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Organizational Behavior 8th edition

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www.downloadslide.com Chapter Fourteen Organizational Culture 399 Merging Organizational Cultures 14-4 Senior executives at EllisDon, one of Canada’s largest construction firms, couldn’t believe their good fortune when Looby Construction indicated its interest in a takeover. Looby was a respected competitor, but EllisDon executives approached the potential acquisition cautiously. The two companies went through eight months of discussion before concluding that the acquisition made sense culturally as well as financially. “For us, the cultural fit is just as important or maybe more important than the financial side because if the culture doesn’t fit, the financial side will never work,” says EllisDon CEO Geoff Smith. “To ensure this, we had to open up to them just as much as they had to open up to us.” 51 EllisDon executives are acutely aware that mergers and acquisitions often fail financially when the merging organizations have incompatible cultures. 52 Unless the acquired firm is left to operate independently, companies with clashing cultures tend to undermine employee performance and customer service. Consequently, several studies estimate that only between 30 and 50 percent of corporate acquisitions add value. 53 bicultural audit a process of diagnosing cultural relations between companies and determining the extent to which cultural clashes will likely occur BICULTURAL AUDIT Organizational leaders can minimize cultural collisions in corporate mergers and fulfill their duty of due diligence by conducting a bicultural audit. A bicultural audit diagnoses cultural relations between the companies and determines the extent to which cultural clashes will likely occur. 54 The process begins by identifying cultural differences between the merging companies. This might occur by surveying employees or, as in the example of EllisDon and Looby Construction, through an extended series of meetings where executives and staff of both firms discuss how they think through important decisions in their business. From the survey data or meetings, the parties determine which differences between the two firms will result in conflict and which cultural values provide common ground on which to build a cultural foundation in the merged organization. The final stage involves identifying strategies and preparing action plans to bridge the two organizations’ cultures. STRATEGIES FOR MERGING DIFFERENT ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES In some cases, the bicultural audit results in a decision to end merger talks because the two cultures are too different to merge effectively. However, even with substantially different cultures, two companies may form a workable union if they apply the appropriate merger strategy. The four main strategies for merging different corporate cultures are assimilation, deculturation, integration, and separation (see Exhibit 14.5). 55 Assimilation Assimilation occurs when employees at the acquired company willingly embrace the cultural values of the acquiring organization. Typically, this strategy works best when the acquired company has a weak culture that is either similar to the acquiring company’s culture or is dysfunctional, whereas the acquiring company’s culture is strong and aligned with the external environment. The cultural assimilation strategy seldom produces cultural clashes because the acquiring firm’s culture is highly respected and the acquired firm’s culture is fairly easily altered. The assimilation strategy occurred when Southwest Airlines acquired AirTran Airways. The two firms already had similar cultures, but Southwest’s legendary “Southwest way” culture also made the acquisition relatively free of culture clashes. “It’s helpful that Southwest has a great cultural reputation,” says a Southwest executive about the AirTran Airways acquisition. 56

www.downloadslide.com 400 Part Four Organizational Processes EXHIBIT 14.5 Strategies for Merging Different Organizational Cultures MERGER STRATEGY DESCRIPTION WORKS BEST WHEN . . . Assimilation Deculturation Integration Separation Acquired company embraces acquiring firm’s culture. Acquiring firm imposes its culture on unwilling acquired firm. Merging companies combine the two or more cultures into a new composite culture. Merging companies remain distinct entities with minimal exchange of culture or organizational practices. Acquired firm has a weak culture and acquiring firm’s culture is strong and successful. Rarely works—may be necessary only when acquired firm’s culture is dysfunctional but its employees aren’t yet aware of the problems. Existing cultures at both firms are relatively weak or have overlapping values and can be improved. Firms operate successfully in different businesses requiring different cultures. Sources: Based on ideas in A.R. Malekzadeh and A. Nahavandi, “Making Mergers Work by Managing Cultures,” Journal of Business Strategy 11 (May/June 1990): 55–57; K.W. Smith, “A Brand-New Culture for the Merged Firm,” Mergers and Acquisitions 35 (June 2000): 45–50. Deculturation Assimilation is rare. Employees usually resist organizational change, particularly when they are asked to throw away personal and cultural values. Under these conditions, some acquiring companies apply a deculturation strategy by imposing their culture and business practices on the acquired organization. The acquiring firm strips away artifacts and reward systems that support the old culture. People who cannot adopt the acquiring company’s culture often lose their jobs. Deculturation may be necessary when the acquired firm’s culture doesn’t work, even when employees in the acquired company aren’t convinced of this. However, this strategy is difficult to apply effectively because the acquired firm’s employees resist the cultural intrusions from the buying firm, thereby delaying or undermining the merger process. Integration A third strategy is to combine the cultures of the two firms into one new composite culture that preserves the best features of the previous cultures. Integration is slow and potentially risky because there are many forces preserving the existing cultures. Still, this strategy should be considered when the companies have relatively weak cultures or when their cultures include several overlapping values. Integration works best when the cultures of both merging companies could be improved, which motivates employees to adopt the best cultural elements of the separate entities. Incorporating the best cultural elements of the original companies symbolizes that employees from both firms have meaningful values for the combined organization. “Find one thing in the organization that was good and use it as a cornerstone for a new culture,” advises a respected executive who led several mergers and acquisitions. “People don’t want to work for an organization for years and then be told its rubbish.” 57 Separation A separation strategy occurs when the merging companies agree to remain distinct entities with minimal exchange of culture or organizational practices. This strategy is most appropriate when the two merging companies are in unrelated industries, because the most appropriate cultural values tend to differ by industry. Separation is also the preferred approach for the corporate cultures of diversified conglomerates. The cultural separation strategy is rare, however. Executives in acquiring firms usually have difficulty keeping their hands off the acquired firm. According to one estimate, only 15 percent of mergers leave the acquired company as a stand-alone unit. 58

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Adopting Agile? Be prepared for organizational transformation
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