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itself, at the Mother

itself, at the Mother Center, a perfect jewel of a rational utopia was taking shape, attended by the best and brightest minds in American society. You’ll see it in operation just ahead with its soda pop fountains and model secondary schools. The great driving force behind Chautauqua in its early years was William Rainey Harper, a Yale graduate with a Ph.D. in philology, a man expert in ancient Hebrew, a prominent Freemason. Harper attracted a great deal of attention in his Chautauqua tenure. He would have been a prominent name on the national scene for that alone, even without his connection to the famous publishing family. John Vincent, Chautauqua’s founder, had been struck by the vision of a world college described in Bacon’s utopia, one crowded and bustling with international clientele and honored names as faculty. "Chautauqua will exalt the profession of teacher until the highest genius, the richest scholarship, and the broadest manhood and womanhood of the nation are consecrated to this service," Vincent once said. His explanation of the movement: We expect the work of Chautauqua will be to arouse so much interest in the subject of general liberal education that by and by in all quarters young men and women will be seeking means to obtain such education in established resident institutions.... Our diploma, though radiant with thirty-one seals—shields, stars, octagons—would not stand for much at Heidelberg, Oxford, or Harvard...an American curiosity.... It would be respected not as conferring honor upon its holder, but as indicating a popular movement in favor of higher education. Chautauqua’s leaders felt their institution was a way station in America’s progress to something higher. By 1886 Chautauqua was well-known all over. The new University of Chicago, which Harper took over five years later, was patterned on the Chautauqua system, which in turn was superimposed over the logic of the German research university. Together with Columbia Teachers College, Yale, Michigan, Wisconsin, Stanford, and a small handful of others, Chicago would provide the most important visible leadership for American public school policy well into the twentieth century. At the peak of its popularity, eight thousand American communities subscribed to Chautauqua’s programmatic evangelism. The many tent-circuit Chautauquas simultaneously operating presented locals with the latest ideas in social progress, concentrating on self-improvement and social betterment through active Reform with a capital "R." But in practice, entertainment often superseded educational values because the temptation to hype the box-office draw was insidious. Over time, Progress came to be illustrated dramatically for maximum emotional impact. Audience reactions were then studied centrally and adjustments were made in upcoming shows using what had been learned. What began as education ended as show business. Its legacy is all over modern schooling in its spurious concept of Motivation. Table of Contents Page 138

Tent-Chautauqua did a great deal to homogenize the United States as a nation. It brought to the attention of America an impressive number of new ideas and concepts, always from a management perspective. What seemed even-handed was seldom that. The classic problem of ethical teaching is how to avoid influencing an audience to think a certain way by the use of psychological trickery. In this, Chautauqua failed. But even a partial list of developments credited to Chautauqua is impressive evidence of the influence of this early mass communication device, a harbinger of days ahead. We have Chautauqua to thank in some important part for the graduated income tax, for slum clearance as a business opportunity, juvenile courts, the school lunch program, free textbooks, a "balanced" diet, physical fitness, the Camp Fire Girls, the Boy Scout movement, pure food laws, and much, much more. One of the most popular Chautauqua speeches was titled "Responsibilities of the American Citizen." The greatest responsibility was to listen to national leaders and get out of the way of progress. Ideas presented during Chautauqua Week were argued and discussed after the tents were gone. The most effective kind of indoctrination, according to letters which passed among Chautauqua’s directors, is always "self-inflicted." In the history of American orthodoxies, Chautauqua might seem a quaint sort of villain, but that’s because technology soon offered a way through radio to "Chautauqua" on a grander scale, to Chautauqua simultaneously from coast to coast. Radio inherited tent-Chautauqua, presenting us with model heroes and families to emulate, teaching us all to laugh and cry the same way. The great dream of utopians, that we all behave alike like bees in a hive or ants in a hill, was brought close by Chautauqua, closer by radio, even closer by television, and to the threshold of universal reality by the World Wide Web. The chapter in nineteenth-century history, which made Chautauqua the harbinger of the new United States, is not well enough appreciated. Ideas like evolution, German military tactics, Froebel’s kindergartens, Hegelian philosophy, cradle-to-grave schooling, and systems of complete medical policing were all grist for Chautauqua’s mill—nothing was too esoteric to be popularized for a mass audience by the circuit of tent-Chautauqua. But above all, Chautauqua loved Science. Science was the commodity it retailed most energetically. A new religion for a new day. The Chautauqua operation had been attractively planned and packaged by a former president of Masonic College (Georgia), William Rainey Harper, a man whose acquaintance you made on the previous page. Dr. Harper left Chautauqua eventually to become Rockefeller’s personal choice to head up a new German-style research university Rockefeller brought into being in 1890, the University of Chicago. He would eventually become an important early patron of John Dewey and other leading lights of pedagogy. But his first publicly acclaimed triumph was Chautauqua. Little is known of his work at Masonic College; apparently it was impressive enough to bring him to the attention of the most important Freemasons in America. The real Chautauqua was not the peripatetic tent version but a beautiful Disney-like world: a village on a lake in upstate New York. William James went for a day to lecture at Chautauqua and "stayed for a week to marvel and learn"—his exact words of self-introduction to those teachers he spoke to long ago at Harvard. What he saw at Chautauqua was the ultimate realization of all Table of Contents Page 139

  • Page 1 and 2:

    An Underground History of American

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    Change Agents Infiltrate ..........

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    The Ford System And The Kronstadt C

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    Pathology As A Natural Byproduct ..

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    Bianca, You Animal, Shut Up! Prolog

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    combines, is there anything public

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    As I traveled, I discovered a unive

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    He drew... the things inside that n

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    questions or on their implication;

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    and I, in a dark time when all offi

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    history, embedded in a personal ess

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    Then, too, many Americans came out

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    difference between Americans and ev

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    war. [House was nine at the time.]

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    fine-tuned judgments every day they

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    2nd Rule—Unceasing kindness in to

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    the philosophical split which infor

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    scientific form became the main ecc

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    inventors and technicians without p

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    How Hindu Schooling Came To America

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    way to awaken intellect in the lowe

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    Custer’s Last Stand in Montana ha

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    liberty. Farragut When I was a scho

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    Ben Franklin Ben Franklin was born

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    prudential matters, both private an

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    discovered some of my faults, and c

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    friend, described Washington as a y

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    school and was well on his way to i

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    teaching "why it was unworthy of hi

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    more Ben Franklins or Tom Edisons c

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    1 This is the same Ellwood P. Cubbe

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    mimic the "due process" practice of

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    An Enclosure Movement For Children

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    superintendents were wise to the fa

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    state, but that was a radical contr

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    oth parents from home and deposited

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    and file of homeschoolers actually

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    mental reflection in a way schoolbo

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    Department, 80 percent of the incar

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    scores then creates the illusion th

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    spiritual longings of ordinary peop

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    molecular biology. There you have i

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    The Ideology Of The Text Looking ba

  • Page 87 and 88: to represent sounds of their langua
  • Page 89 and 90: arose to satisfy demand for a popul
  • Page 91 and 92: point of a sharpened pencil into th
  • Page 93 and 94: learning to read it was not necessa
  • Page 95 and 96: The Pedagogy Of Literacy Between Ma
  • Page 97 and 98: some bit of data. The sheer luxury
  • Page 99 and 100: the total victory of whole-word rea
  • Page 101 and 102: My own motive in being there was a
  • Page 103 and 104: Such behavior provides the best exc
  • Page 105 and 106: inventor of a reading system based
  • Page 107 and 108: Hector Of The Feeble-Mind See thirt
  • Page 109 and 110: Hector Isn't The Problem The countr
  • Page 111 and 112: "The only way you can squeak throug
  • Page 113 and 114: documents were destroyed at the dis
  • Page 115 and 116: Think of this thing for the moment
  • Page 117 and 118: My own school fell victim to a poli
  • Page 119 and 120: Chapter 5 True Believers and The Un
  • Page 121 and 122: Because of the predictable greed em
  • Page 123 and 124: neighbor to the community for the f
  • Page 125 and 126: and counting sticks (much as the Ar
  • Page 127 and 128: last quarter of the nineteenth cent
  • Page 129 and 130: too seriously. From it poured an ab
  • Page 131 and 132: attitude.... Much new educational l
  • Page 133 and 134: Carnegie’s "Gospel of Wealth" ide
  • Page 135 and 136: Books give children "false ideals o
  • Page 137: other of novelist Henry James. Jame
  • Page 141 and 142: church sociables and teachers’ co
  • Page 143 and 144: Chapter 6 The Lure Of Utopia Every
  • Page 145 and 146: flagrant opposition to the dominant
  • Page 147 and 148: Producing Artificial Wants Beginnin
  • Page 149 and 150: compulsion law intended to put chil
  • Page 151 and 152: extraordinary vision of the learned
  • Page 153 and 154: Between 1840 and 1860, male schoolt
  • Page 155 and 156: Evil, only bad attitudes, and those
  • Page 157 and 158: Rainey Harper, president of the Uni
  • Page 159 and 160: teacher can just put stuff in the s
  • Page 161 and 162: Chapter 7 The Prussian Connection P
  • Page 163 and 164: Germany, after a thousand years as
  • Page 165 and 166: Revolution, its social controls bei
  • Page 167 and 168: Under Frederick William II, Frederi
  • Page 169 and 170: lectures given by Robert Owen’s s
  • Page 171 and 172: where teaching and learning were al
  • Page 173 and 174: to create that abundance it became
  • Page 175 and 176: portraits, tapestries, giant gold-f
  • Page 177 and 178: of argument, now the Prussian conne
  • Page 179 and 180: slits in the grate like an armored
  • Page 181 and 182: would recognize the new opportunity
  • Page 183 and 184: This contradiction is not unknown a
  • Page 185 and 186: independence, knowledge, ability, c
  • Page 187 and 188: utilization—is more than offset b
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    dangerous sciences was mostly limit

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    The abundance of wood in the United

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    industrialization and the demands o

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    fort in 1832, was by 1838 a flouris

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    chemical processes—is collected.

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    The confinement of American childre

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    Yet America had to be massified, an

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    students with serious literature, p

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    4. A fixation on maximum output. 5.

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    usiness-industrial groups, but of t

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    followed: by 1917 a bibliography of

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    The National Press Attack On Academ

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    himself is the prototypical social

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    This dinner and its implications se

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    monopolization of first the nation

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    An Everlasting Faith Fabianism was

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    These "educational missionaries" sp

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    Bobbit said Gary schools were the w

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    campaign can colonize your mind. Ev

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    contracts for materials and service

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    ole models. Old-fashioned teachers

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    Chapter 10 My Green River Each pers

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    was three. The carolers stood on a

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    An incredible vision, these things,

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    the physical presence of my town ne

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    Monongahela, but there was not a si

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    has also ruined its share of victim

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    they were arguing over an abortion

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    The spirit that came over Mother wh

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    "And could you now face the back of

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    every single day for an entire scho

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    who commissioned stone sculptures f

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    the steps into his subterranean wor

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    Chapter 11 The Church The thesis I

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    inferiors is a veritable manufactor

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    It was nothing short of marvelous t

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    Into the center of this racial exci

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    altered the path of sexual selectio

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    were seen to be clay, radical socia

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    people. It was a genuine secret soc

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    Her first muckraking book, Out of W

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    actively seek assistance from busin

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    Chapter 12 Daughters of the Barons

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    The episcopal rule of British Ameri

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    Peter Cookson and Caroline Persell

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    The Order of the Three Crusades, 10

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    monarchs of great Aryan houses. Abe

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    followed were to call it: The right

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    Unpopular Government Maine built a

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    them to be bankers, financiers, par

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    Francisco, the Pacific Union; in Wa

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    eyond its immediate circle of assoc

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    gigantic aggregate of capital and i

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    creation of Fabian socialism and th

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    consultancies were beginning to be

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    Like much that passes for wisdom on

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    ecome any type of specialist I migh

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    This had immense influence on the s

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    4 For instance, the serious problem

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    of respect for the pedagogical ente

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    Thus is the student victim led to t

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    going on, selected tendrils from th

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    Children were to be "loved into sub

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    "New Thought Tide." Because many fe

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    Margaret Sanger wrote, "the most me

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    Napoleon Of Mind Science William Ja

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    disciplines from child development

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    Bending The Student To Reality Twic

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    efore as the marching orders of the

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    qualified to give expert opinion on

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    people’s lives, became the most i

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    coming out of the Decalogue, of Jud

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    day-to-day meaning to compete again

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    Everson v. Board Of Education (1947

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    Judaism Religion is a school of its

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    The neglected genius of American Ch

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    Religion And Rationality The Suprem

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    mathematical value so that citizens

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    physical beauty or your wealth, you

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    Chapter 15 The Psychopathology Of E

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    guilty, once explained at a public

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    from the assault on common sense. S

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    What Really Goes On School wreaks h

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    Ford. The role of grades, report ca

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    cause to congratulate ourselves. (e

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    ehavior. Now she laughs again. I ha

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    Chapter 16 The Conspiracy Against O

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    conspiracy against growing up, sad

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    Published in 1918 near the end of t

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    short-circuit entrepreneurial energ

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    managed to survive and set the Nige

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    Serving The Imperial Virus Toynbee

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    intelligentsia is hated and despise

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    The Release From Tutelage What kind

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    close watch on three well-dispersed

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    some topical. Nominally children, t

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    2) Teacher training colleges 3) Res

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    middle-class American incomes is wo

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    to divide school politics into a ma

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    offered for selection as a Republic

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    A Quality Education The mantra of "

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    its purpose. We are left to assume

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    After inspection, my architect pron

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    There is no rival hypothesis to evo

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    the decimal. Objections were overri

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    in metaphor.) The rarely encountere

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    particular culture it touches is de

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    Magic At Work Magic in one form or

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    There is perhaps no more naked stat

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    What fascinates me most is the cold

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    change. I learned that from Adam Sm

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    Information technology people seek

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    Later we chatted with the lady in a

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    compensation for those whose busine

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    social insecurity is the direct leg

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    assumption that is found throughout

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    away. It was late, I was tired. To

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    twenty-six-foot boat and no nautica

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    Roland’s unique creation—a live

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    General Braddock and British tradit

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    Braddock’s invincible army. Their

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    Nothing in human history gives us a

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    Don’t let a world of funny animal

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    children free, we should understand

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    anything. Anyway, whatever is chose

  • Page 439 and 440:

    Epilogue Only one nation refused to

Contents - Woodring College of Education - Western Washington ...
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