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large- scale purchasing; 1 school is proof of that. Cardinal Principles assured mass production technocrats they would not have to deal with intolerable numbers of independent thinkers—thinkers stuffed with dangerous historical comparisons, who understood economics, who had insight into human nature through literary studies, who were made stoical or consensus-resistant by philosophy and religion, and given confidence and competence through liberal doses of duty, responsibility, and experience. The appearance of Cardinal Principles signaled the triumph of forces which had been working since the 1890s to break the hold of complex reading, debate, and writing as the common heritage of children reared in America. Like the resourcefulness and rigors of character that small farming conveyed, complex and active literacy produces a kind of character antagonistic to hierarchical, expert-driven, class-based society. As the nature of American society was moved deliberately in this direction, forges upon which a different kind of American had been hammered were eliminated. We see this process nearly complete in the presentation of Cardinal Principles. We always knew the truth in America, that almost everyone can learn almost anything or be almost anything. But the problem with that insight is that it can’t co-exist with any known form of modern social ordering. Each species of true belief expresses some social vision or another, some holy way to arrange relationships, time, values, etc., in order to drive toward a settlement of the great question, "Why are we alive?" The trouble with a society which encourages argument, as America’s did until the mid-twentieth century, is that there is no foreseeable end to the argument. No way to lock the door and announce that your own side has finally won. No certainty. Our most famous true believers, the Puritans, thought they could build a City on the Hill and keep the riffraff out. When it became obvious that exclusion wasn’t going to work, their children and grandchildren did an about-face and began to move toward a totally inclusive society (though not a free one). It would be intricately layered into social classes like the old British system. This time God’s will wouldn’t be offered as reason for the way things were arranged by men. This time Science and Mathematics would justify things, and children would be taught to accept the inevitability of their assigned fates in the greatest laboratory of true belief ever devised: the Compulsion Schoolhouse. 1 I remember the disbelief I felt the day I discovered that as a committee of one I could easily buy paper, milk, and any number of other school staples cheaper than my school district did. The Unspeakable Chautauqua One man left us a dynamic portrait of the great school project prematurely completed in miniature: William James, an insider’s insider, foremost (and first) psychologist of America, Table of Contents Page 136

other of novelist Henry James. James’ prestige as a most formidable Boston brahmin launched American psychology. Without him it’s touch and go whether it would have happened at all. His Varieties of Religious Experience is unique in the American literary canon; no wonder John Dewey dropped Hegel and Herbart after a brief flirtation with the Germans and attached himself to James and his philosophy of pragmatism (which is the Old Norse religion brought up to date). But James was too deep a thinker to believe his own screed fully. In a little book called Talks to Teachers, which remains in print today, over a hundred years after it was written, James disclosed his ambivalence about the ultimate dream of schooling in America. It was no Asiatic urge to enslave, no Midas fantasy of unlimited wealth, no conspiracy of class warfare but only the dream of a comfortable, amusing world for everyone, the closest thing to an Augustan pastoral you could imagine—the other side of the British Imperial coin. England’s William Morris and John Ruskin and perhaps Thomas Carlyle were the literary godfathers of this dream society to come, a society already realized in a few cloistered spots on earth, on certain great English estates and at the mother center of the Chautauqua movement in western New York. In 1899, James spoke to an idealistic new brigade of teachers recruited by Harvard, men and women meant to inspirit the new institution then rising swiftly from the ashes of the older neighborhood schools, private schools, church schools, and home schools. He spoke to the teachers of the dream that the entire planet could be transformed into a vast Chautauqua. Before you hear what he had to say, you need to know a little about Chautauqua. On August 10, 1878, John H. Vincent announced his plan for the formation of a study group to undertake a four-year program of guided reading for ordinary citizens. The Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle signed up two hundred people its first hour, eighty-four hundred by year’s end. Ten years later, enrollment had grown to one hundred thousand. At least that many more had completed four years or fallen out after trying. In an incredibly short period of time every community in the United States had somebody in it following the Chautauqua reading program. One of its teachers, Melvil Dewey, developed the Dewey Decimal System still in use in libraries. The reading list was ambitious. It included Green’s Short History of the English People, full of specific information about the original Anglo-Saxon tribes and their child-rearing customs—details which proved strikingly similar to the habits of upper-class Americans. Another Chautauqua text, Mahaffey’s Old Greek Life, dealt with the utopia of Classical Greece. It showed how civilization could only rise on the backs of underclass drudges. Many motivations to "Go Chautauqua" existed: love of learning, the social urge to work together, the thrill of competition in the race for honorary seals and diplomas which testified to a course completed, the desire to keep up with neighbors. The Chautauqua movement gave settlers of the Midwest and Far West a common Anglo-German intellectual heritage to link up with. This grassroots vehicle of popular education offered illustrations of principles to guide anyone through any difficulty. And in Chautauqua, New York Table of Contents Page 137

  • Page 1 and 2:

    An Underground History of American

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    Change Agents Infiltrate ..........

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    The Ford System And The Kronstadt C

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    Pathology As A Natural Byproduct ..

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    Bianca, You Animal, Shut Up! Prolog

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    combines, is there anything public

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    As I traveled, I discovered a unive

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    He drew... the things inside that n

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    questions or on their implication;

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    and I, in a dark time when all offi

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    history, embedded in a personal ess

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    Then, too, many Americans came out

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    difference between Americans and ev

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    war. [House was nine at the time.]

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    fine-tuned judgments every day they

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    2nd Rule—Unceasing kindness in to

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    the philosophical split which infor

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    scientific form became the main ecc

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    inventors and technicians without p

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    How Hindu Schooling Came To America

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    way to awaken intellect in the lowe

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    Custer’s Last Stand in Montana ha

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    liberty. Farragut When I was a scho

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    Ben Franklin Ben Franklin was born

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    prudential matters, both private an

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    discovered some of my faults, and c

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    friend, described Washington as a y

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    school and was well on his way to i

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    teaching "why it was unworthy of hi

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    more Ben Franklins or Tom Edisons c

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    1 This is the same Ellwood P. Cubbe

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    mimic the "due process" practice of

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    An Enclosure Movement For Children

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    superintendents were wise to the fa

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    state, but that was a radical contr

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    oth parents from home and deposited

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    and file of homeschoolers actually

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    mental reflection in a way schoolbo

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    Department, 80 percent of the incar

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    scores then creates the illusion th

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    spiritual longings of ordinary peop

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    molecular biology. There you have i

  • Page 85 and 86: The Ideology Of The Text Looking ba
  • Page 87 and 88: to represent sounds of their langua
  • Page 89 and 90: arose to satisfy demand for a popul
  • Page 91 and 92: point of a sharpened pencil into th
  • Page 93 and 94: learning to read it was not necessa
  • Page 95 and 96: The Pedagogy Of Literacy Between Ma
  • Page 97 and 98: some bit of data. The sheer luxury
  • Page 99 and 100: the total victory of whole-word rea
  • Page 101 and 102: My own motive in being there was a
  • Page 103 and 104: Such behavior provides the best exc
  • Page 105 and 106: inventor of a reading system based
  • Page 107 and 108: Hector Of The Feeble-Mind See thirt
  • Page 109 and 110: Hector Isn't The Problem The countr
  • Page 111 and 112: "The only way you can squeak throug
  • Page 113 and 114: documents were destroyed at the dis
  • Page 115 and 116: Think of this thing for the moment
  • Page 117 and 118: My own school fell victim to a poli
  • Page 119 and 120: Chapter 5 True Believers and The Un
  • Page 121 and 122: Because of the predictable greed em
  • Page 123 and 124: neighbor to the community for the f
  • Page 125 and 126: and counting sticks (much as the Ar
  • Page 127 and 128: last quarter of the nineteenth cent
  • Page 129 and 130: too seriously. From it poured an ab
  • Page 131 and 132: attitude.... Much new educational l
  • Page 133 and 134: Carnegie’s "Gospel of Wealth" ide
  • Page 135: Books give children "false ideals o
  • Page 139 and 140: Tent-Chautauqua did a great deal to
  • Page 141 and 142: church sociables and teachers’ co
  • Page 143 and 144: Chapter 6 The Lure Of Utopia Every
  • Page 145 and 146: flagrant opposition to the dominant
  • Page 147 and 148: Producing Artificial Wants Beginnin
  • Page 149 and 150: compulsion law intended to put chil
  • Page 151 and 152: extraordinary vision of the learned
  • Page 153 and 154: Between 1840 and 1860, male schoolt
  • Page 155 and 156: Evil, only bad attitudes, and those
  • Page 157 and 158: Rainey Harper, president of the Uni
  • Page 159 and 160: teacher can just put stuff in the s
  • Page 161 and 162: Chapter 7 The Prussian Connection P
  • Page 163 and 164: Germany, after a thousand years as
  • Page 165 and 166: Revolution, its social controls bei
  • Page 167 and 168: Under Frederick William II, Frederi
  • Page 169 and 170: lectures given by Robert Owen’s s
  • Page 171 and 172: where teaching and learning were al
  • Page 173 and 174: to create that abundance it became
  • Page 175 and 176: portraits, tapestries, giant gold-f
  • Page 177 and 178: of argument, now the Prussian conne
  • Page 179 and 180: slits in the grate like an armored
  • Page 181 and 182: would recognize the new opportunity
  • Page 183 and 184: This contradiction is not unknown a
  • Page 185 and 186: independence, knowledge, ability, c
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    utilization—is more than offset b

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    dangerous sciences was mostly limit

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    The abundance of wood in the United

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    industrialization and the demands o

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    fort in 1832, was by 1838 a flouris

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    chemical processes—is collected.

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    The confinement of American childre

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    Yet America had to be massified, an

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    students with serious literature, p

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    4. A fixation on maximum output. 5.

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    usiness-industrial groups, but of t

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    followed: by 1917 a bibliography of

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    The National Press Attack On Academ

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    himself is the prototypical social

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    This dinner and its implications se

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    monopolization of first the nation

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    An Everlasting Faith Fabianism was

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    These "educational missionaries" sp

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    Bobbit said Gary schools were the w

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    campaign can colonize your mind. Ev

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    contracts for materials and service

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    ole models. Old-fashioned teachers

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    Chapter 10 My Green River Each pers

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    was three. The carolers stood on a

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    An incredible vision, these things,

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    the physical presence of my town ne

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    Monongahela, but there was not a si

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    has also ruined its share of victim

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    they were arguing over an abortion

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    The spirit that came over Mother wh

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    "And could you now face the back of

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    every single day for an entire scho

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    who commissioned stone sculptures f

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    the steps into his subterranean wor

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    Chapter 11 The Church The thesis I

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    inferiors is a veritable manufactor

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    It was nothing short of marvelous t

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    Into the center of this racial exci

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    altered the path of sexual selectio

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    were seen to be clay, radical socia

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    people. It was a genuine secret soc

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    Her first muckraking book, Out of W

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    actively seek assistance from busin

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    Chapter 12 Daughters of the Barons

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    The episcopal rule of British Ameri

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    Peter Cookson and Caroline Persell

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    The Order of the Three Crusades, 10

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    monarchs of great Aryan houses. Abe

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    followed were to call it: The right

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    Unpopular Government Maine built a

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    them to be bankers, financiers, par

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    Francisco, the Pacific Union; in Wa

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    eyond its immediate circle of assoc

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    gigantic aggregate of capital and i

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    creation of Fabian socialism and th

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    consultancies were beginning to be

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    Like much that passes for wisdom on

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    ecome any type of specialist I migh

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    This had immense influence on the s

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    4 For instance, the serious problem

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    of respect for the pedagogical ente

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    Thus is the student victim led to t

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    going on, selected tendrils from th

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    Children were to be "loved into sub

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    "New Thought Tide." Because many fe

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    Margaret Sanger wrote, "the most me

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    Napoleon Of Mind Science William Ja

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    disciplines from child development

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    Bending The Student To Reality Twic

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    efore as the marching orders of the

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    qualified to give expert opinion on

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    people’s lives, became the most i

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    coming out of the Decalogue, of Jud

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    day-to-day meaning to compete again

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    Everson v. Board Of Education (1947

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    Judaism Religion is a school of its

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    The neglected genius of American Ch

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    Religion And Rationality The Suprem

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    mathematical value so that citizens

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    physical beauty or your wealth, you

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    Chapter 15 The Psychopathology Of E

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    guilty, once explained at a public

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    from the assault on common sense. S

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    What Really Goes On School wreaks h

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    Ford. The role of grades, report ca

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    cause to congratulate ourselves. (e

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    ehavior. Now she laughs again. I ha

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    Chapter 16 The Conspiracy Against O

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    conspiracy against growing up, sad

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    Published in 1918 near the end of t

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    short-circuit entrepreneurial energ

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    managed to survive and set the Nige

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    Serving The Imperial Virus Toynbee

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    intelligentsia is hated and despise

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    The Release From Tutelage What kind

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    close watch on three well-dispersed

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    some topical. Nominally children, t

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    2) Teacher training colleges 3) Res

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    middle-class American incomes is wo

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    to divide school politics into a ma

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    offered for selection as a Republic

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    A Quality Education The mantra of "

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    its purpose. We are left to assume

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    After inspection, my architect pron

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    There is no rival hypothesis to evo

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    the decimal. Objections were overri

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    in metaphor.) The rarely encountere

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    particular culture it touches is de

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    Magic At Work Magic in one form or

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    There is perhaps no more naked stat

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    What fascinates me most is the cold

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    change. I learned that from Adam Sm

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    Information technology people seek

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    Later we chatted with the lady in a

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    compensation for those whose busine

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    social insecurity is the direct leg

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    assumption that is found throughout

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    away. It was late, I was tired. To

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    twenty-six-foot boat and no nautica

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    Roland’s unique creation—a live

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    General Braddock and British tradit

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    Braddock’s invincible army. Their

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    Nothing in human history gives us a

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    Don’t let a world of funny animal

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    children free, we should understand

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    anything. Anyway, whatever is chose

  • Page 439 and 440:

    Epilogue Only one nation refused to

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