www.downloadslide.com Chapter Fifteen Organizational Change 433 EXHIBIT 15.5 Five Principles of Appreciative Inquiry APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY PRINCIPLE Positive principle Constructionist principle Simultaneity principle Poetic principle Anticipatory principle DESCRIPTION Focusing on positive events and potential produces more positive, effective, and enduring change. How we perceive and understand the change process depends on the questions we ask and language we use throughout that process. Inquiry and change are simultaneous, not sequential. Organizations are open books, so we have choices in how they may be perceived, framed, and described. People are motivated and guided by the vision they see and believe in for the future. Sources: Based on D.L. Cooperrider and D.K. Whitney, Appreciative Inquiry: A Positive Revolution in Change (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2005), Chap. 7; D.K. Whitney and A. Trosten-Bloom, The Power of Appreciative Inquiry: A Practical Guide to Positive Change, 2nd ed. (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2010), Chap. 3. and behavior differently than will images that are inspiring and engaging. We noted the importance of visions earlier in this chapter (change agents) and in our discussion of transformational leadership (Chapter 12). The Four-D Model of Appreciative Inquiry These five principles lay the foundation for appreciative inquiry’s “Four-D” process. The model’s name refers to its four stages, shown in Exhibit 15.6. Appreciative inquiry begins with discovery—identifying the positive elements of the observed events or organization. 73 This might involve documenting positive customer experiences elsewhere in the organization. Or it might include interviewing members of another organization to discover its fundamental strengths. As participants discuss their findings, they shift into the dreaming stage by envisioning what might be possible in an ideal organization. By pointing out a hypothetical ideal organization or situation, participants feel safer revealing their hopes and aspirations than they would if they were discussing their own organization or predicament. As participants make their private thoughts public to the group, the process shifts into the third stage, called designing. Designing involves dialogue in which participants listen with selfless receptivity to each other’s models and assumptions and eventually form a collective model for thinking within the team. In effect, they create a common image of what should be. As this model takes shape, group members shift the focus back to their own situation. In the final stage of appreciative inquiry, called delivering (also known as destiny), EXHIBIT 15.6 The Four-D Model of Appreciative Inquiry 1. Discovery 2. Dreaming 3. Designing 4. Delivering Identifying the best of “what is.” Envisioning “what might be.” Engaging in dialogue about “what should be.” Developing objectives about “what will be.” Sources: Based on F.J. Barrett and D.L. Cooperrider, “Generative Metaphor Intervention: A New Approach for Working with Systems Divided by Conflict and Caught in Defensive Perception,” Journal of Applied Behavioral Science 26 (1990): 229; D. Whitney and C. Schau, “Appreciative Inquiry: An Innovative Process for Organization Change,” Employment Relations Today 25 (Spring 1998): 11–21; D.L. Cooperrider and D.K. Whitney, Appreciative Inquiry: A Positive Revolution in Change (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2005), Chap. 3.