www.downloadslide.com Chapter One Introduction to the Field of OrganizationalBehavior 25 EXHIBIT 1.7 An Integrative Model of OrganizationalBehavior • Organizational structure • Organizational culture • Organizational technology Organizational Inputs and Processes • Organizational change • Human resource practices • Organizational strategy Individual Inputs and Processes • Personality/values/competencies • Self-concept/perceptions/mindset • Emotions/attitudes • Motivation • Self-leadership Team/Interpersonal Inputs and Processes • Team tasks/size/composition • Team development/trust/cohesion • Communication • Leadership (team/organization) • Power/influence/politics • Conflict/negotiation Individual Outcomes • Behavior/performance • Organizational citizenship • Well-being (low distress) • Decisions/creativity Team/Interpersonal Outcomes • Team performance • Team decisions • Collaboration/mutual support • Social networks • Open systems fit • Organizational learning Organizational Outcomes (Effectiveness) • Human capital development (HPWPs) • Satisfied stakeholders/ethical conduct As Exhibit 1.7 illustrates, individual inputs and processes influence individual outcomes, which in turn have a direct effect on the organization’s effectiveness. For example, how well organizations transform inputs to outputs and satisfy key stakeholders is dependent on how well employees perform their jobs and make logical and creative decisions. Individual inputs, processes, and outcomes are identified in the two left-side boxes of our integrating OB model and are the center of attention in Part 2 of this book. After introducing a model of individual behavior and results, we will learn about personality and values—two of the most important individual characteristics—and later examine various individual processes, such as self-concept, perceptions, emotions, attitudes, motivation, and self-leadership. Part 3 of this book directs our attention to team and interpersonal inputs, processes, and outcomes. These topics are found in the two boxes on the right side of Exhibit 1.7. The chapter on team dynamics (Chapter 8) offers an integrative model for that specific topic, which shows how team inputs (i.e., team composition, size, and other team characteristics) influence team processes (team development, cohesion, and others), which then affect team performance and other outcomes. Later chapters in Part 3 examine specific interpersonal and team processes listed in Exhibit 1.7, including communication, power and influence, conflict, and leadership. Exhibit 1.7 illustrates that team processes and outcomes affect individual processes and outcomes. As an example, employee personal well-being is partly affected by the mutual support received from team members and other coworkers. The opposite is also true;
www.downloadslide.com 26 Part One Introduction individual processes affect team and interpersonal dynamics in organizations. For instance, we will learn that self-concept among individual team members influences the team’s cohesion. The top area of Exhibit 1.7 highlights the macro-level influence of organizational inputs and processes on both teams and individuals. These organizational-level variables are mainly discussed in Part 4, including organizational structure, organizational culture, and organizational change. However, we will also refer to human resource practices, information systems, and additional organizational-level variables throughout this book where they have a known effect on individual, interpersonal, and team dynamics. The Journey Begins This chapter gives you some background about the field of organizational behavior. But it’s only the beginning of our journey. Throughout this book, we will challenge you to learn new ways of thinking about how people work in and around organizations. We begin this process in Chapter 2 by presenting a basic model of individual behavior, then introducing over the next few chapters various stable and mercurial characteristics of individuals that relate to elements of the individual behavior model. Next, this book moves to the team level of analysis. We examine a model of team effectiveness and specific features of high-performance teams. We also look at decision making and creativity, communication, power and influence, conflict, and leadership. Finally, we shift our focus to the organizational level of analysis, where the topics of organizational structure, organizational culture, and organizational change are examined in detail. chapter summary 1-1 Define organizational behavior and organizations, and discuss the importance of this field of inquiry. Organizational behavior is the study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations. Organizations are groups of people who work interdependently toward some purpose. OB theories help us (a) comprehend and predict work events, (b) adopt more accurate personal theories, and (c) influence organizational events. OB knowledge is for everyone, not just managers. OB theories and practices are highly beneficial for an organization’s survival and success. 1-2 Debate the organizational opportunities and challenges of technological change, globalization, emerging employment relationships, and workforce diversity. Technological change has improved efficiency, interactivity, and well-being, but it has also been a disruptive force in organizations. Information technology has altered communication patterns and power dynamics at work, and has affected our nonwork time, attention span, and techno-stress. Globalization, which refers to various forms of connectivity with people in other parts of the world, has become more intense than ever before because of information technology and transportation systems. It has brought more complexity and new ways of working to the workplace, requiring additional knowledge and skills. It may be an influence on work intensification, reduced job security, and lessening work–life balance. An emerging employment relationship trend is the blurring of work and nonwork time and the associated call for more work–life balance (minimizing conflict between work and nonwork demands). Another employment trend is telecommuting, whereby employees work from home one or more workdays per month rather than commute to the office. Telecommuting potentially benefits employees and employers, but there are also disadvantages and its effectiveness depends on the employee, job, and organization. An organization’s workforce has both surface-level diversity (observable demographic and other overt differences in people) and deep-level diversity (differences in personalities, beliefs, values, and attitudes). Diversity may improve creativity and decision making, and provide better awareness and response to diverse communities. However, diversity also poses challenges, such as dysfunctional conflict and slower team development. 1-3 Discuss the anchors on which organizational behavior knowledge is based. The multidisciplinary anchor states that the field should develop from knowledge in other disciplines (e.g., psychology, sociology, economics), not just from its own isolated research base. The systematic research anchor states that OB knowledge should be based on systematic research, consistent with evidence-based management. The contingency anchor states that OB theories generally need to consider that there will be different consequences in different situations.