? 24. What is the diffusion process? What pattern does the diffusion process appear to follow over time? 25. Describe the factors that affect the diffusion rate for an innovation. How can these factors be utilized in developing marketing strategy? 26. What are adopter categories? Describe each of the adopter categories. 27. How can a marketer use knowledge of adopter categories to develop marketing strategy? DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 28. Respond to the questions in Consumer Insight 7–1. 29. Using college students as the market segment, describe the most relevant reference group(s) and indicate the probable degree of influence on decisions for each of the following: a. Brand of toothpaste b. Purchase of a hybrid car c. Purchase of breakfast cereal d. Becoming a vegetarian e. Choice of a computer tablet such as the iPad. Answer Questions 30 to 33 using (a) shoes, (b) barbeque grill, (c) car, (d) toaster, (e) iPad, and (f) adopting a pet from a shelter.
www.downloadslide.com 250 Part Two External Influences 30. How important are reference groups to the purchase of the above-mentioned products or activities? Would their influence also affect the brand or model? Would their influence be informational, normative, or identification? Justify your answers. 31. What reference groups would be relevant to the decision to purchase the product or activity (based on students on your campus)? 32. What are the norms of the social groups of which you are a member concerning the product or activity? 33. Respond to the questions in Consumer Insight 7–2. 34. Describe two groups that serve as aspiration reference groups for you. In what ways, if any, have they influenced your consumption patterns? 35. Describe two groups to which you belong. For each, give two examples of instances when the group has exerted (a) informational, (b) normative, and (c) identification influence on you. 36. Develop two approaches using reference group theory to reduce drug, alcohol, or cigarette consumption among teenagers. 37. What ethical concerns arise in using reference group theory to sell products? 38. Describe a consumption subculture to which you belong. How does it affect your consumption behavior? How do marketers attempt to influence your behavior with respect to this subculture? 39. Do you belong to a brand community? If so, describe the benefits you derive from this group and how it affects your consumption. 40. Do you belong to an online community or social network site? If so, describe the benefits you derive from this group and how it affects your consumption. 41. Answer the following questions for (i) Dyson bladeless fan, (ii) space flight, (iii) cell phone– based GPS. a. Is the product an innovation? Justify your answer. b. Using the student body on your campus as a market segment, evaluate the perceived attributes of the product. c. Who on your campus would serve as opinion leaders for the product? d. Will the early adopters of the product use the adoption process (extended decision making), or is a simpler decision process likely? 42. Describe two situations in which you have served as or sought information from an opinion leader. Are these situations consistent with the discussion in the text? 43. Are you aware of market mavens on your campus? Describe their characteristics, behaviors, and motivation. 44. Have you used Twitter recently? Why? How did it work? What marketing implications does this suggest? 45. Identify a recent (a) continuous innovation, (b) dynamically continuous innovation, and (c) discontinuous innovation. Justify your selections. 46. Analyze the Roomba (robotic vacuum cleaner) in terms of the determinants in Table 7–3 and suggest appropriate marketing strategies. 47. Conduct a diffusion analysis and recommend appropriate strategies for the innovation shown in Illustration 7–10. 48. Assume that you are a consultant to firms with new products. You have members of the appropriate market segments rate innovations on the 10 characteristics described in Table 7–3. Based on these ratings, you develop marketing strategies. Assume that a rating of 9 is extremely favorable (e.g., strong relative advantage or a lack of complexity) and 1 is extremely unfavorable. Suggest appropriate strategies for each of the following consumer electronic products (see table). Product Attribute A B C D E F G H I Fulfillment of felt need 9 7 3 8 8 5 7 8 9 Compatibility 8 8 8 8 9 2 8 9 8 Relative advantage 9 2 8 9 7 8 9 8 8 Complexity 9 9 9 9 9 3 8 8 7 Observability 8 8 9 1 9 4 8 8 8 Trialability 8 9 8 9 9 2 9 2 9 Nature of group 3 8 7 8 9 9 7 7 3 Type of decision 3 7 8 8 6 7 7 3 7 Marketing effort 6 7 8 7 8 6 3 8 7 Perceived risk 3 8 7 7 3 7 8 8 5