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Organizational Behavior 8th edition

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www.downloadslide.com Chapter Five Foundations of Employee Motivation 137 outcomes from that performance (P-to-O expectancies). As such, these theories explain motivation through their relationship with expectancy theory of motivation, described earlier. Elements of these theories also help us understand other motivation processes. For instance, self-regulation is the cornerstone of motivation through goal setting and feedback, which we discuss next. Goal Setting and Feedback 5-6 goal setting the process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives CalPERS—the California Public Employees’ Retirement System—has challenging goals for staff at its customer contact center in Sacramento. 64 The organization aims to have 95 percent of client calls answered within 2.5 minutes. It also wants customers put on hold for less than 2.5 minutes. Another goal is that less than 5 percent of CalPERS clients hang up before the call is handled by someone at the contact center (called the abandonment rate). Along with these specific goals, the organization keeps track of how many calls are received (about 650,000 per year), how many callers are waiting, and how long each call takes (between 6 and 7 minutes, on average). CalPERS employees not only know these goals, they probably have some form of visual feedback. Many contact centers in other organizations have large electronic screens showing statistics for these key performance indicators. Customer contact centers partly motivate employees through goal setting, which is the process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives. Goal setting potentially improves employee performance in two ways: (1) by amplifying the intensity and persistence of effort and (2) by giving employees clearer role perceptions so their effort is channeled toward behaviors that will improve work performance. Goal setting is more complex than simply telling someone to “do your best.” Effective goals have several specific characteristics. 65 One popular acronym—SMARTER—captures these characteristics fairly well: 66 • Specific. Goals lead to better performance when they are specific. Specific goals state what needs to be accomplished, how it should be accomplished, and where, when, and with whom it should be accomplished. Specific goals clarify performance expectations, so employees can direct their effort more efficiently and reliably. • Measurable. Goals need to be measurable because motivation occurs when people have some indication of their progress and achievement of those goals. This measurement ideally includes how much (quantity), how well (quality), and at what cost the goal was achieved. Be aware, however, that some types of employee performance are difficult to measure, and they risk being neglected in companies preoccupied with quantifiable outcomes. 67 • Achievable. One of the trickiest aspects of goal setting is developing goals that are sufficiently but not overly challenging. 68 Easy goals result in performance that is well below the employee’s potential. Yet, goals that are too challenging may also lead to reduced effort if employees believe there is a low probability of accomplishing them (i.e., low E-to-P expectancy). Recent studies have also found that very difficult goals increase the probability that employees will engage in unethical behavior to achieve them. 69 • Relevant. Goals need to be relevant to the individual’s job and within his or her control. For example, a goal to reduce waste materials would have little value if employees don’t have much control over waste in the production process. • Time-framed. Goals need a due date. They should specify when the objective should be completed or when it will be assessed for comparison against a standard.

www.downloadslide.com 138 Part Two Individual Behavior and Processes • Exciting. Goals tend to be more effective when employees are committed to them, not just compliant. Challenging goals tend to be more exciting for most (but not all) employees because they are more likely to fulfill a person’s growth needs when the goal is achieved. Goal commitment also increases when employees are involved in goal setting. 70 • Reviewed. The motivational value of goal setting depends on employees receiving feedback about reaching those goals. 71 Effective feedback requires measurement, which we discussed earlier in this list, but it also includes reflecting or discussing with others your goal progress and accomplishment. Reviewing goal progress and achievement helps employees redirect their effort. It is also a potential source of recognition that fulfills growth needs. SELF-ASSESSMENT 5.3: What Is Your Goal Orientation? Everyone sets goals for themselves, but people differ in the nature of those goals. Some view goals as challenges that assist learning. Others see goals as demonstrations of one’s competence. Still others view goals as threatening one’s image if they are not achieved. You can discover your dominant goal orientation by locating this self-assessment in Connect if it is assigned by your instructor. Adobe Systems Incorporated realized that annual performance reviews didn’t offer meaningful feedback, so the San Jose, California, software company replaced them with “Check-Ins.” With agreed performance expectations, the manager and employee have timely, constructive, and sufficiently frequent check-in sessions. “We want people to be getting feedback on their performance against those expectations in real time (not just once a year),” says Donna Morris, Adobe’s senior vice president of People & Places. Check-ins are constructive futurefocused discussions about the employee’s personal development, but they sometimes include difficult conversations about poor performance. “Because you’re in the moment and you’re talking about things that are appropriate right then and there, [a check-in] gives you an opportunity to have a much more honest, more candid conversation,” observes Eric Cox, Adobe’s senior director of Global Strategy and Operations. 73 © Eric Audras/PhotoAlto/Getty Images RF CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK Feedback—information that lets us know whether we have achieved the goal or are properly directing our effort toward it—is a critical partner with goal setting. Feedback contributes to motivation and performance by clarifying role perceptions, improving employee skills and knowledge, and strengthening self-efficacy. 72 Effective feedback has many of the same characteristics as effective goal setting. It should be specific and relevant, that is, the information should refer to specific metrics (e.g., sales increased by 5 percent last month) and to the individual’s behavior or outcomes within his or her control. Feedback should also be timely; the information should be available soon after the behavior or results occur so that employees see a clear association between their actions and the consequences. Feedback should also be credible. Employees are more likely to accept this information from trustworthy and believable sources. One other important characteristic of effective feedback is that it should be sufficiently frequent. How frequent is “sufficiently”? The answer depends on at least two things. One consideration is the employee’s knowledge and experience with the task. Employees working on new tasks should receive more frequent feedback because they require more behavior guidance and reinforcement. Employees who perform familiar tasks can receive less frequent feedback. The second factor is how long it takes to complete the task (i.e., its cycle time). Less frequent feedback usually occurs in jobs with a long cycle time (e.g., executives and scientists) because indicators of goal progress and accomplishment in these jobs are less frequent than in jobs with a short cycle time (e.g., grocery store cashiers).

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