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Organizational Behavior 8th edition

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www.downloadslide.com Chapter One Introduction to the Field of Organizational Behavior 9 Information technology has also created challenges, such as tethering people to their jobs for longer hours, reducing their attention spans at work, and increasing techno-stress. We discuss these concerns below and in Chapter 4 (workplace stress). At a macro-level, information technology has reconfigured entire organizations by integrating suppliers and other external entities into the transformation process. Eventually, technology may render organizations less of a place where people work and more of a process or network where people collaborate across space and time (see Chapter 13). GLOBALIZATION Globalization refers to economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world. Organizations globalize when they actively participate in other countries and cultures. Although businesses have traded goods across borders for centuries, the degree of globalization today is unprecedented because information technology and transportation systems allow a much more intense level of connectivity and interdependence around the planet. 21 Globalization offers numerous benefits to organizations in terms of larger markets, lower costs, and greater access to knowledge and innovation. At the same time, there is considerable debate about whether globalization benefits developing nations and the extent to which it is responsible for increasing work intensification, reduced job security, and poor work–life balance in developed countries. 22 The field of organizational behavior focuses on the effects of globalization on organizations and how to lead and work effectively in this emerging reality. Throughout this book, we will refer to the effects of globalization on teamwork, diversity, cultural values, organizational structure, leadership, and other themes. Globalization has brought more complexity and new ways of working to the workplace. It also requires additional knowledge and skills that we will discuss in this book, such as emotional intelligence, a global mindset, nonverbal communication, and conflict handling. globalization economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world EMERGING EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIPS work–life balance the degree to which a person minimizes conflict between work and nonwork demands Technology, globalization, and several other developments have substantially altered the employment relationship in most countries. Before the digital age, most employees would finish work after eight or nine hours and could separate their personal time from their employment. Today, they are more likely to be connected to work on a 24/7 schedule. Globalization increases competitive pressure to work longer and creates a 24-hour schedule because coworkers, suppliers, and clients work in different time zones. Information technology enables employers and others to easily and quickly communicate with employees beyond their traditional workday. Little wonder that one of the most important employment issues over the past decade has been work–life balance. Work–life balance occurs when people are able to minimize conflict between their work and nonwork demands. 23 Most employees lack this balance because they spend too many hours each week performing or thinking about their job, whether at the workplace, at home, or on vacation. This focus on work leaves too little time to fulfill nonwork needs and obligations. Our discussion of work-related stress (Chapter 4) will examine work–life balance issues in more detail. Another employment relationship trend is for employees to work away from the organization’s traditional common work site. 24 One form of this remote work arrangement involves performing most job duties at client sites throughout the day. Repair technicians and management consultants regularly work at client sites, for example. Longer-term remote work occurs where employees

www.downloadslide.com 10 Part One Introduction global connections 1.1 From Commute to Telecommute in Japan Yui Nishimura moved closer to her husband’s workplace when she recently married, but faced a 90-minute commute by train each way to her office in Tokyo. Fortunately, Nishimura’s employer, major snack foods company Calbee, allows the investor relations employee to telecommute a couple of days each month. “I don’t have to spend time commuting, and I’m now able to focus more on my work,” says Nishimura. Currently, only 4 percent of Japanese employees work from home at least one day per week. The Japanese government hopes that 10 percent of Japanese employees will be telecommuting within the next few years. 25 © Ming Thein/Getty Images are assigned to partner organizations. For instance, biotechnology firm Anteo Diagnostics dispatches its scientists for several weeks or months to partner companies around the world, where they jointly investigate the effectiveness of Anteo’s patented nano glue products on the partner firm’s point-of-care technology. telecommuting an arrangement whereby, supported by information technology, employees work from home one or more work days per month rather than commute to the office Telecommuting The best-known form of remote work is telecommuting (also called teleworking) whereby information technology enables employees to work from home one or more workdays per month rather than commute to the office. An estimated 37 percent of U.S. workers telecommute, with almost one-third of them working from home at least six days each month. The U.S. government reports that 23 percent of employees perform some or all of their work at home (but that includes taking work home after attending the office, not just telecommuting). 26 Is telecommuting beneficial for employees and organizations? This question continues to be debated because it has advantages, disadvantages, and several contingencies that muddy its effectiveness. 27 One advantage is that telecommuters usually experience better work–life balance because they have more time and somewhat more control to juggle work with family obligations. For example, a study of 25,000 IBM employees found that female telecommuters with children were able to work 40 hours per week, whereas female employees with children who work solely at the office could manage only 30 hours before feeling work–life balance tension. Work–life balance is less likely to improve when telecommuters lack sufficient workspace and privacy at home and have increased family responsibilities on telecommuting days. Telecommuting is an attractive benefit for younger job applicants, and turnover is usually lower among telecommuting employees. Research also indicates that telecommuters have higher productivity than nontelecommuters, likely because they experience less stress and tend to transfer some former commuting time to work time. Telecommuting also improves productivity by enabling employees to work at times when the weather or natural disasters block access to the office. Several companies report that telecommuting has reduced greenhouse gas emissions and office expenses. For instance, health insurer Aetna estimates that its telecommuting employees (31 percent of the workforce) annually avoid using two million gallons of gas, thereby reducing carbon dioxide emissions by more than 23,000 metric tons. With many

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human safety and risk management second edition a. ian glendon
Untapped Potential: Fostering Organizational Social Capital in the ...
Department of Industrial Engineering and Management - TKK
Bloom, S. L. Organizational Stress As A Barrier to Trauma-Informed ...